The investigations - tewksapbio

stalliongrapevineΒιοτεχνολογία

1 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

96 εμφανίσεις

Investigatio
n

3

S
41






Evolution

Bi
g
Idea





INV
e
S
t
IG
a
t
I
o
N

3

Co
mp
ar
ing

DN
A

s
e
qu
e
nc
e
s

to
und
er
s
t
a
nd

e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
a
r
y

r
e
l
a
t
i
o
ns
h
ips

wi
th

BL
AST


How

can

bioinformatics be

used

as

a

tool

to

determine

evolutionary

relationships

and
to

better

understand

genetic

diseases?






B
ack
ground

B
e
t
w
e
en 1990

2003,
s
cie
n
t
is
ts
w
o
r
k
i
n
g
o
n
a
n
i
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
pr
o
jec
t
k
n
o
w
n
a
s
t
h
e
H
u
m
a
n
G
e
n
o
m
e
P
r
o
jec
t
w
e
r
e
a
b
le
t
o ide
n
t
i
f
y
a
n
d
m
a
p
t
h
e 20,000

25,000
g
e
n
es
t
h
a
t defi
n
e

a
h
u
m
a
n
b
ei
n
g
. T
h
e

pr
o
jec
t
a
l
s
o
s
ucce
s
s
ful
l
y
m
a
p
p
e
d
t
h
e
g
e
n
o
m
es
o
f
o
t
h
er
s
p
e
cies, i
nc
l
udi
n
g
t
h
e
fr
u
i
t f
l
y
,

m
o
u
s
e
,
a
n
d
Es
c
h
e
r
i
c
h
i
a
c
o
l
i
. T
h
e

l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
c
o
m
p
le
t
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
o
f
t
h
e
g
e
n
es in
e
a
c
h
o
f
t
h
e
s
e
s
p
e
cies
a
r
e
a
v
a
il
a
b
le
f
o
r
a
n
y
o
n
e in
t
h
e
w
o
r
ld
t
o acce
s
s
vi
a
t
h
e
I
n
t
e
r
n
et.

W
h
y
i
s
t
h
i
s in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n i
m
p
o
r
t
a
n
t?
B
ei
n
g
a
b
le
t
o ide
n
t
i
f
y
t
h
e
pr
e
c
i
s
e l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
o
f
h
u
m
a
n
g
e
n
es
wil
l
al
l
o
w
u
s
t
o
b
e
t
t
er u
n
de
rs
t
a
n
d
g
e
n
e
t
ic d
i
s
e
a
s
es.
I
n
add
i
t
i
o
n, l
e
a
r
ni
n
g
a
b
o
u
t
t
h
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
o
f
g
e
n
es in
o
t
h
er
s
p
e
cies
he
l
ps
u
s u
n
de
rs
t
a
n
d
e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
a
r
y
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
s
h
i
ps
a
m
o
n
g
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s.
M
a
n
y
o
f
o
ur
g
e
n
es
a
r
e ide
n
t
i
ca
l
o
r sim
il
a
r
t
o
t
h
o
s
e
fo
u
n
d in
o
t
h
er
s
p
e
cies.

Su
p
p
o
s
e
yo
u ide
n
t
i
f
y a si
n
g
le
g
e
n
e
t
h
a
t
i
s
r
e
s
p
o
n
s
ib
le
f
o
r a
p
a
r
t
i
cul
a
r d
i
s
e
a
s
e in
fr
u
i
t
flies.

I
s
t
h
a
t
s
a
m
e
g
e
n
e
fo
u
n
d in
h
u
m
an
s?
D
o
es
i
t
c
a
u
s
e a sim
il
a
r d
i
s
e
a
s
e?
I
t
wo
u
ld
ta
k
e
yo
u
n
e
a
rl
y 10
y
e
a
r
s
t
o
r
e
ad
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
t
h
e e
n
t
i
r
e
h
u
m
a
n
g
e
n
o
m
e
t
o
t
r
y
t
o l
o
c
a
t
e
t
h
e
s
a
m
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
o
f
b
a
s
es
a
s
t
h
a
t in
fr
u
i
t flies.

Th
i
s

defin
i
tel
y

i
s
n

t
p
ra
ct
i
ca
l
,
s
o a
s
o
p
h
is
t
i
c
a
t
e
d
t
e
c
h
no
lo
g
i
ca
l
m
e
t
h
o
d
i
s
n
ee
d
e
d
.

