Concepts and models 2011x - statecurriculum

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INTERDISCIPLINARY LEARNING:
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT,
REASONING AND PROBLEM
-
BASED LEARNING


DR. JOYCE VANTASSEL
-
BASKA (
jlvant@wm.edu)

PROFESSOR EMERITA, THE COLLEGE OF
WILLIAM

AND MARY


Workshop Purposes


To examine three interdisciplinary models for
curriculum development


To apply principles of each model to an example


To design interdisciplinary performance
-
based
assessments

2

Why Interdisciplinary Learning?


Provides connections to the real world of issues and
problems,


Organizes curriculum at a higher level of thought,
and


Focuses on big ideas that define our world and our
place in it.

3

Interdisciplinary Learning
Approaches



Use of macro concepts as an organizer (eg. models)


Use of higher level skill heuristics as an organizer
(eg. critical thinking model)


Use of interdisciplinary processes of thinking and
problem
-
solving leading to a resolution or product

4

Concept Development

The Concept of Models


Identify 25 examples of a model.


Categorize your list.


Identify what is not a model.

6

Models


Create a model to demonstrate your understanding
of differentiation and how it works in the classroom.


You may use physical and conceptual tools in order
to do the task.


Be ready to share your model with others.


Group task: What generalizations can we make
about models?


Concept Teaching


Stresses depth over breadth


Teaches important ideas in a discipline, not only
facts


Promotes interdisciplinary study


Learning endures

Pre
-
Post Assessment for

Systems Concept


1.
Give

five
examples of things that are “systems”.


2.
Draw
one
example of a system that you have studied.


2.
Label at least critical
five
features of your system .


4. What are
three

things you can say about
all

systems?



All systems _________________________________________.



All systems _________________________________________.



All systems _________________________________________.


Scoring Rubric for

Systems Concept






5


4


3


2


1


Examples of

the Concept

At least 5
appropriate

examples are
given.

At least 4
appropriate

examples
are given.

At least 3
appropriat
e

examples
are given.

At least 2
appropriate

examples
are given.

At least l
appropriate

example is
given.

Drawing of

The Concept

The drawing

contains a

recognizable

system, with

functioning
parts.

The drawing

contains
most of the
major
elements of
a system.

The
drawing
contains
some

elements
of a
system.

The drawing

contains a
few
elements of

a system.

The
drawing
contains
only one
object.

Scoring Rubric for

Systems Concept






5


4


3


2


1


Features of a

System

The drawing

contains at least

five elements

or other features
of a system.

The drawing
contains at
least four
elements or
other features
of a system.

The drawing
contains at
least three
elements or
other features
of a system.

The
drawing
contains at
least two
elements
or other
features of
a system.

The drawing
contains at least
one element or
other features of
a system.

Generalizations

Three

appropriate
generalizations

are made about
systems.

Three
somewhat
appropriate
generalizations
are made about
systems.

Two
appropriate
generalizations
are made about
systems.

One
appropriat
e
generaliza
tion is
made
about
systems.

Only a statement
about systems is
made.

Assessment of the concept of
models


Think about the concept of models we have just
addressed. How could it best be assessed?



What rubric dimensions would you want to use?

12

Reasoning

Use of reasoning model


Apply to any content area at any level.


Use one cell of the model only if desired (eg. point
of view or perspective of groups in our society)


Use as a way to study current events, given
readings (What is the issue? What is the evidence?
What are the implications?)


Use to teach the thinking necessary to do project
work/research


14

Elements of Reasoning

--

Paul, 1992

Issue/

Problem

Evidence/

Data

Point of

View

Implications/

Consequences

Inferences

Concepts/

Ideas

Purpose/

Goal

Assumptions

Application to the Gulf oil spill


What is the
purpose

of offshore drilling?


What
perspectives
are dominant on the practice?
What are their underlying
assumptions
?


What
concepts

about the practice are central to
understanding what happened?


