econfinalx

steamonlyΠετρελαϊκά και Εξόρυξη

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

67 εμφανίσεις






1. What is environmental
economics?

2. What is oil made of?

3. Where do we get most of our
oil?

4. Difference in cost of regular,
hybrid, and electric cars.

5. Significance of peak oil

6. Growing gap

7. Cost of gasoline

8. Why are we dependent on
oil?

9. Oil spills

9. Debate about off
-
shore drilling


Definition:

Issues that include the costs and
benefits of alternative environmental
policies to deal with air pollution,
water quality, toxic substances, solid
waste, and global warming.

Natural Resources

Oil


Scientists believe that:


1. Resources, such as oil, are limited and
should not be wasted.


2. The harmful environmental and health
effects of producing economic oil should be
included in their market prices.


3. We should encourage environmentally
beneficial and sustainable forms of economic
development.


What is oil

made of?


Crude oil is formed over
millions of years by tiny
plants and animals such as
plankton.


It is held in tiny spaces in
underground rock, like
water in a sponge.


1 liter of oil= 5 weeks of
hard human labor

Who do we get our oil from?


Approximately 40% of America's oil
comes from domestic oil fields in
states like Texas, Alaska, and California.
Some of this oil is actually sold to
other countries, such as Japan. The
other 60% of the US oil supply is from
foreign sources.


Canada, Saudi Arabia, Colombia,
Nigeria, Angola, and Iraq all contribute
sizable amounts to the US oil supply.
America also imports oil from Kuwait,
Norway, the United Kingdom,
Venezuela, Equatorial Guinea, and
Algeria.

Crude Oil Imports (Top 15 Countries)

(Thousand Barrels per Day)

Country

Aug
-
10

Jul
-
10

YTD 2010

Aug
-
09

YTD 2009

CANADA

1,933

2,055

1,981

2,002

1,924

MEXICO

1,158

1,174

1,119

1,057

1,119

SAUDI
ARABIA

1,080

1,033

1,071

707

1,010

VENEZUEL
A

974

1,016

929

1,007

995

NIGERIA

942

1,143

1,010

877

700

ANGOLA

472

374

410

352

484

ALGERIA

374

353

329

404

257

COLOMBIA

346

381

331

260

256

RUSSIA

334

367

296

221

263

IRAQ

281

430

467

500

460

KUWAIT

251

189

208

148

171

BRAZIL

249

315

280

269

334

ECUADOR

236

200

191

131

202

UNITED
KINGDOM

121

200

146

72

110

CONGO
(BRAZZAVI
LLE)

98

44

78

37

45



Total Imports of Petroleum (Top 15 Countries)

(Thousand Barrels per Day)

Country

Aug
-
10

Jul
-
10

YTD 2010

Aug
-
09

YTD 2009

CANADA

2,483

2,534

2,543

2,523

2,468

MEXICO

1,282

1,289

1,253

1,159

1,228

SAUDI ARABIA

1,132

1,053

1,086

729

1,042

VENEZUELA

1,022

1,084

1,006

1,070

1,117

NIGERIA

985

1,174

1,041

917

740

RUSSIA

786

719

620

505

636

ALGERIA

565

518

504

551

479

ANGOLA

484

374

419

364

494

COLOMBIA

372

404

359

269

282

VIRGIN
ISLANDS

339

239

257

223

292

IRAQ

281

430

467

500

462

UNITED
KINGDOM

266

351

290

225

247

BRAZIL

251

332

301

275

352

KUWAIT

251

189

210

148

174

ECUADOR

242

205

194

131

206

Cost of regular cars vs. Environmentally friendly
cars


The initial cost of a hybrid car is generally $3,000
-

$6,000 higher than a similarly
-
sized conventional
vehicle, but there are post
-
purchase savings that may
off
-
set the initial outlay.


Countries by
carbon dioxide
emissions

Peak Oil


The world was endowed with approx. 2 trillion
barrels of conventional oil and we have
consumed about ½.



