Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

steamgloomyΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

78 εμφανίσεις


Spring

2012
-
2013

Dr
.

Yuriy

ALYEKSYEYENKOV

E
-
Mail


:
yuriy
@
cankaya
.edu.tr

Phone


: +90 (312) 233 13 39

Hours

Class
4, 5, 6

: Monday

09:40


11:30

Class 1, 2, 3

: Tuesday

11:40


13:30


Office

: Monday

13:40


15:30


Office

: Wednesday

13:40


15:30


Office

: Thursday

13:40


15:30

Room


Class


1, 2, 3

:
L
-
A14


Class


4, 5, 6

: L
-
A15


Office

:
L
-
220


2

CENG
222

-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV


Text Book
:


Structured Computer Organization
, 5
-
th edition, Andrew S.
Tannenbaum
,


Prentice Hall,
2006


Computer
Organization and Embedded Systems
,
-
th
edition,
Carl
Hamacher
,
Zvonko

Vranesich
,
Safwat

Zaky
, McGraw Hill,



Reference Material:


Computer Organization and Architecture Designing for
Performance
, 7
-
th edition, William Stallings, Prentice Hall,
2006


Computer
Organization and Architecture An Integrated
Approach, Miles
Murdocca

and Vincent
Heuring
, John Wiley &
Sons
Inc.,
2007


Course
Web Page


http://
ceng222.cankaya.edu.tr



Course
Assistant


Faris

Serdar

Ta
şel


fst@cankaya.edu.tr

CENG
222

-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

3

1
. Attendance


5%

2. Quizzes


15%

3. Lab Work


25%

4. Midterm


20%

Will cover the concepts learned thus far
. Closed
books, notes, etc.

5. Final



35%

Will cover all the topics learned during the semester

Closed books, notes, etc.


Rules of the Game

Attend every class

Be on time

Pay attention during class

All work should be your own

Ask questions anytime, but raise your hand

Remember that the program language is English

Grades are earned, not given





CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

4

The Zeroth Generation


CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

5

The Zeroth
Generation (1642
-
1945)

Blaise

Pascal (1623
-

1662)

A working calculator machine
was built in 1642.

It was entirely mechanical,
using gears.

Addition and subtraction only.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

6

The Zeroth Generation (1642
-
1945)

Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von
Leibniz (1646


1716)

Built thirty years after.

Arithmetic operations:

-

Addition

-

Subtraction

-

Multiplication

-

Division

It’s equivalent of four
-
function pocket calculator.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

7

The Zeroth Generation (1642
-
1945)

Charles Babbage (1792


1871)

Difference engine



could only
add and subtract.

Was designed to compute tables
of numbers useful for naval
navigation. The most
interesting feature was its
output method: it punched its
results into a cooper engraver’s
plate with a steel die.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

8

The Zeroth Generation (1642
-
1945)

Analitycal

Engine

and Punch Cards

The

mill

could

accept

operands

from

the

store,

then

process

them,

and

finally

return

the

result

to

the

store
.

It had four components:

The Store (memory);

The mill (computation unit);

The Input Section (punched
card reader);

The output section (punched
and printed output);

Four arithmetic operations.

Store consists of 1000 words of
50 decimal digits.

It was general purpose.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

9

The Zeroth Generation (1642
-
1945)

Ada Augusta Lovelace

(Daughter of the famed
British poet
Lord

George
Gordon
Byron
)

She was the world’s first
programmer.

The programming language Ada
®


is named in her honor.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

10



The First Generation


Vacuum Tubes

(1945


1955)

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

11

The First Generation


Vacuum
Tubes (
1945


1955)

ENIGMA


coder and encoder used by
Germany during World War II.

First electronic computer COLOSSUS
(1943) was designed only to read decoded
messages from ENIGMA.

(Alan Turing
).
It was dead end computer.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

12

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

13

COLOSSUS (1943)

The First Generation


Vacuum Tubes (1945


1955)


ENIAC

(Electronic

Numerical

Integrator

And

Computer)
.

It

consisted

of

18000

vacuum

tubes

and

1500

relays
.

Weighted

30

tons

and

consumed

1400

kW

of

power
.

Designed

by

John

Mauchley

and

J
.

Presar

Eckert
.

Architecturally,

the

machine

had

20

registers,

each

capable

of

holding

a

10
-
digit

decimal

number
.

ENIAC

was

programmed

by

setting

up

6000

multiposition

switches

and

connecting

a

multitude

of

sockets

with

a

variable

forest

of

jumper

cables
.

Project

was

finished

at

1946
.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

14

The First Generation


Vacuum Tubes (1945


1955)

EDVAC

(Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) known as machine were ideas of
von Neumann
were realized.

Block diagram of the von Neumann architecture:
MQ
-

multiplier quotient register;
IR
-

instruction register;
IBR
-

instruction buffer register;
MAR
-

memory address register;

MDR
-

memory data
register.

The First
Generation computers


experiments on hardware architecture.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

15

The First Generation


Vacuum Tubes (1945


1955)

First industrial computer
IBM 701
. The 701 had 2048 36
-
bit words memory with two
instructions per word. It was the first in a series of scientific machines that came to dominate
the industry within a decade. Three years later come 704, which initially had 4096 words of
core memory, 36
-
bit instructions and floating
-
point hardware.

