Distributed Engine Controls (A. Behbahani) - PIWG

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Welcome to the

OAI Aerospace Instrumentation and Controls Collaboration Forum

Ohio Aerospace Institute, 22800 Cedar Point Road, Cleveland, OH 44142

For


The Building Blocks of
Smart Sensors
and other Technologies

for
Distributed High Temperature Intelligent Integrated Controls Networks
for Aerospace Applications


25 August, 2011

Introduction

Dr. Al Behbahani

Air Force Research Laboratory



1:00


2:15 p.m.

Smart sensors



15 min


Introduction
--
Al


Motivation for Distributed High Temperature Controls


Distributed Open Software Hierarchical Architectures for
Control Systems


20 min


Developing standards for distributed engine controls


Dewey



High level node architecture (functional requirements)



What will the DECWG requirements document contain



20 min


Developing standards for Smart Sensors


Bhal



20 min


Discussions


2:15


2:30 p.m.




Break


Agenda

Statement of Objective



The Air Force Research Laboratory has committed its resources to the development of
new tools and component technologies to improve the affordability, fuel efficiency and
increased power/weight of the legacy and future fleet of aircraft gas turbine engines
thorough the Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine (VAATE) initiatives.


A pervasive enabler across all VAATE platforms is high temperature capable controls,
sensors, and actuators

which will allow for enhanced thermal management, development
cost reductions, and possible fuel burn savings. The Distributed Engine Control Working
Group (DECWG) has identified that a key enabler for future engine control systems is high
temperature capable electronics which will allow full life operation in increasingly harsh
thermal environments.


This effort will develop
requirements documents to be used by industry for high
temperature distributed control systems (along with high temp. sensors and actuators)
as well as perform proof of concept testing for State Of the Art (SOA) high
temperature Silicon
-
On
-
Insulator (SOI) device packaging and development/toolkit
work for compact/affordable SOI wafers.


This activity serves as initial risk mitigation for demonstrating high temperature
Distributed control architectures on the 2014
-
2015 CAESAR engine.



Eliminate duplication and encourage collaboration among DECWG, PIWG, ASWG, IAPG,
TETWoG
, small businesses, universities, and colleges for sensors, instrumentation, modeling &
simulation




Summary of the DECWG, and how small business & universities can participate or contribute
to overall goal and vision of the DECWG & other teams. Ideas such as SBIR benefits and
contributions, consortium participation, standards, Power supplies, Process and Toolkit
Development, sensors, collaborate in buying parts for the whole group at the reduced price,
communication data bus, packaging, System Level / Node Level / Chip Level requirements, cost
minimization ideas.




Reemphasize the vision of the DECWG to eliminate operational limitations imposed by Controls
on next generation turbine engine and aerospace vehicle applications, while positively impacting
system
-
level cost, weight, size, reliability and adaptability/reuse metrics.




The DECWG goal is to create a voluntary pre
-
competitive collaboration between government
and aerospace industry to promote development of affordable high
-
temperature
-
capable
distributed gas turbine engine controls and sensors.




Define the roll and responsibilities for the
airframers

to be involved in the PIWG & DECWG.
Need to have an integration plan to involve them.




A true collaboration between the entire participants for a mutually beneficial for advancement of
sensors, actuators, and controls.

Objectives of Today’s Meeting

The Process for Distributed
Controls
(including Smart Sensors and Actuators)

Technology

Insertion

Systems

End
-
Users

Production

Research

Is the central
issue needs to
be focused

Requirements are different for Test
Cell Application Vs. Flight application

Objective: Modular, Open, Distributed
Engine Control



Increased
Performance


Reduction in engine weight due to digital
signaling, lower wire/connector count,
reduced cooling need


5% increase in thrust
-
to
-
weight ratio

Improved Mission Success


System availability improvement due to
automated fault isolation, reduced
maintenance time, modular LRU


10% increase in system availability

Lower Life Cycle Cost



Reduced cycle time for design,
manufacture, V&V


Reduced component and maintenance
costs via cross
-
platform commonality,
obsolescence mitigation