B
i
o
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ics
i
s a fi
e
ld

t
h
a
t c
o
m
b
i
n
es
s
t
a
t
is
t
ics,
m
a
t
h
e
m
a
t
i
ca
l
m
o
d
e
li
n
g
,
a
n
d
c
o
m
p
u
t
er
s
cie
n
ce
t
o
a
n
a
l
yze
b
i
o
lo
g
i
ca
l
d
a
t
a.
U
si
n
g
b
i
o
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ics
m
e
t
h
o
d
s, e
n
t
i
r
e
g
e
n
o
m
es
c
a
n
b
e
q
ui
c
k
l
y c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d in
or
der
t
o de
t
ec
t
g
e
n
e
t
ic sim
il
a
r
i
t
ies
a
n
d dif
f
e
r
e
n
ces.
A
n ex
t
r
e
mel
y
p
o
w
e
rfu
l
b
i
o
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ics
t
o
o
l
i
s
B
L
A
S
T
,
w
hi
c
h
s
t
a
nd
s
f
o
r
B
a
sic
Lo
ca
l
A
li
g
n
m
e
n
t
S
e
a
r
c
h
T
o
ol
.
U
si
n
g
B
L
A
S
T
,
yo
u
c
a
n i
n
p
u
t a
g
e
n
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
o
f i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t
a
n
d
s
e
a
r
c
h e
n
t
i
r
e
g
e
n
o
mic l
i
b
r
a
r
ies
f
o
r ide
n
t
i
ca
l
o
r sim
il
a
r
s
e
q
ue
n
ces in a
m
a
t
t
er
o
f
s
e
c
o
nd
s.

I
n
t
h
i
s
l
a
b
o
r
a
t
o
r
y i
n
v
e
s
t
ig
a
t
i
o
n,
yo
u
wil
l
u
s
e
B
L
A
S
T
t
o c
o
m
p
a
r
e
se
v
er
a
l
g
e
n
es,
a
n
d
t
h
en
u
s
e
t
h
e in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
t
o c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t a
c
lad
o
g
r
a
m
. A
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m (
a
l
s
o
cal
l
e
d a
p
h
y
lo
g
e
n
e
t
ic
t
r
e
e)
i
s a
v
is
ua
liz
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
a
r
y
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
n
e
s
s
o
f
s
p
e
cies. Figu
r
e 1
i
s a si
m
p
le
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m.

S
42


Investigatio
n

3





L
ycopodium


Selaginella

Isoetes












Figure

1.

Simple

Cladogram

r
epresenting

different

Plant

Species


N
o
t
e
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m
i
s
t
r
e
e
l
i
k
e
,
w
i
t
h
t
h
e e
n
d
p
o
i
n
ts
o
f
e
a
c
h
b
r
a
nc
h
r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
i
n
g a
s
p
e
cific

s
p
e
cies. T
h
e

c
lo
s
er
t
w
o
s
p
e
cies
a
r
e l
o
c
a
t
e
d
t
o
e
a
c
h
o
t
h
e
r
,
t
h
e
m
or
e
r
e
ce
n
t
l
y
t
h
e
y
sh
a
r
e a c
o
m
m
o
n
a
n
ce
st
o
r
.
F
o
r ex
a
m
p
l
e
,
S
e
l
a
g
i
n
e
ll
a
(
s
p
i
k
e
m
o
s
s)
a
n
d
I
s
oe
te
s
(
q
u
il
l
w
o
r
t)
sh
a
r
e a
m
or
e
r
e
ce
n
t c
o
m
m
o
n
a
n
ce
st
o
r
t
h
a
n
t
h
e c
o
m
m
o
n
a
n
ce
st
o
r
t
h
a
t
i
s
sh
a
r
e
d
b
y
al
l
t
h
r
e
e
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s.

Figu
r
e 2 i
nc
l
udes add
i
t
i
o
n
a
l de
t
a
i
l
s,
s
u
c
h
a
s
t
h
e
e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
o
f
p
a
r
t
i
cul
a
r
p
h
ysi
ca
l
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
es
cal
l
e
d
sh
a
r
e
d de
r
i
v
e
d
ch
a
ra
c
t
e
r
s.
N
o
t
e
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
p
l
ace
m
e
n
t
o
f
t
h
e de
r
i
v
e
d
ch
a
ra
c
t
e
r
s c
o
r
r
e
s
p
o
nd
s
t
o
w
h
en (in a
g
e
n
er
a
l
,
n
o
t a
s
p
e
cific,

s
e
n
s
e)
t
h
a
t
ch
a
ra
c
t
er
e
v
ol
v
e
d;
e
v
e
r
y
s
p
e
cies
a
b
o
v
e
t
h
e
ch
a
ra
c
t
er
l
a
b
e
l
p
o
s
s
e
s
s
es
t
h
a
t
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
.
F
o
r ex
a
m
p
l
e
,
t
i
g
e
r
s
a
n
d
g
o
rill
a
s
h
a
v
e
h
a
i
r
,
b
u
t
l
a
m
pr
e
ys,
sh
a
r
ks,
sal
a
m
a
n
de
r
s,
a
n
d liz
a
r
d
s do
n
o
t
h
a
v
e
h
a
i
r
.














shark






salamander




lizard



tiger






hair

gorilla





no

tail

lamprey





jaws



lungs

dry

skin


Figure

2.

