ACVANCED DETECTORS IN PARTICLE PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS

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1

ACVANCED DETECTORS IN

PARTICLE PHYSICS AND
APPLICATIONS

Experiments in HEP

Semiconductor Detectors

Gaseous Detectors

Scintillation Counters

Application in other Fields

Summary and Conclusions

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

2

NEW EXP‘S AND ACCELERATORS

Basic Questions of Particle Physics:



CP
-
Violation:

B
-
Factories at KEK and SLAC,






Large Hadron Collider at CERN



Higgs search:

Experiments ATLAS and CMS at LHC,



e+e
-

Linear Collider TESLA at DESY

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

TESLA

3

RUNNING AND
PLANNED

EXP‘S

EXPERIMENT
TYPE

NAME

INTERACTING

PARTICLES

ACCELERATOR

SITE

FIXED TARGET

HERA
-
B

LHC
-
B

Proton
-
Nucleon

Proton
-
Nucleon


HERA

LHC

DESY

CERN

COLLIDER

BES

H1, ZEUS

CDF, D0

BaBar, BELLE

ATLAS, CMS

TESLA
-
Det.

Electron
-
Positron

Positron
-
Proton

Proton
-
Proton

Electron
-
Positron

Proton
-
Proton

Electron
-
Positron

BEPC

HERA

Tevatron

PEP
-
II, KEKB

LHC

TESLA

IHEP

DESY

Fermilab

SLAC, KEK

CERN

DESY ?

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

4

DETECTION OF RARE PROCESSES

Requirements for Higgs Search:



Superimposed collisions, here 18 pp interactions in CMS Silicon Tracker,



Occupancy of ~1% with Silicon Pixel Detectors,



Precise measurement of 4 well visible muons.

µ

µ

µ

µ

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

5

1 Tracking Detectors:


Pixel, Silicon Strip, Gas Microstrip, Drift Cell Tubes,






Drift Chambers

2 Electromagnetic Calorimeters:
Plastic Scintillator / Lead Sandwich, Liquid Argon, Crystals


3 Hadronic Calorimeters:


Plastic Scintillator / Iron or Copper Sandwich, Liquid Argon


4 Muon Detectors:


Drift
-

Tubes, Cathode Strip Chambers, Resistive Plate Chambers

DETECTORS IN HEP EXP‘S

Fixed Target Exp:

Collider Exp:

Interaction of particles in diff. detector components:


Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

6

FIXED TARGET EXP:
HERA
-
B

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS



detector designed for CP violation studies in B
-
Meson system



run at
interaction rates > 30 MHz, > 100 charged particles every 96 nsec



harsh radiation conditions

for tracking detectors:



Si


Strip Vertex Detector



MSGC Inner Tracker



hexogonal Drift Tubes Outer Tracker



conditions
very similar to LHC

7

COLLIDER EXP:
ATLAS, CMS

Muon Detector

Hadron

Calorimeter

Electromagnetic

Calorimeter

Tracking Detectors

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

CMS cut
-
out

ATLAS

CMS

8

COLLIDER EXP:
TESLA

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

Hadron Calorimeter


Scintillator/Iron Sandwich, 200 kChannel

Electromagnetic Calorimeter

Si
-
Diode Pads/Tungsten, 32 Mi o Chann,

Ti me Pr oject ion Chamber

1.2 Mio Chann.

Vertex Detector VTX

CCD or Hybrid Pixel, 800 Mio ch.

Intermediate Tracker

Si
-
Pi xel and

St rip, 40.3 M i o ch.

Muon Detector

Pl asti c St reamer Tubes and RPC, 75 kCh.