In 1958, IBM began production of its last vacuum tube machine, the 709, which was basically
a beefed
-
up 704.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

16

The
Second Generation


Transistors

(1955
-
1965)


CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

17

The
Second Generation


Transistors (
1955
-
1965)



The First transistor (1948)

In
the late
40’s
three American scientists
named William Shockley, John Bardeen
and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs,
announced the creation of the first
transistor.


The first transistorized computer was
built at M.I.T.’s Lincoln laboratory, a 16
-
bit machine.


The most interesting computers were
produced by DEC (Digital Equipment
Corporation) and IBM (International
Business Machine)


For computers of this generation there
were designed many new peripheral
devices.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

18

The Second Generation


Transistors (1955
-
1965)

DEC computer PDP
-
8

(1965)

The PDP
-
8 is a 12 bit single
accumulator machine which can
address up to 32K 12 bit words.


It has
8 basic

instructions

and the PDP
-
8/E
executes them in 1.2 microsecond for
simple instructions to 4 microsecond
for complex memory reference
instructions.


This gives the machine
about a
0.5
MIPS rating
.


CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

19

The Second Generation


Transistors (1955
-
1965)

(
PDP
-
8 Peripheral Devices)

The RK05J Disk Drive is a removable media hard
drive with a total capacity of 1.6 million 12 bit
words.

The RX01/RX02 Disk Drive a removable media 8
inch floppy drive.


The RX01 was the first
generation drive dating to around 1975.


The
RX02 was a double capacity version around
1978.


The


RX02 double density drive stored
256k words or 512k bytes on a disk.


CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

20

The Second Generation


Transistors (1955
-
1965
)

(
PDP
-
8
Peripheral Devices)

The
PC04 high speed paper tape reader/punch.
Paper tape was an inexpensive method for
storing and transferring data.

PDP
-
8

TU10
1/2" tape drive

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

21



The Second Generation


Transistors (1955
-
1965
)

(
PDP
-
8
Peripheral Devices)

The VR14 is a X/Y display
monitor.

Viewable
Area 6.75
x 9
inches.

ASR 33
Teletype

Data Transfer
Rate 10
characters per second,

110
baudl
.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

22



The Second Generation


Transistors (1955
-
1965
)

(
IBM 1401
)

IBM 1401 Data Processing
System (1959).
From the left:

1402 Card
Read
-
Punch,

1401
Processing Unit,

1403

Parallel Printer
.

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

23





The
Third Generation


Integrated Circuits

(1965
-
1980)


CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

24

The Third Generation


Integrated
Circuits (
1965
-
1980)

Robert Norton
Noyce


(
December 12, 1927


June 3, 1990)


Nicknamed
"the Mayor of Silicon Valley", co
-
founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and
Intel Corporation in 1968. He is also credited
(along with Jack
Kilby
) with the invention of
the integrated circuit or microchip which
fueled the personal computer revolution and
gave Silicon Valley its name
.


In July 1959, he filed for U.S. Patent
2,981,877 "Semiconductor Device and Lead
Structure", a type of integrated circuit
.

That was invention of the first integrated
circuit

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

25



The Third Generation


Integrated Circuits (1965
-
1980)

IBM System/360
.

A
family of
computers.

Contrasting with at
-
the
-
time normal industry practice, IBM created an entire series of computers (or
CPUs) from small to large, low to high performance, all using the same instruction set (with two
exceptions for specific markets). This feat allowed customers to use a cheaper model and then
upgrade to larger systems as their needs increased without the time and expense of rewriting
software. IBM was the first manufacturer to exploit microcode technology to implement a
compatible range of computers of widely differing performance, although the largest, fastest, models
had hard
-
wired logic instead.



CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

26



The Third Generation


Integrated Circuits (1965
-
1980)

DEC PDP
-
11. A
family of
computers.

1971:
The PDP
-
11/45 was an excellent computational tool for large multi
-
user, multi
-
task
installations. Through memory management, memory could be expanded to 128K, which included a
combination of bi
-
polar and MOS memory. Other features included a greatly expanded floating
point processor
.

1975:
The PDP
-
11/70 represented the high end of PDP
-
11 architecture with the capacity for supporting
the speed, addressing range and bandwidth required in large systems applications. It was the first
PDP
-
11 to use cache memory.



CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

27



The Third Generation


Integrated Circuits (1965
-
1980)

From

its

beginnings

in

the

1940
s,

writing

software

has

evolved

into

a

profession

concerned

with

how

best

to

maximize

the

quality

of

software

and

of

how

to

create

it
.

Quality

can

refer

to

how

maintainable

software

is,

to

its

stability,

speed,

usability,

testability,

readability,

size,

cost,

security,

and

number

of

flaws

or

"bugs",

as

well

as

to

less

measurable

qualities

like

elegance,

conciseness,

and

customer

satisfaction,

among

many

other

attributes
.



Computer

hardware

was

application
-
specific
.

Scientific

and

business

tasks

needed

different

machines
.