Cladogram

of

Several

Animal

Species


T
h
e

c
l
ado
g
r
a
m
a
b
o
v
e
c
a
n
b
e
u
s
e
d
t
o
an
s
w
er
se
v
er
a
l
q
ue
s
t
i
o
n
s.
W
hi
c
h
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s
h
a
v
e
l
u
n
gs?
W
h
a
t
t
h
r
e
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
es do
al
l liz
a
r
d
s
p
o
s
s
e
s
s?
A
cc
or
di
n
g
t
o
t
h
e
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m,
w
hi
c
h
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e


d
r
y
s
k
in
o
r
h
a
ir


e
v
ol
v
e
d
fi
rs
t?

Investigatio
n

3

S
43

BIG

ID
ea

1:

e
V
o
LU
t
I
o
N







H
ist
o
r
i
cal
l
y
,
o
n
l
y
p
h
ysi
ca
l
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
es
w
e
r
e
u
s
e
d
t
o c
r
e
a
t
e
c
l
ado
g
r
am
s;
h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,
m
o
de
r
n
-
d
a
y
c
l
ad
is
t
ics
r
e
lies
h
e
a
vi
l
y
o
n
g
e
n
e
t
ic
e
v
ide
n
ce
a
s
w
e
l
l
.
C
hi
m
p
a
nz
e
es
a
n
d
h
u
m
an
s
sh
a
r
e 95%+
o
f
t
h
eir
D
N
A,
w
hi
c
h
wo
u
ld
p
l
ace
t
h
em
c
lo
s
el
y
t
o
g
e
t
h
er
o
n a
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m.
H
u
m
an
s
a
n
d
fr
u
i
t flies

sh
a
r
e
a
p
pro
xi
m
a
tel
y 60%
o
f
t
h
eir
D
N
A,
w
hi
c
h
wo
u
ld
p
l
ace
t
h
em
f
a
r
t
h
er
a
p
a
r
t
o
n a
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m.





L
earning

objectives



T
o c
r
e
a
t
e
c
l
ado
g
r
am
s
t
h
a
t de
p
i
c
t
e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
a
r
y
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
s
h
i
ps



T
o
a
n
a
l
yze
b
i
o
lo
g
i
ca
l
d
a
t
a
w
i
t
h a
s
o
p
h
is
t
i
c
a
t
e
d
b
i
o
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ics
o
n
li
n
e
t
o
o
l



T
o
u
s
e
c
l
ado
g
r
am
s
a
n
d
b
i
o
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ics
t
o
ol
s
t
o
as
k
o
t
h
er
q
ue
s
t
i
o
n
s
o
f
yo
ur
o
w
n
a
n
d
t
o
t
e
s
t
yo
ur
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
t
o
a
p
pl
y c
o
n
ce
p
ts
yo
u
k
n
o
w
r
e
l
a
t
i
n
g
t
o
g
e
n
e
t
ics
a
n
d
e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n





Safety precautions

T
h
e
r
e

a
r
e
n
o
s
af
e
t
y
pr
ec
a
u
t
i
o
n
s
as
so
c
i
a
t
e
d
w
i
t
h
t
h
i
s i
n
v
e
s
t
ig
a
t
i
o
n.






The

investigations


INVESTIGATION 1




1
.

U
s
e
t
h
e
f
o
l
l
o
w
i
n
g
d
a
t
a
t
o c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t a
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m
o
f
t
h
e
m
a
j
o
r
p
l
a
n
t
g
r
o
u
ps:


T
able

1.

Characteristics

of

Major

Plant

g
roups


o
rganisms

V
ascular

T
issue

Flowers

Seeds

Mosses

0

0

0

Pine

trees

1

0

1

Flowering

plants

1

1

1

Ferns

1

0

0

T
otal

3

1

2






INVESTIGATION 2

2
.
GA
P
D
H (
g
l
y
cer
a
ld
e
h
y
de 3
-
ph
o
sph
a
t
e d
e
h
y
d
r
o
g
e
na
s
e)
i
s
a
n enz
y
m
e
t
h
a
t
c
a
ta
l
yzes
t
h
e six
t
h
st
ep in
g
l
y
c
ol
ys
i
s,
a
n i
m
p
o
r
t
a
n
t
r
e
a
ct
i
o
n
t
h
a
t
pr
o
d
uces
mo
l
ecu
les
u
s
e
d

in c
e
l
l
ul
a
r
r
e
s
p
ir
a
t
i
o
n. T
h
e

f
o
l
l
o
w
i
n
g
d
a
t
a
t
a
b
le
sh
o
ws
t
h
e
p
e
r
ce
n
t
a
g
e sim
il
a
r
i
t
y
o
f
t
h
i
s
g
e
n
e
a
n
d
t
h
e
pr
o
t
ein
i
t ex
pr
e
s
s
es in
h
u
m
an
s
v
e
rsu
s
o
t
h
er
s
p
e
cies.
F
o
r ex
a
m
p
l
e
, acc
or
di
n
g
t
o
t
h
e
t
a
b
l
e
,
t
h
e GA
P
D
H
g
e
n
e in
c
hi
m
p
a
nz
e
es
i
s 99.6% ide
n
t
i
ca
l
t
o
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
fo
u
n
d in
h
u
m
an
s,
w
h
i
le
t
h
e
pr
o
t
ein
i
s
ide
n
t
i
ca
l
.