9



SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

Silicon Strip:



Thickness Si
-
Crystals:
~300 µm




Energy Loss of Minimum Ionising Particle per


Electron/Hole Pair:
<E> = 3.6 eV (at 300
°
K),


(in Gases: 20
-
40 eV)



Total e
-
/hole pairs:
~25000



Drift
-
Time:
~8 ns e
-
, 25 ns holes



Sensitive Area:

~70 x 50 mm²



Number Strips:
~1200



Strip Distance:
~50 µm



Resolution:
~10
-
20 µm

Pixel Detectors:



Hybrid Pixel:



mature technology



C
harged
C
oupled
D
evice:



not rad. Hard, slow (5 MHz)



M
onolithic
A
ctive
P
ixel
S
ensors:



originated from CMOS camera



DEPFET:



integrated amplification




10

Vertex

Detector System:

HERA
-
B

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS



Measurement:

J/Psi decay vertices, impact parameters of particles



Working:

at up to 40 MHz, high radiation similar LHC



Vertex Detector:

64 double
-
sided Si
-
microstrip detectors,



arranged in 8 stations, 4 quadrants around p
-
beam



Detectors:

sensitive area: 50 x 70 mm², 280 µm thick



Performance:

o.k. up to 3 x 10**14 MIPS/mm²



Readout:

analog chip HELIX128
-
2.2

11

Tracking Detectors:

ATLAS, CMS

Pixel Detectors:



3 barrels, 2 x 4 discs

¾

2.14 m² sensitive area

¾

~ 80 million channels

Silicon
-
Strip (SCT):

¾

4 barrels, 2 x 9 discs

¾

~ 60 m² sensitive area

¾

~ 6.2 million channels

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

ATLAS

CMS

Transition Radiation Tracker TRT:

372000 straw tubes in barrel and end
-
caps


2 Barrels

2 x 2 End
-
cap

Pixel Detectors:



~ 0.6 m² sensitive area

¾

~ 45 million channels

Silicon
-
Strip (SST):

¾

~ 210 m² sensitive area

¾

~ 9.6 million channels

¼ of longitudinal view

10 Barrels

12 End
-
cap Discs

12

Tracking Detectors:
TESLA

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

VTX (multi
-
layered micro
-
vertex detector):



cylinders in barrel region



3 options:



CCDs:
5 layers,


~ 800 Mpixels,



hybrid pixels:
3 layers



CMOS pixels:



R&D program for all 3

¼ of longitudinal view

Intermediate Tracker:



SIT:



2 cylinders in barrel region



double sided strip detectors



sensitive area:
1.7 m²



FTD (discs in forward region):



2 x 3 discs pixel detectors:
0.6 m²



2 x 4 discs strip detectors:
2.0 m²

TESLA Tracking Det.

VTX
-

CCDs

13

DRIFT CELLS

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

Honeycomb Drift Cell Assembling

Honeycomb Drift Cells (HERA
-
B Outer Tracker):



cell diameter:

5 and 10 mm




cell occupancy:
< 20% (20 cm from p
-
beam, 40 MHz rate)



modules:
~ 1000 with

<= 128 cells (segmented)



max. length:
4.5 m



readout channels:
~ 117 k



gas mixture:

Ar / CF4 / CO2, (65 / 30 / 5)



no aging problems after foil coating with gold

Production of 10 mm modules

(I HEP and Tsinghua Univ.)

Straw Tube Drift Cells (ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker):



cell diameter:

4 mm




straw length:

150 cm (barrel),

39 and 55 cm (end
-
caps)



readout channels:
~ 53 k (barrel),



~ 320 k (end
-
caps)



gas mixture:

Xe / CF4 / CO2, (70 / 20 / 10)

High Pressure Aluminum Drift Tubes (ATLAS Muon Detector):



cell diameter:

30 mm




max. tube length:

6 m



readout channels:
~1.3 million



gas mixture:

Ar / N2 / CH4, (91 / 4 / 5)

14

Micro
-
Strip Gas Chamber:
HERA
-
B

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

GEM

Rad. Damage

MSGCs General:



success of Multiwire Proportional Chamber



fills gap between wire chambers and Si
-
strip



Anodes, Cathodes:

thin metal strips on glass substrate



Granularity:


10 x better than wire systems



Resolution:


better than 40 µm



Rate Capability:
~ 100 kHz per mm²

HERA
-
B GEM MSGCs:



Inner Tracker:
7 stations, 40 planes of 4 detectors (48x44cm² / plane)



largest system:
120 kChannels



original MSGCs:
discharges at high

rates, (<= 10**6 part. / cm² / s)


heavy ionising alpha
-
particles damage of electrodes



solution:
GEM
-

Gas Electron Multiplier (thin foil with holes)




1
st

amplification in GEM, lower voltage between electrodes

50 µ

drift voltage 2500 V

cathode voltage 520 V

GEM voltage difference

(upper


lower) 450 V

MSGC Alternatives:



Double GEM:



Micromegas:


thin
-
gap parralel plate counter



Micro
-
CAT:


hole in cathode foil,


above anode



Micro
-
dot chamber:


pixel device based on silicon

Anode

Cathode

15

SCINTILLATING CRYSTALS

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

Electromagnetic Calorimeters in new experiments require:



best energy resolution for e, gamma, pi
-
zero:

crystals



position measurement:





fine lateral granularity



operation in magnet field (1


4 Tesla):



photo diode


NaI(Tl)

Plastic

BGO

CsI(Tl)

CsI

PbWO4

LSO

Radiation

Length [cm]

2.59

~ 45

1.12

1.85

1.85

0.89

1.14

Decay Time

[nsec]

230

2

300

1300

6
-

35

10
-

50

40

Peak

Emission [nm]

410

425

480

565

310

420

420

Light Yield

[gammas/MeV]

40 k

~ 14 k

~ 4 k

~ 18 k

~ 2.8 k

~ 0.8 k

~ 30 k

Crystal Properties and Experiments

Experiments

Crystal Ball

4pi,

732 crystals

15.7 Xo

HERA
-
B

Plastic / W,

Plastic / Pb

sandwich

L3

10k crystals

BaBar,
BELLE,

TEXONO:

0.5 t crystals

Neutrino osc.

at reactor

KTeV

3100 crystals

27 Xo

CMS

75 k crystals


Alice

developed
for
PET

Positron
Emission
Tomography


16

CMS ECAL: PbWO4 Crystals

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

CMS PbWO4 Crystal ECAL

Avalanche Photodiode

Barrel

End
-
Cap

Choose of Lead Tungstate:




very compact less material cheaper



fast enough
for 25 nsec LHC bunch crossing




poor light yield
less important



77000 crystals
of high quality



production in

Bogorodytsk / Russia


and by:

Shanghai Institute of Ceramics



radiation dose up to
0.15 Gy / h



energy resolution

sigma/E = 0.4 %
(E = 280 GeV)



special
avalanche photodiode (APD)

works


in 4 Tesla magnet field


17

APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

New generation of detectors progress in:




imaging



data treatment



miniaturisation



energy resolution



radiation hardness



lower noise



lower costs


All techniques ready for export to other fields as e.g.:




astro


particle physics



bio


medical applications



............


18

Application of Si
-
Strip Detectors

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

Si


Strip Detectors in Space Experiments:




Alpha
-
Magnetic
-
Spectrometer (AMS
-
02):



will be installed 2003 in International Space Station (400 km altitude)



measurement of cosmics particles



search for antimatter, can reach: anti
-
helium / helium = 10**
-
9



search for cosmics dark matter




Gamma
-
Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST):



satellite will be launched 2005



looks for gamma rays in 20 MeV


300 GeV range



Si
-
Strip tracker for:


reconstruction of gamma
-
ray direction by measuring conversion e+e
-

pair




Properties of Si


Strip Trackers:

No. Channels

Readout Pitch

Strip Width

Area

AMS
-

02

~ 200000

110 µm

27.5 µm


7 m²

GLAST

~ 737000

238 µm

238 µm

74 m²

19

Application of Si
-
Strip Detectors

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

Si


Strip Detectors in Medicine:



Main requirements are:



size large enough to cover the Region of Interest



resolution diagnostically adequate



patient dose clinically acceptable




Prototype silicon microstrip detector for dental imaging


( from P.F.van der Stelt, IWORID Amsterdam 8
-
12/9/2002)