Cost of gas over the years

Products made from petroleum


One 42
-
gallon barrel of oil creates 19.4
gallons of gasoline. The rest (over half) is
used to make things like:


Solvents

Diesel fuel

Motor Oil

Bearing Grease



Ink


Floor Wax

Ballpoint Pens

Football Cleats



Upholstery

Sweaters

Boats

Insecticides

Lipstick


Bicycle Tires

Sports Car Bodies

Nail Polish

Fishing lures



Dresses

Tires


Golf Bags

Perfumes



Cassettes

Dishwasher parts

Tool Boxes

Shoe Polish



Helmet

Caulking


Petroleum Jelly

Transparent Tape



CD Player

Faucet Washers

Antiseptics

Clothesline



Curtains

Food Preservatives

Basketballs

Soap



Pill Capsules

Antihistamines

Purses


Shoes



Dashboards

Medicine

Footballs


Laptops


Why do we depend on oil?

Exon Valdez Oil Spill
(1989)




The Exxon Valdez tanker ship hit a reef near Alaska in 1989.


It spilled somewhere between 10 million and 30 million gallons of oil into
the ocean and they couldn't clean it up.


To help prevent spills, by 2015, all supertankers in U.S. water will be
required to have two hulls.


The inner hull is the lining of the ship's oil tanks. The outer hull is the part
in the ocean. The air space between the inner and outer hulls makes an
oil spill much less likely.


Steven Wereley of Purdue University
estimated that since the Gulf oil spill
there has been an average of one Exxon
Valdez Spill every 2.4 to 3.5 days.

Map of Oil
Rigs in the
gulf of
Mexico

Water currents in the
Gulf of Mexico

More effects of the BP Oil Spill


After paralyzing Louisiana's commercial fishing industry, it is
threatening Florida's $60 billion tourism business.


In the six weeks since the explosion that killed 11 workers and
started the leak, wildlife officials said at least 491 birds, 227 turtles
and 27 mammals, including dolphins, had been found dead along
the US Gulf coast.


BP has estimated a 40 billion dollar cost for its overall spill
response.


Many workers in the fishing industry (specifically shrimpers) are
losing or have lost their jobs.


Obama administration lifted the moratorium on deepwater drilling
in Texas last month.


About $1 billion of the United States’ GDP is attributed to fishing in
the Gulf area along with $13 billion in tourism and $11 billion in oil.

Oil in the environment


Oil waste dumping, production pollution, and spills destroy
the surrounding wildlife and habitat.


The effects of oil on marine life are cause by either the
physical nature of the oil (physical contamination and
smothering) or by its chemical components (toxic effects
and accumulation leading to tainting)
.


The animals and plants most at
risk are marine
animals and
reptiles; birds that feed by diving or form flocks on the
sea.


The gulf, specifically, accounts for about 1/5 of the
country’s oyster production and 75 percent of the shrimp
production.


Agricultural damage and effects on clean water



THOSE IN FAVOR OF OFFSHORE
DRILLING


It will lessen dependency on foreign countries for
natural resources


A majority believes that the potential economic
benefits outweigh the potential harm to the
environment


It helps create jobs


If we reach sustainability with our own oil
reserves we can THEN explore alternate sources
of energy without risking the loss of a major
source of oil

Oppose drilling


Dolphins go down in population because they
breathe in oil when they come up for air


Accidents such at the 1989 Exxon spill and the
2010 BP spill may occur


We will spend so much time focusing on oil
that we will once again fall into a dependency
for that resource

Now

May
-
10

Aug
-
08

Jul
-
08

Jun
-
08

Strongly Favor

26%

27%

52%

46%

48%

Mildly Favor

23%

30%

22%

23%

25%

Mildly Oppose

17%

16%

11%

12%

15%

Strongly Oppose

34%

25%

13%

18%

12%

How Do You Feel About Increased Drilling For Oil And Natural Gas Offshore In
U.S. Waters?