S
44


Investigatio
n

3



©AMNH,
M
i
c
k
El
l
i
s
o
n


T
able

2.

Percentage

Similarity

Between

the

GAPDH


gene

and

Protein

in

humans

and
other

Species


Species

gene

Percentage

Similarity

Protein

Percentage

Similarity

Chimpanzee

(Pan

troglodytes)

99.6%

100%

Dog

(Canis

lupus

familiaris)

91.3%

95.2%

Fruit

fly

(Drosophila

melanogaster)

72.4%

76.7%

Roundworm

(Caenorhabditis

elegans)

68.2%

74.3%


























Figure

3.

Fossil

Specimen

Answer
the following questions to
check your understanding of

cladograms
before you conduct your investigation:

1
.

Dr
a
w a
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m de
p
i
ct
i
n
g
t
h
e
e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
a
r
y
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
s
h
i
ps
a
m
o
n
g
al
l f
i
v
e

s
p
e
cies

(i
nc
l
udi
n
g
h
u
m
an
s) acc
or
di
n
g
t
o
t
h
eir
p
e
r
ce
n
t
a
g
e
sim
il
a
r
i
t
y in
t
h
e GA
P
D
H
g
e
ne
.

2
.

W
h
y
i
s
t
h
e
p
e
r
ce
n
t
a
g
e sim
il
a
r
i
t
y in
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
a
l
w
a
ys l
o
w
er
t
h
a
n
t
h
e
p
e
r
ce
n
t
a
g
e
sim
il
a
r
i
t
y in
t
h
e
pr
o
t
ein
f
o
r
e
a
c
h
o
f
t
h
e
s
p
e
cies? (
H
i
n
t:
Recal
l
h
o
w a
g
e
n
e
i
s
ex
pr
e
s
s
e
d
t
o
pr
o
d
uce a
pr
o
t
ein.)


Investigation
3

-

Online

Activit
y


Choose
one

of the following websites to gain m
ore background in regard to how
cladistics can be applied to evolutionary studies. Cite the website and write a
summary of what occurred in the online activity presented in the website in your lab
notebook.




T
h
e

E
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
o
f Fli
g
h
t in
B
i
r
d
s


http://ww
w
.ucmp.berkele
y
.edu/education/explorations/reslab/
f
light/main.ht
m
Th
i
s

a
ct
i
v
i
t
y
pro
v
ides a
r
ea
l
-
w
o
r
ld ex
a
m
p
le
o
f
h
o
w
c
l
ado
g
r
am
s
a
r
e
u
s
e
d
t
o
u
n
de
rs
t
a
n
d
e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
a
r
y
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
s
h
i
ps.




W
h
a
t did
T
.
r
ex
t
ast
e l
i
k
e
?


http://ww
w
.ucmp.berkele
y
.edu/education/explorations/tours/
T
rex

/index.html



“J
o
u
r
n
e
y i
n
t
o
P
h
y
lo
g
e
n
e
t
ic
S
y
st
e
m
a
t
ic
s


http://ww
w
.ucmp.berkele
y
.edu/clad/clad4.html



INVESTIGATION 4

-

BLAST

A
t
e
a
m
o
f
s
cie
n
t
is
ts
ha
s u
n
c
o
v
e
r
e
d
t
h
e
f
o
s
s
i
l
s
p
e
ci
m
en in Figu
r
e 3
n
e
a
r
Li
a
o
ni
n
g
P
ro
v
i
n
c
e
,
C
hi
n
a.

M
a
k
e
s
o
m
e
g
e
n
er
a
l
o
b
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n
s
a
b
o
u
t
t
h
e
m
o
r
pho
lo
g
y (
p
h
ysi
ca
l
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e)
o
f
t
h
e
f
o
s
s
i
l
,
a
n
d
t
h
en
r
e
c
or
d
yo
ur
o
b
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n
s in
yo
ur
n
o
te
bo
o
k.

L
i
t
t
le
i
s
k
n
o
w
n
a
b
o
u
t
t
h
e
f
o
s
s
i
l
.
I
t
a
p
p
e
a
r
s
t
o
b
e a
n
e
w
s
p
e
cies.
U
p
o
n
c
a
r
e
fu
l
ex
a
mi
n
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
t
h
e
f
o
s
s
i
l
, s
m
al
l
a
m
o
u
n
ts
o
f
s
o
ft

t
iss
ue
h
a
v
e
b
e
en d
i
s
c
o
v
e
r
e
d
.
N
o
r
m
al
l
y
,
s
o
ft

t
iss
ue

d
o
es
n
o
t
s
u
r
v
i
v
e
f
o
s
s
i
liz
a
t
i
o
n;
h
o
w
e
v
e
r
, r
a
r
e s
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
s
o
f
s
u
c
h
pr
e
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n do
o
c
c
u
r
.
S
cie
n
t
is
ts
w
e
r
e
a
b
le
t
o ex
t
ra
c
t
D
N
A
n
u
c
l
e
o
t
ides
f
ro
m
t
h
e
t
iss
ue
a
n
d
u
s
e
t
h
e
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
t
o
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
se
v
er
a
l
g
e
n
es.
Y
o
ur
t
as
k
i
s
t
o
u
s
e
B
L
A
S
T
t
o
a
n
a
l
yze
t
h
e
s
e
g
e
n
es
a
n
d de
t
e
r
mi
n
e
t
h
e
m
o
s
t l
i
k
el
y
p
l
ace
m
e
n
t
o
f
t
h
e
f
o
s
s
i
l
s
p
e
cies
o
n Figu
r
e 4.

