Chapter 5

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© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 5

Natural Resources

and Environmental
Sustainability


© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives


LO1
Describe

how geographical features of a country
or region create contextual differences that contribute
to economic, cultural, political, and social conditions
important to international business.


LO2

Apply
Porters diamond model to a discussion of
geographical features.


LO3

Summarize
the importance to business of
inland waterways and outlets to the sea.


LO4
Outline

the nonrenewable and renewable energy
options available and their broad business
implications.



© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives



LO5
Describe

the issues related to nonfuel minerals
that concern international business.


LO6
Describe

the concept of environmental
sustainability and its potential influence on business.


LO7
Explain
the major characteristics of sustainable
business
.


LO5
Discuss

the utility of the stakeholder model for
sustainable business

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Geography

Elements of geography managers consider


Location


Topography


Climate


Physical elements of location are uncontrollable



© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Competitive Advantage:

Porter’s Diamond

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Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Location:


Builds

Political

and

Trade

Relationships

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Topography:

Creates
differences in

economies,

cultures,

politics,

social structures



© 2012 The McGraw
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Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Separate
Languages

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Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 mountain ranges
create 4 separate
markets, each with
its own culture and
dialect

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Bodies

of

Water

attract

people

and

facilitate
transportation



Inland
waterways give
access to
interior regions

Rhine Waterway


World’s Most
Important

Inland Waterway

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Climate

Climatic conditions explain differences in human

and economic development


Meteorological conditions


Temperature


Precipitation


Wind


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Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Natural Resources


Anything supplied by nature on which people depend


Nonrenewable Energy


Petroleum


Nuclear Power


Coal


Natural Gas


Renewable Energy


Hydroelectric


Solar


Wind


Geothermal


Waves


Tides


Biomass

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Energy

Use by

Fuel
Type

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Petroleum


Reserve estimates change



New discoveries in proven fields with improved prospecting
equipment



Governments open their countries to exploration and production



Improved techniques in steam and hot water injection enable
greater output from operating wells and new areas



Automated equipment lowers offshore drilling costs and makes.
smaller
-
sized discoveries workable

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Petroleum

Crude Oil

cheap source of energy and raw material for plastics

& fertilizers


Heavy Oil


does not flow easily and cannot be drawn from wells


Shale


sedimentary fossil rock, yields 25+ liters per ton @
500º C



© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Coal

49% increase
projected to 2030


Problems

Pollution

Global warming

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Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Renewable

Energy

Sources

1) Wind

2) Biomass

3) Solar photovoltaic

4)
Concen

solar
therm


5) Geothermal

6) Ocean energy

7) Hydropower






Please enter Fig 5.19
here.

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.



Context for
Sustainability




Please add Fig. 5.20
here.

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Characteristics of Environmentally
Sustainable Business

Limits

Environmental resources are exhaustible

Interdependence

Actions in one ecological, social, and economic

system affects the others

Equity in Distribution

For interdependence to work, there cannot be

vast differences in gains

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-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Stakeholder Theory

Decision
-
making takes into account all interest

holders


Addresses
Underlying Values
and

Principles

Type of relations business has with stakeholders

Balancing of tension among stakeholders

Profits a
result

(
not a driver)
of value creation


© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2012 The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Companies with a Societal Context

Consistent with Stakeholder Theory


Johnson & Johnson


eBay


Google


Lincoln Electric


Freeport
-
McMoran


Interface, Inc.


Patagonia