Energy & Its Impact on Global

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Energy & Its Impact on Global
Society

Jerome K. Williams, Ph.D.

Saint Leo University

Fall 2013

Chapter 7: Energy from Fossil Fuels


Resources & Terminology


Coal


Oil


Natural Gas


Future Sources of Fossil Fuels


Resources & Terminology


85% commercial energy resources used in
world come from fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural
gas)



Supply of fossil fuels is running out

Resources & Terminology


To Categorize types of oil reserves, one uses a
McKelvey Diagram

Resources & Terminology


Reserves

are defined as those resources that
are well known through geological exploration
and are recoverable at current prices



Proven reserves


Indicated reserves


Inferred reserves


Table
7.1
. World and United States Proven Reserves 2008

Resource

World

United States

Lifetime

Oil

1342 x 10
9

bbl

7.7 x 10
18

Btu

29.4 x 10
9

bbl

0.13 x 10
18

Btu

10 years

Natural Gas

6254 x 10
12

cf

6.1 x 10
18

Btu

237 x 10
12

cf

0.24 x 10
18

Btu

12 years

Coal

0.93 x 10
12

tons

23 x 10
18

Btu

0.26 x 10
12

tons

6.4 x 10
18

Btu

230 years

Oil Sands

525 x 10
9

bbl

2.9 x 10
18

Btu

32 x 10
9

bbl

0.17 x 10
18

Btu

12 years

Shale

Oil

3300 x 10
9

bbl

18 x 10
18

Btu


2000.4 x 10
9

bbl

11 x 10
18

Btu


800 years

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Coal


World’s most abundant fuel



US called “Saudi Arabia” of Coal



Coal resources:

3 trillion tons


80% total fossil fuel reserves in US


23% of US energy needs (electricity)

Coal


Classification or Ranks Coal: based on carbon
content found in coal



Lignite


Subbituminous


Bituminous


Anthracite

Table
7.3.
World and United States Proven Reserves 2008

Rank

Carbon (%)

Energy Content (Btu/
lb
)

Lignite

30

5,000
-
7,000

Subbituminous

40

8,000
-
10,000

Bituminous

50
-
70

11,000
-
15,000

Anthracite

90

14,000

Source: US Geological Survey Bulletin, 1412 (1975)

Coal


Coal Extraction: Strip Mining Videos



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euhbkoFik_8


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kbUV7i3KEME


Coal


Extracting Coal: Strip Mining & Ramifications



Environmental


Social


Economic


Political

Oil


World appetite for oil continues to grow



(2009) 86 MBPD consumption per day


US consumes 25% of this total; 57% imported oil



Oil use dates back to Biblical times & has been
used by many cultures (e.g., heating, lighting,
medicine, roads)

Oil


Petroleum is complex mixture of hydrocarbons
(compounds of carbon and hydrogen)



Contents: crude oil, natural gas and semi
-
solids



Originates from decay of organic material,
usually marine life that is buried over many
millions of years under ocean sediment

Oil


Petroleum’s use dates back to Biblical times;
applications found in many cultures


heating, lighting, medicine, waterproofing, roads



By
-
products isolated by refining process. Heat
mixture and pass it into large fractionating
tower where separation by boiling point
occurs

Oil


Products from tower are further treated to
produce end use items like gasoline, diesel oil,
jet fuel, heating oil, etc.





Oil


Search for oil is getting harder due to most
large land deposits are already known



Most increases in US reserves expected to
come from offshore drilling; makes sense due
to petroleum originating from decaying
marine matter





Oil


Challenges to Offshore Exploration


Environmental


Political


Economic




Natural Gas


Mixture of light hydrocarbons, primarily
methane



Formed from decayed organic matter



Categorized as
nonassociated

gas

or
associated gas


Natural Gas


Pipeline system required to transport gas (US:
300,000 miles pipeline)



Advantages:


Relatively inexpensive compared to gasoline


Cleaner
-
burning fuel (less CO
2

released)


Readily available


Natural Gas


Uses:


Space heating


Water heating


Fuel (industrial boilers, electricity producing gas
turbines, and chemical feedstock)


Natural Gas


World Reserves:

6200
tcf


60 year window (assume Rate = 108
tcf
/year)


Russia, Iran, Qatar have largest reserves


US: 50% natural gas found in Gulf Coast region


Natural Gas


Advances in Technology have allowed US to
find and use indicated reserves of natural gas:


New drilling techniques (Hydraulic fracturing)


Gas Hydrates found underneath oceans & in
permafrost of Arctic


Transportation difficulty overcome by shipping
natural gas in liquid state (called liquefied natural
gas or LNG)

Future Sources of Fossil Fuels


Gasification of Coal


Liquefaction of Coal



Oil Shale




(US)


Tar Sands or Oil Sands

(Canada)

Problems


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