BIG

ID
ea

1:

e
V
o
LU
t
I
o
N

Investigatio
n

3

S
45









c
r
ocodilians



bi
r
ds

g
r
eat

apes


r
odents





insects

palatal valve
crustaceans

opposable

thumbs

feathers


two

specialized
incisors

exposed
mouthparts


two
-
parted

limbs


fur


verte
brae






heterotroph




Figure

4.

Fossil

Cladogram



1.

F
o
r
m
a
n in
i
tia
l
h
y
p
o
t
h
es
i
s
a
s
t
o
w
h
e
r
e
yo
u
b
e
li
e
v
e
t
h
e
f
o
s
s
i
l
s
p
e
ci
m
en
, Figure 3,

sh
o
u
ld
b
e
p
l
ac
e
d
o
n
t
h
e
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m
b
a
s
e
d
o
n
t
h
e
m
o
r
pho
lo
g
i
ca
l
o
b
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n
s
yo
u
m
ade
e
a
r
lie
r
. Dr
a
w
yo
ur
h
y
p
o
t
h
es
i
s
o
n Figu
r
e 4.


2.
U
p
l
o
ad
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce i
n
t
o
B
L
A
S
T
b
y d
o
i
n
g
t
h
e
f
o
l
l
o
w
i
n
g:


a.

G
o
t
o
t
h
e
B
L
A
S
T
h
o
m
e
p
a
g
e:
http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi

b.

C
li
c
k
o
n
nucleotide blast

and
enter the following accession
numbers
, just so
;

M20778



NM_001164222.1


NM_001013018.1


NM_205534



NM_165468.1




These code for nucleotide
sequences for
;

Homo sapiens

Mus musculus

Pan troglodytes

Gallus gallus

Drosophila melanogaster

S
46


Investigatio
n

3




c.


At the bottom left click on



3.


T
h
e

r
e
s
u
l
ts
p
a
g
e
ha
s
t
w
o
s
ect
i
o
n
s.
T
h
e

fi
rs
t

s
ect
i
o
n
i
s a
g
r
a
p
hi
ca
l d
isp
l
a
y
o
f
t
h
e
m
a
tc
hi
n
g
s
e
q
ue
n
ces.


















4.

S
c
r
o
l
l d
o
w
n
t
o
t
h
e
s
ect
i
o
n
t
i
t
l
e
d

S
e
q
ue
n
ces
pr
o
d
uci
n
g si
g
nifi
c
a
n
t

a
li
g
n
m
e
n
ts
.

T
h
e
s
p
e
cies in
t
h
e l
is
t
t
h
a
t
a
p
p
e
a
r
s
b
e
l
o
w
t
h
i
s
s
ect
i
o
n
a
r
e
t
h
o
s
e
w
i
t
h
s
e
q
ue
n
ces
ide
n
t
i
ca
l
t
o

o
r
m
o
s
t sim
il
a
r
t
o
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
o
f i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t. T
h
e

m
o
s
t sim
il
a
r
s
e
q
ue
n
ces
a
r
e l
ist
e
d fi
rs
t,

a
n
d
a
s
yo
u
m
o
v
e d
o
w
n
t
h
e l
is
t,
t
h
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ces
b
e
c
o
m
e le
s
s
sim
il
a
r
t
o
yo
ur
g
e
n
e
o
f i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t.



















Figure 9







BIG

ID
ea

1:

e
V
o
LU
t
I
o
N

Investigatio
n

3

S
47





5.

I
f
yo
u
c
li
c
k
o
n a
p
a
r
t
i
cul
a
r
s
p
e
cies l
ist
e
d
,
yo
u

l
l
g
et a
ful
l
r
e
p
o
r
t
t
h
a
t i
nc
l
udes
t
h
e
c
l
as
sifi
c
a
t
i
o
n

s
ch
e
m
e
o
f
t
h
e
s
p
e
cies,
t
h
e
r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
j
o
u
r
n
a
l in
w
hi
c
h
t
h
e
g
e
n
e w
a
s fi
rs
t
r
e
p
o
r
t
e
d
,
a
n
d
t
h
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
o
f
b
a
s
es
t
h
a
t
a
p
p
e
a
r
t
o
a
li
g
n
w
i
t
h
yo
ur
g
e
n
e
o
f i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t.













Figure

10


6.