Due

to

the

need

to

frequently

translate

old

software

to

meet

the

needs

of

new

machines,

high
-
order

languages

like

FORTRAN,

COBOL,

and

ALGOL

were

developed
.

Hardware

vendors

gave

away

systems

software

for

free

as

hardware

could

not

be

sold

without

software
.

A

few

companies

sold

the

service

of

building

custom

software

but

no

software

companies

were

selling

packaged

software
.



Totally

were

designed

more

than

100

different

high
-
order

languages,

but

now

only

few

of

them

are

in

use
.



Development of Software 1

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

28



The Third Generation


Integrated Circuits (1965
-
1980)

An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware
resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a
vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually
require an operating system to function
.


Time
-
sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also
include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other
resources.


Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD,
iOS
, Linux, Mac OS X,
Microsoft Windows
,
Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS. All these, except Windows and z/OS,
share roots in UNIX.

Development of
Software 2

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

29



The
Fourth Generation


Very Large Scale Integration
(1980
-

?)


CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

30

The Fourth Generation


Very Large Scale Integration


A
microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit
(CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC
),
or at most a few integrated
circuits.
It is a
multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according
to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of
sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory. Microprocessors operate on numbers and
symbols represented in the binary numeral system
.



The
advent of low
-
cost computers on integrated circuits has transformed modern
society. General
-
purpose microprocessors in personal computers are used for computation,
text editing, multimedia display, and communication over the Internet. Many more
microprocessors are part of embedded systems, providing digital control of a myriad of objects
from appliances to automobiles to cellular phones and industrial process control.

Microprocessor

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

31



The Fourth Generation


Very Large Scale Integration

Milestones of the microprocessors

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

32



Intel 4004


bit
-
slice 4
-
bit microprocessor (1971).


Intel 8080


8
-
bit microprocessor (1974).


Intel
8088


16
-
bit
microprocessor (
1979). The base of first Personal Computer

. . . . . . .

Pentium


32
-
bit
microprocessor (
1993).


The Fourth Generation


Very Large Scale Integration

RFID Chips

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

33



RFID

stands for Radio
-
Frequency
IDentification
. The acronym refers to small electronic
devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna. The chip typically is capable of carrying
2,000 bytes of data or less.


The RFID device serves the same purpose as a bar code or a magnetic strip on the back of a
credit card or ATM card; it provides a unique identifier for that object. And, just as a bar code or
magnetic strip must be scanned to get the information, the RFID device must be scanned to
retrieve the identifying information.

History of Computer Designing


CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

34

Computers in the USSR



CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

35



First generation Soviet computer MESM (Small Electronic Computing Machine) was designed
by S.
Lebedev

in Kiev (1951). 6000 vacuum tubes.

Clocking frequency


50 kHz; rating


50 op/sec; 16
-
bit; RAM memory 32 data words, 64
instruction words.

Computers in the USSR

BESM (Big Electronic Computing Machine)

(1952)

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

36



First generation Soviet computer BESM was designed
by S.
Lebedev

in
Moskov

(1952). 5000 vacuum tubes.

Clocking frequency


100 kHz; rating


10 000 op/sec;
39
-
bit floating point ALU; RAM memory 32 data
words, 64 instruction words.

External memory



magnetic drum 1024 words,



magnetic tape 120 000 words


Then were manufactory produced models BESM
-
2,

a
nd versions for military applications M
-
40, M
-
50

Computers in the USSR

BESM
-
6

(Big Electronic
Computing Machine)

(1965)

CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

37



Second generation Soviet computer BESM
-
6.

Rate 1 MIPS. 48
-
bit registers and ALU. Address
bus 15 bit. Clock frequency 10
MHz.

Computers in the USSR

Promin

(Beam)

(1963)


CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

38



MIR
-
2 (Machine for Engineering Computations)
(1969). 12 000 op/sec. RAM


8000 13
-
bit words.

ROM 1,6x10
6

bit.

Computers in the USSR



CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

39



SETUN
the
unique computer that work in system of
base three
(1959
-
1970).


Density of information is described by equation



where X


base of
the system. The optimal base is constant e = 2,718281828459045.

Trite


name of the digit in this system.

Computers in the USSR



CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

40



Soviet military super computer
5Э53



designed for anti
-
missile defense
system A
-
35
(1967
-
1972). Work in residue number system. Rate 40 MIPS. Clocking frequency 6
MHz.

RAM 10
Mbit. ROM 2,9 Mbit. External memory 3
Gbit
. Harvard architecture. Pipelined arithmetic.

Computers in Russia



CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

41



Russian supercomputer “
Lomonosov
” (2009).
6654

computing nodes,
94000

cores, rate
1,37

pico flops.

June 2011


13 position on Top500 of the most powerful computers all over the world.

Computers in Russia



CENG 222
-

Spring 2012
-
2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV

42



Russian microprocessor ELBRUS (
ExpLicit

Basic

Resources

Utilization

Scheduling
) (2010).

64 бита



4,0
GFLOPS
,
32 бита



8,0
GFLOPS
, 4 cores for DSP, 2 processor cores…