What
data

would convince you that the practice is
necessary? What inferences do you draw about
the status of the clean
-
up, based on media reports?


What are the
consequences

of the spill?

16

The Bloom Taxonomy


Knowledge


Comprehension


Application


Analysis


Synthesis


Evaluation


Creation

17

PROBLEM
-
BASED LEARNING




To insert your company logo
on this slide



From the Insert Menu


Select “Picture”


Locate your logo file


Click OK


To resize the logo



Click anywhere inside the
logo. The boxes that appear
outside the logo are known
as “resize handles.”


Use these to resize the
object.


If you hold down the shift key
before using the resize
handles, you will maintain
the proportions of the object
you wish to resize.

The problem

You are in charge of designing an innovative program in your school
for gifted learners. A few gifted students have shown interest in
doing independent research. Teachers have identified writing as
a weak area for many gifted learners. Parents want to see more
science competitions offered. There is a group of teachers who
think all students are gifted. The advisory committee favors an
advanced math program. You have been told that a plan has to
be formulated in a week and to not ask for much funding. Your
principal recently sent you to a workshop about problem
-
based
learning and would like for you to incorporate what you have
learned. What will you propose for the program?


20

NEED TO KNOW BOARD

What Do We Know?

What Do We Need To Know?

How Do We Find Out?









































21

New data


The head of your school has received complaints
from parents about the rigidity of instruction
practiced by teachers, where no students can do
hands
-
on activities or participate in special project
work. You have now been asked to recommend
best practices for instruction in your plan.

22

Problem log questions


What role do parental complaints play in designing
new programs?



What are the implications of the complaint for the
new plan?



What instructional models might be tried that
counter the complaint?

23

New data


A graduate of your school has been saying that the
school is old
-
fashioned in its educational practices
and limited in respect to the use of integrative
technology. He wants you to address this problem
in the plan.

24

Problem log questions


How do the new data impact your thinking about
the problem?



What aspects of the new data will you use in your
planning?



Who will you consult about this issue?

25

Problem Resolution


How will you fit all the pieces together to present a
resolution?



What aspects of the problem are most important?
Why?



What formats (eg.powerpoint, paper) will you
choose to present your findings?

26

What is PBL?


Problem
-
based learning is an instructional strategy (a
curricular framework) that, through student and
community interests and motivation, provides an
appropriate way to

teach


sophisticated content and
high
-
level process


all while building self
-
efficacy,
confidence, and autonomous learner behaviors.


27

Research on PBL


Students show significant learning gains in experimental design
through a PBL approach (VanTassel
-
Baska, et.al. 2000).


Students show enhanced ‘real world’ skills with no loss in
content knowledge as a result of using PBL (Gallagher &
Stepien, 1996).


Students and teachers are motivated to learn using the PBL
approach (VanTassel
-
Baska, 2000).


Students show enhanced higher order skill development using
PBL over other approaches to teaching science (Dods, 1997).




28

Why is PBL appropriate for use with
gifted students?

Characteristics of the Gifted

Characteristics of PBL

Desire for self
-
directed learning

Students are in charge of learning

Intense curiosity


what is the ‘real’
issue?

Requires problem finding

Metacognitive thinkers

Have we considered all
possibilities?

What assumptions are we making?

Why is this strategy not working?

29

Source: Boyce, L. N., VanTassel
-
Baska, J., Burruss, J. D., Sher, B. T., &
Johnson, D. T. (1997).

Features of Problem
-
based Learning


Learner
-
centered


Real world problem


Teacher as tutor or coach


Emphasis on collaborative teams


Employs metacognition


Uses alternative assessment


Embodies scientific process (in science PBL scenarios)

30

--
Provide a new problem, looking for how
students address it.

--
Assess the skills in the heuristics used to solve a
PBL (eg. research design processes)

--
Content area assessments

--
Other approaches?