I
f
yo
u
c
li
c
k
o
n a
p
a
r
t
i
cul
a
r
s
p
e
cies l
ist
e
d
,
yo
u

l
l
g
et a
ful
l
r
e
p
o
r
t
t
h
a
t i
nc
l
udes
t
h
e
s
p
e
cie
s

c
l
as
sifi
c
a
t
i
o
n

s
ch
e
me
,
t
h
e
r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
j
o
u
r
n
a
l in
w
hi
c
h
t
h
e
g
e
n
e w
a
s fi
rs
t

r
e
p
o
r
t
e
d
,
a
n
d
t
h
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
o
f
b
a
s
es
t
h
a
t
a
p
p
e
a
r
t
o
a
li
g
n
w
i
t
h
yo
ur
g
e
n
e
o
f i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t.

7.

I
f
yo
u
c
li
c
k
o
n
t
h
e li
n
k
t
i
t
l
e
d

D
is
t
a
n
ce
t
r
e
e
o
f
r
e
s
u
l
ts
,

yo
u
wil
l
s
e
e a
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m
w
i
t
h
t
h
e
s
p
e
cies
w
i
t
h sim
il
a
r
s
e
q
ue
n
ces
t
o
yo
ur
g
e
n
e
o
f i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t
p
l
ac
e
d
o
n
t
h
e
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m acc
or
di
n
g
t
o
h
o
w
c
lo
s
el
y
t
h
eir
m
a
tch
e
d
g
e
n
e
a
li
g
n
s
w
i
t
h
yo
ur
g
e
n
e
o
f i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t.




Analyzing

r
esults

Recal
l
t
h
a
t
s
p
e
cies
w
i
t
h c
o
m
m
o
n
a
n
ce
s
t
r
y
wil
l
sh
a
r
e sim
il
a
r
g
e
n
es. T
h
e

m
or
e sim
il
a
r
g
e
n
es
t
w
o
s
p
e
cies
h
a
v
e in c
o
m
m
o
n,
t
h
e
m
or
e
r
e
ce
n
t
t
h
eir c
o
m
m
o
n
a
n
ce
st
o
r
a
n
d
t
h
e
c
lo
s
er
t
h
e
t
w
o
s
p
e
cies
wil
l
b
e l
o
c
a
t
e
d
o
n a
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m.

A
s
yo
u c
o
l
l
ec
t in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
f
ro
m
B
L
A
S
T
f
o
r
e
a
c
h
o
f
t
h
e
g
e
n
e f
i
les,

yo
u
sh
o
u
ld
b
e
t
hi
nk
i
n
g
a
b
o
u
t
yo
ur
o
r
i
g
i
n
a
l
h
y
p
o
t
h
es
i
s
a
n
d
w
h
e
t
h
er
t
h
e
d
a
t
a
s
u
p
p
o
r
t
o
r
c
a
u
s
e
yo
u
t
o
r
e
jec
t
yo
ur
o
r
i
g
i
n
a
l
p
l
ace
m
e
n
t
o
f
t
h
e
f
o
s
s
i
l
s
p
e
cies
o
n
t
h
e
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m.

F
o
r
e
a
c
h
B
L
A
S
T
q
ue
r
y
, c
o
n
sider
t
h
e
f
o
l
l
o
w
i
n
g:



T
h
e

hi
g
h
er
t
h
e
s
c
or
e
,
t
h
e
c
lo
s
er
t
h
e
a
li
g
n
m
e
n
t.



T
h
e

l
o
w
er
t
h
e e v
a
l
u
e
,
t
h
e
c
lo
s
er
t
h
e
a
li
g
n
m
e
n
t.


1
.

W
h
a
t
s
p
e
cies in
t
h
e
B
L
A
S
T
r
e
s
u
l
t
ha
s
t
h
e
m
o
s
t sim
il
a
r
g
e
n
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
t
o
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
o
f i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t?


2.

W
h
e
r
e
i
s
t
h
a
t
s
p
e
cies l
o
c
a
t
e
d
o
n
yo
ur
fossil
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m?


3.

H
o
w sim
il
a
r
i
s
t
h
a
t
g
e
n
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce?


4.

B
a
s
e
d
o
n
w
h
a
t
yo
u
h
a
v
e l
e
a
r
n
e
d
f
ro
m
t
h
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce
a
n
a
l
ys
i
s
a
n
d
w
h
a
t
yo
u
k
n
o
w
f
ro
m

t
h
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
,
d
e
cide
w
h
e
r
e
t
h
e
n
e
w
f
o
s
s
i
l
s
p
e
cies
b
e
l
o
n
gs
o
n
t
h
e
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m
w
i
t
h
t
h
e

o
t
h
er
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s.
I
f
n
e
ce
s
s
a
r
y
,
r
e
dr
a
w
t
h
e
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m
yo
u c
r
e
a
t
e
d
b
e
f
or
e
.
S
48


Investigatio
n

3







E
valuating
r
esults

C
o
m
p
a
r
e
a
n
d d
i
s
c
us
s
yo
ur
c
l
ado
g
r
a
m
w
i
t
h
yo
ur
c
l
as
s
m
a
t
es.
D
o
es
e
v
e
r
y
o
n
e
a
g
r
e
e
w
i
t
h
t
h
e
p
l
ace
m
e
n
t
o
f
t
h
e
f
o
s
s
i
l
s
p
e
ci
m
en?
I
f
n
o
t,
w
h
a
t
i
s
t
h
e
b
a
s
i
s
o
f
t
h
e d
i
s
a
g
r
e
e
m
e
n
t?