300 µm double
-
sided silicon sensor (SINTEF, Oslo, Norway)



p
-
side 427 strips on a 50 µm pitch



n
-
side 128 strips on an 80µm pitch



effective area 2.185 x 1.024 cm
2



Performance detector
study for mammography imaging


( P.F.van der Stelt et al., NIM A457 (2001) 653)



detector size: ~ 24 x 18 cm², requires tiling of sensors



detection efficiency ~ 75% for 1mm thick silicon



high contrast details of 300 µm detectable



Si


Pixel detector for
mammography imaging


(
S.R.Amendolia

et al.,
INFN

Pisa, Italy
,
IWORID Amsterdam 8
-
12/9/2002)





pixel size: 170 x 170 µm², 300 µm thick Si


detector



further improvement under development

Film
,
12 bit

S
i
-
Pixel detector

6x6
cm² scan
)

20

Application of Scintillating Crystals

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

CsI Calorimeter in Space Experiment:



Gamma
-
Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST):



CsI calorimeter for measurement of gamma energy


(20 MeV


300 GeV)



8 layers of 12 bars: 8.6 Xo



each bar has 2.0 x 2.8 x 35.1 cm³

Scintillating Crystal Detectors in Medicine:



Flat X
-
ray Detectors for Medical Imaging:


(from M. Overdick, Philips Research Laboratories, Aachen, Germany,


IWORID 2002, Amsterdam, 11/9/2002)



Scintillator: CsI(Tl) needle crystals



thickness 550µm, good X
-
ray absorption,
act as light
-
guides



crystals connected to photodiode array



field of view: 18 x 18 cm²



crystals

Photodiode array

Dynamic Detector: Integris Allura

Heart Arteris

21

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

Detector developments for advanced particle physics experiments:




large systems of high complexity



mass production of detectors and readout electronics reduces costs



strong impact on other fields:




astro
-

particle physics



bio


medicine



material research



........


These fields have created their own life with strong activities


More details you will find in:

International Workshop on Radiation Imaging,
IWORID Amsterdam 8
-
12/9/2002

22

COLLIDER EXP:
CMS

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

23

DEPFET


DE
pleted
P
-
channel
F
ield
E
ffect
T
ransistor

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS


p
-
FET (JFET or MOSFET)


on depleted n
-
Si bulk



local potential minimum for


electrons



internal gate‘



current change prop. to
number


of charges in the

internal gate‘


D
I > 200 pA / elec瑲n



nondestructive readout



charge integration and storage


in ON and OFF state



reset through clear contact,


supported by clear gate



backside illuminated

24

Front end chip candidates

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

Experiment

Chip

Process

Pipe line
depth

Fast
trigger

Principle

Belle SVD1

VA1

1.2 mm

-

-

Continuous shaping analog

Belle SVD2

VATA

AMS 0.35 mm

-

YES

Continuous shaping analog.

BaBar

AtoM

Honeywell 0.8 mm

193 cell

-

Time
-
over
-
Threshold

CLEO

FE/BE

Honeywell

-

-

On
-
hybrid ADC, digital

Zeus

Helix

AMS (non rad
-
hard)

128 cell

-

Analog

CDF II

SVX3

Honeywell

47 cell

-

FE/BE architecture, double
correlated sampling,
periodic reset, Digital

D0

SVX2

CMS

APV25

IBM 0.25 mm

192 cell

-

Analogue

ATLAS

ABCD(?)

132 cell

-

Binary

LHCb

SICA
-
VELO
Beetle

DMILL 0.25 mm

160 cell

-

Analog

From talk of T. Tsuboyama (KEK) on Si
-
Vertex detectors, 8/2002:

25

SILICON DETECTORS

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS

26

RESISTIVE PLATE CHAMBERS

Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2
-
6/12/2002 Michael
Walter, DESY Zeuthen

EXPERIMENTS IN
HEP

SEMICONDUCTOR
DETECTORS

GASEOUS

DETECTORS

SCINTILLATION

COUNTERS

APPLICATION IN
OTHER FIELDS

SUMMARY AND
CONCLUSIONS