Assessment of PBL Learning

31

Assessment in a
Science PBL

Portfolio





Performance
-
based

Problem Logs

Lab Reports

Experimental

Design Worksheets

Unit
-
Specific Forms

Pre & Post Science

Process Test

Embedded Activities

Final Assessment

Final Content Concept/Scientific

Research Assessment

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary

32

Sample Assessments


Subject:
Language Arts


Curricular Outcomes:
Using language and visual
images for persuasion


Performance
-
based assessment task demand:

Design an advertisement for a company product that
will target a given audience through a given
publication outlet. Select the product, audience, and
publication outlet from the following choices or
create your own. Explain the process of design and
the choices you made in creating the
ad.

Product Specification Options

Company Products:


a new hand lotion, a new car, or a redesigned cereal
or one of your choice

Audience profiles:


teenagers, young professionals, or people over 50

Publication types:


popular magazine, news magazine, or
The Strait
Times
or one of your choice

Criteria for rubric development


Persuasiveness of the ad


Effective use of design


Soundness of choices made in the relationship of
message to audience

35

Criteria for Judging PBA


Validity of the assumptions



Processes used to solve the problem



Clarity of the representation to solve the problem



Explanation of the solution

Performance
-
based Measures


The Fowler Test (Design an experiment, based on a
question)


Writing prompt (eg. Should this Book X be required
reading for your grade level?)


Literary analysis (eg. Provide a passage or short
piece and ask students to interpret)


Math (Use Math Olympiad problem sets to
determine level)

Ill
-
Structured Problems



Ambiguous


More information presented than necessary to understand what

s going
on, discern whether it

s a situation or a problem, how to

fix


the problem


No single

right


answer


Each problem has components and each problem solver has unique
characteristics, background, and experience


Data are often incomplete


Definition of problem changes as new information is provided


Information needs change or grow


Data are often incomplete, in conflict, or unavoidable but choices must be
made anyway


Stakeholders


Deadline for resolution

38

Sample Initial Problem Statements


What is the content topic that is studied?


Who are the stakeholders?


What is the issue in the problem statement?

39


Initial Problem Statement:


Language Arts


The Crucible


The play ends with the death of John Proctor. You
have been told to investigate the Salem witch trials
and render a judgment about what written
safeguards need to be in place to ensure that this
type of situation does not happen again. You have
been given four weeks to develop a case statement
that could prevent future such episodes in the history
of the world.


40

Checklist for Developing a PBL Problem
Statement


Decide on content.


Choose a concept for the problem.


Look for problem ideas.


Look for a decision to make or that was made.


Ask yourself: Is there a problem to be resolved by someone in
this situation?


Draft a problem statement.


Match to curriculum and instructional goals.

41

41

References and Resources


Barrows, H. S. (1998).
The tutorial process.
Il: Southern Illinois University School
of Medicine.


Boud, D., & Feletti, G. (Eds.) (1991).
The challenge of problem
-
based learning.
New York: St. Martin’s Press.


Boyce, L. N., VanTassel
-
Baska, J., Burruss, J. D., Sher, B. T., & Johnson, D. T.
(1997). A problem
-
based curriculum: Parallel learning opportunities for
students and teachers.
Journal for the Education of the Gifted,
20, 363
-
379.


Cothron, J. G., Giese, R. N., & Rezba, R.J. (2000). Students and research:
Practical strategies for science classrooms and competitions. IA: Kendall/Hunt
Publishing Co.


Gallagher, S. A., Sher, B. T., Stepien, W., & Workman, D. (1995). Implementing
problem
-
based learning in science classrooms.
School Science and Mathematics
,
95, 136
-
146.


Margetson, D. (1994). Current educational reform and the significance of
problem
-
based learning.
Studies in Higher Education,
19, 5
-
19.


“The future will require individuals who are able to
formulate new problems, come up with new
solutions, and adapt readily to the new ideas of
others.”


--
Csikszentmihalyi & Wolfe, 2000, p. 91


43