On
t
h
e
m
a
in
p
a
g
e
o
f
B
L
A
S
T
,
c
li
c
k
o
n
t
h
e li
n
k

L
is
t
Al
l
G
e
n
o
mic
D
a
t
a
b
a
s
es
.

H
o
w
m
a
n
y
g
e
n
o
m
es
a
r
e
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y
a
v
a
il
a
b
le
f
o
r
m
ak
i
n
g c
o
m
p
a
r
i
s
o
n
s
u
si
n
g
B
L
A
S
T?
H
o
w
d
o
es
t
h
i
s lim
i
t
a
t
i
o
n i
m
p
a
c
t
t
h
e
pr
o
p
er
a
n
a
l
ys
i
s
o
f
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
d
a
t
a
u
s
e
d in
t
h
i
s
l
a
b?

W
h
a
t
o
t
h
er
d
a
t
a c
o
u
ld
b
e c
o
l
l
ec
t
e
d
f
ro
m
t
h
e
f
o
s
s
i
l
s
p
e
ci
m
en
t
o
he
l
p
pr
o
p
e
rl
y ide
n
t
i
f
y
i
ts
e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
a
r
y h
ist
o
r
y?





D
esigning

and

c
onducting

y
our

i
nvestigation

N
o
w
t
h
a
t
yo
u

v
e c
o
m
p
le
t
e
d
t
h
i
s i
n
v
e
s
t
ig
a
t
i
o
n,
yo
u
sh
o
u
ld
f
e
e
l
m
or
e c
o
m
f
o
r
t
a
b
le
u
si
n
g
B
L
A
S
T
. T
h
e

n
ext
st
ep
i
s
t
o l
e
a
r
n
h
o
w
t
o fi
n
d

a
n
d
B
L
A
S
T
yo
ur
o
w
n
g
e
n
es
o
f i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t.
T
o

l
o
c
a
t
e a
g
e
ne
,
yo
u
wil
l
g
o
t
o
t
h
e E
n
t
r
e
z
G
e
n
e
w
e
bs
i
t
e
(
http://ww
w
.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ gene
). O
n
ce
yo
u
h
a
v
e
fo
u
n
d
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
o
n
t
h
e
w
e
bs
i
te
,
yo
u
c
a
n c
o
p
y
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce

a
n
d i
n
p
u
t
i
t i
n
t
o a
B
L
A
S
T
q
ue
r
y
.


Example

Procedure


O
n
e
s
t
ude
n
t

s
s
t
a
r
t
i
n
g
q
ue
s
t
i
o
n:
W
h
a
t
i
s
t
h
e
f
u
n
ct
i
o
n
o
f a
ct
in in
h
u
m
an
s?
D
o
o
t
h
er
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s
h
a
v
e a
ct
in?
I
f
s
o
,
w
hi
c
h
o
n
es?



1
.

G
o
t
o
t
h
e E
n
t
r
e
z
G
e
n
e
w
e
bs
i
t
e

(
http://ww
w
.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene
)
a
n
d
s
e
a
r
c
h
f
o
r “
h
u
m
a
n a
ct
in
.



2.

C
li
c
k
o
n
t
h
e fi
rs
t

li
n
k
t
h
a
t
a
p
p
e
a
r
s
a
n
d
s
c
r
o
l
l d
o
w
n
t
o
t
h
e
s
ect
i
o
n

N
C
B
I
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
ce

S
e
q
ue
n
ces
.



3.

U
n
der

mR
N
A
a
n
d
P
r
o
t
ei
n
s
,

c
li
c
k
o
n
t
h
e fi
rs
t

f
i
le

n
a
me
.
I
t
wil
l
b
e
n
a
m
e
d

NM

001100.3”
o
r
s
o
m
e
t
hi
n
g sim
il
a
r
. T
h
e
s
e

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
diz
e
d
n
u
m
b
e
r
s
m
a
k
e
c
a
ta
lo
g
i
n
g

s
e
q
ue
n
ce f
i
les

e
a
sie
r
.
D
o
n
o
t
w
o
r
r
y
a
b
o
u
t
t
h
e f
i
le

n
u
m
b
er
f
o
r
n
o
w
.


4.

J
us
t
b
e
l
o
w
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
t
i
t
le
c
li
c
k
o
n

F
A
S
T
A
.
” Th
i
s

i
s
t
h
e
n
a
m
e
f
o
r a
p
a
r
t
i
cul
a
r
f
o
r
m
a
t
f
o
r d
isp
l
a
y
i
n
g
s
e
q
ue
n
ces.