Flexible upgrade path through open
interface standards


Open
Systems Development, Modeling
& Design


Future systems requirements definition


Open industry interface standards
definition


System modeling tools development


Modular system integration and test
techniques

Hardware Systems Development


High temperature integrated circuits and
systems development


Improved electronic component
availability

Software Systems Development


Software system partitioning


Software design and modular test
capability


Software distributed system V&V

Technical Requirements for Distributed
Controls,
Smart Sensors and Actuators

Physical Drivers for
Smart Sensors / Actuators / Distributed Control
System Designs


Thermal Environment


Externals Packaging


Rapid Reconfiguration / Upgradability


Generic Physical/Functional Interface


Environmental Requirements


Certification Impact


Integration
Testing


Developing Standards


Financial Responsibility



Focus
on Near
-
Term Applications


Concentrate on commercial applications with production volumes


Design for maximum leveraging though multiple applications


Externals
Packaging


Need to integrate electronics onto or within existing hardware


Minimize unique hardware


Adding new/extra mounting hardware drives cost, weight in the wrong direction

Environmental Requirements


Design for existing ambient temperatures and vibration environments


Don’t drive cost/complexity into the DCM to withstand unrealistic margins


Focus on actual engine environments, not D0160/810 generic requirements


Design electronics to withstand existing hardware thermal conditions


Recognize limitations of typical industry materials


Aluminums (300F/149C),
Elastomers

(350F/177F)

Certification Impact, Changes to Testing


Allow certification at modular level


Require system level certification using black box approach to testing


Allow flexible system expansion/contraction without
recert
. required

Integration testing


System integration testing paradigms will shift


System integration tasks will shift one layer down the food chain


AS/OS boundaries may drive testing location, integration responsibilities

Technical Requirements for Distributed Controls…(Cont.)

Bhal will be talking next

Motivation / Objective


Are engine control sensors and actuators

keeping pace with turbine engine system
needs?


How Do & Why Should
we take advantage of
emerging electronics and smart sensors and
actuator technologies, and integration
technology?


What are the collaboration opportunities for the
turbine engine sensors and actuators
community?

Supervisory

FADEC


DC

SN



SN



SN



SN



SN



SN



SN



DC

DC

S

Implementation of Distributed Engine Controls with Smart Sensors

Cross Channel Data Links (CCDL
)

The Role of Data Communication and Smart Sensors
and Actuators in a Distributed Engine Control


A fully distributed control system. Each system element individually connects to the
network. Each physical element can have multiple functions, some of which require
real
-
time communication for control and others which may be less time critical.


Distributed Open Software (DOS) Hierarchical
Architectures for Control Systems

Straw man Plans


To work on High temperature Electronics to
be used in the data concentrator, smart
nodes, smart sensors, smart actuators, and
smart pumps


Each company proprietary information will be
protected.


Every company from US will start from the
same building blocks.


Will use common I/Os, data buses, and
standard components / software (if possible)


Smart Sensors, Actuators, & Integration



Develop the technologies to implement reliable,
integrated electronics for high temperature
applications.


Stable, high temperature transistors


Multilevel interconnect structures for complex
integrated circuit development


High performance packaging and interconnects for
reliable, extreme environment applications


Develop high temperature sensing capabilities

Need collaboration on Smart
Sensors and Actuators

High Temperature Electronics

High Temperature Packaging

Data Bus Communication

Standardized Smart Sensors

Standardized Smart Actuators

Standardized software

Standardized Power supplies

Standardized chips

Standardized Communication H/W

Standardized testing & Evaluation

Certifiable components

Integration Testing




Standardized Processes while keeping proprietary information and
stimulating innovation and evolution in the Distributed Control


Centrally
Controled

FADEC


Baseline centralized engine control architecture. The FADEC connects directly to each
system element

IEEE 1451




Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators


The objective of IEEE 1451 is to develop a smart transducer interface standard to
make it easier for transducer manufacturers to develop smart devices and to interface
those devices to networks, systems, and instruments by incorporating existing and
emerging sensor and networking technologies. The standard interface consists of
three parts.


Smart Transducer Interface Module (STIM)


electronics to convert the
native transducer signal to digital quantities.


Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS)


a memory which contains
transducer specific information such as; identification, calibration,
correction data, measurement range, manufacture
-
related information,
etc


Network
-
capable application processor (NCAP)
-

the hardware and
software that provides the communication function between the STIM
and the network


IEEE 1451

The IEEE 1451 standard family defines the interfaces between various
transducers and networks, including wireless