Survey conducted in June 2010

Benefits of off shore drilling


Oil is the most obtainable, efficient, and cheap
source of energy


Obama’s oil plan changes

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/03/31/dr
ill
-
barack
-
drill
-
obama_n_520523.html?show_comment_id=4
3663308#comment_43663308


Day 2 discussion questions


Based On What You Have Heard Or Read, Do You Favor/Oppose Obama’s
Proposals To Develop Alternative Sources Of Energy And Reduce The
Amount Of Oil And Other Fossil Fuels That Are Produced And Used In
The U.S.?


Do You Think That Proposals To Develop Alternative Sources Of Energy
And Reduce The Amount Of Oil And Other Fossil Fuels That Are Produced
And Used In The U.S. Would Increase/Decrease The Number Of Jobs In
The U.S.?


Do You Think That Proposals To Develop Alternative Sources Of Energy
And Reduce The Amount Of Oil And Other Fossil Fuels That Are Produced
And Used In The U.S. Would Make Life Better/Worse For The Next
Generation Of Americans?



Work Cited


Altheus
, Dudley, and Vincent Bonner. "Oil Production Cases." Oil Production and
Environmental Damage. American
Unviersity
, Washington DC,
n.d
. Web. 5 Nov. 2010.
http://www1.american.edu/ted/projects/tedcross/xoilpr15.htm
.


"BP Oil: when everyone knows your name, but nobody likes you." The opposite of

wrong.
DMCA,
n.d
. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. <http://opedcartoons.com/2010/05/19/bp
-
oil
-
when
-
everyone
-
knows
-
your
-
name
-
but
-
nobody
-
likes
-
you/ >.


"Crude oil and Total Petroleum Imports Top 15 Countries." U.S. Energy Information
Administration. Department of Energy, 28 Oct. 2010. Web. 4 Nov. 2010.
<
http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/company_level_imports
/current/import.html
>.


"How the U.S. Uses Oil." Time For Kids. Energy Information Administration,
n.d
. Web. 3 Nov.
2010. <http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/media/teachers/pdfs/2003S/030221WR1.pdf>.


"Oil Consumption (most recent) by country." Nation Master.
N.p
.,
n.d
. Web. 2.

Nov. 2010.
<
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/ene_oil_con
-
energy
-
oil
-
consumption
>.


"Peak oil primer." Future Proof
Kilkenny
.
N.p
., 14 Oct. 2008. Web. 5 Nov. 2010.
<http://
futureproofkilkenny.org/?page_id
=110>.


Peckham
, S. "Discussion Page for the BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico.” Community

Surface
Dynamics Modeling System. CSDMS Facility, 1 July 2010. Web. 1 Nov. 2010.
<http://
csdms.colorado.edu/wiki/Talk:Marine_Discussion
>.


Szabo
, Patrick. "BP Gulf Oil Spill
--
Impact on America's Environment and Economy.” suite101.
N.p
., 7 June 2010. Web. 3 Nov. 2010. <http://www.suite101.com/content/bp
-
gulf
-
oil
-
spill
--
impact
-
on
-
americas
-
environment
-
and
-
economy
-
a246061 >.


Werner, Johannes, Andy Goddard, and Jason Busto. "Oil spill not .a
concern.Yet
." Cuba
Standard. Jason Busto,
n.d
. Web. 3 Nov.
2010.<http://www.cubastandard.com/2010/05/01/cuban
-
government
-
expert
-
oil
-
spill
-
not
-
a
-
concern
-
yet/>.


Works Cited (continued)


“Where the US gets its oil from." Consumer Energy Report. Consumer Energy Report, n.d.

Web. 7 Nov. 2010. <http://www.consumerenergyreport.com/research/crude
-

oil/where
-
the
-
us
-
gets
-
its
-
oil
-
from/ >.