5.

T
h
e

n
u
c
l
e
o
t
ide
s
e
q
ue
n
ce d
isp
l
a
y
e
d
i
s
t
h
a
t
o
f
t
h
e a
ct
in
g
e
n
e in
h
u
m
an
s.


6.

C
o
p
y
t
h
e e
n
t
i
r
e
g
e
n
e
s
e
q
ue
n
c
e
,
a
n
d
t
h
en
g
o
t
o
t
h
e
B
L
A
S
T
h
o
m
e
p
a
g
e

(
http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi
).


7
.

C
li
c
k
o
n

n
u
c
l
e
o
t
ide
b
l
as
t
” u
n
der
t
h
e
B
a
sic
B
L
A
S
T
m
e
n
u
.


8.

P
ast
e
t
h
e
s
e
q
ue
n
ce i
n
t
o
t
h
e
b
o
x
w
h
e
r
e
i
t
s
a
ys

E
n
t
er
Q
ue
r
y
S
e
q
ue
n
c
e
.



9.

G
i
v
e
t
h
e
q
ue
r
y a
t
i
t
le in
t
h
e
b
o
x
pro
v
id
e
d if
yo
u
p
l
a
n
o
n
s
a
v
i
n
g
i
t
f
o
r
l
a
t
e
r
.

BIG

ID
ea

1:

e
V
o
LU
t
I
o
N

Investigatio
n

3

S49




1
0
.

U
n
der

C
h
o
o
s
e
S
e
a
r
c
h
S
et
,

s
e
l
ec
t
w
h
e
t
h
er
yo
u w
a
n
t
t
o
s
e
a
r
c
h
t
h
e
h
u
m
a
n
g
e
n
o
m
e
o
n
l
y
,

m
o
u
s
e
g
e
n
o
m
e
o
n
l
y
,
o
r
al
l
g
e
n
o
m
es
a
v
a
il
a
b
l
e
.


1
1
.

U
n
der

P
r
o
g
r
a
m
S
e
l
ect
i
o
n
,

ch
o
o
s
e
w
h
e
t
h
er
o
r
n
o
t
yo
u w
a
n
t hi
gh
l
y sim
il
a
r
s
e
q
ue
n
ces
o
r
s
o
m
e
w
h
a
t
sim
il
a
r
s
e
q
ue
n
ces.
C
h
o
osi
n
g
s
o
m
e
w
h
a
t sim
il
a
r
s
e
q
ue
n
ces
wil
l
pro
v
ide
yo
u
w
i
t
h
m
or
e
r
e
s
u
l
ts.


12.

C
li
c
k
B
L
A
S
T
.



B
e
l
o
w
i
s a l
is
t
o
f
s
o
m
e
g
e
n
e
s
u
g
g
e
s
t
i
o
n
s
yo
u c
o
u
ld i
n
v
e
s
t
ig
a
t
e
u
si
n
g
B
L
A
S
T
.
A
s
yo
u l
o
o
k
a
t a
p
a
r
t
i
cul
a
r
g
e
ne
,
t
r
y
t
o
an
s
w
er
t
h
e
f
o
l
l
o
w
i
n
g
q
ue
s
t
i
o
n
s:



W
h
a
t
i
s
t
h
e
f
u
n
ct
i
o
n in
h
u
m
an
s
o
f
t
h
e
pr
o
t
ein
pr
o
d
uc
e
d
f
ro
m
t
h
a
t
g
e
n
e?



W
o
u
ld
yo
u ex
p
ec
t
t
o fi
n
d

t
h
e
s
a
m
e
pr
o
t
ein in
o
t
h
er
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s?
I
f
s
o
,
w
hi
c
h
o
n
es?



I
s
i
t
p
o
s
s
ib
le
t
o fi
n
d

t
h
e
s
a
m
e
g
e
n
e in
t
w
o dif
f
e
r
e
n
t

k
i
nd
s
o
f
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s
b
u
t
n
o
t fi
n
d
t
h
e
pr
o
t
ein
t
h
a
t
i
s
pr
o
d
uc
e
d
f
ro
m
t
h
a
t
g
e
n
e?



I
f
yo
u
fo
u
n
d
t
h
e
s
a
m
e
g
e
n
e in
al
l
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s
yo
u
t
e
s
t,
w
h
a
t d
o
es
t
h
i
s
s
u
g
g
e
s
t
a
b
o
u
t
t
h
e
e
v
o
lu
t
i
o
n
o
f
t
h
i
s
g
e
n
e in
t
h
e h
ist
o
r
y
o
f li
f
e
o
n
e
a
r
t
h?


sug
g
es
t
ed

genes
t
o

e
xplo
r
e

f
amilies

or
genes
s
t
udied

p
r
eviously

A
TP
synthase

Enzymes

Catalase

Parts

of

ribosomes

GAPDH

Protein

channels

Keratin


Myosin


Pax1


Ubiquitin






Include on your submitted research;



Central question (to be
approved by me before doing BLAST)



Data and cladogram



Conclusion that answers your central question