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BAŞLI
CA

MAC TASARIMLARI

1


Acronym


Description

A
-
MAC

Another MAC:

is a slick implementation of a receiver
-
initiated MAC
protcol exploiting address filtering and auto
-
acks provided by 802.15.4
radios. A
-
MAC is built on top of the backcast primitive in which a probe is
followed by a set of (auto
-
)acks that do not interfer

destructively, but allow
the initiator to decode the super
-
imposed reponses as a valid ack causing it
to stay awake to receive the subsequent data frame. In the case of multiple
senders data frames may collide, which is resolved by specifying a larger
con
tention window in the next probe. Due to the auto
-
acking, probing for an
empty channel is extremely fast, yielding large energy savings. To increase
throughput, the data transfer is done on a different channel than the probing.



Design and Evaluation of a Versatile and Efficient Receiver
-
Initiated Link Layer
for Low
-
Power Wireless

P. Dutta, S. Dawson
-
Haggerty, Y. Chen, C.
-
J. Liang and A. Terzis

SenSys10, 2010

[
BibTeX
]

AI
-
LMAC

Adaptive Information
-
centric and Lightweight MAC:

Improves LMAC
by allowing nodes to control more than one slot.The decisdion on how
many slots each node should claim is left to the data gathering layer above.



AI
-
LMAC: An Adaptive, Information
-
centric and Lightweight MAC Protocol for
Wireless Sensor Networks

S. Chatterjea AND L. van Hoesel AND P. Havinga

2nd Int. Conf. on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information
Processing, 2004

[
BibTeX
]

B
-
MAC

Berkeley MAC:

Improvement on Low
-
Power Listening (LPL) with
application
-
level control over check time, back
-
off window size, and power
-
down policy (e.g, no sleeping at the sink). Advanced Clear Channel
Assignment (
CCA) to handle random noise.



Versatile low power media access for wireless sensor networks

J. Polastre, J. Hill and D. Culler

SenSys04, 2004

[
BibTeX
]

BitMAC

BitMAC:

layers the network as a spanning tree from the sink, and restricts
communication to up/down traffic between children and their parent. Each
parent serves as an access point computing the TDMA schedule from (1
-
bit)
transmission requests made by its childer
en at the start of the frame.
Multiple parts of the tree can operate in parallel due to the use of multiple
radio channels. The information propagation for slot and channel
assignment is done efficiently (concurrently) using On
-
Off
-
Keyeing (OOK
modulation)

providing an OR
-
channel.



BitMAC: A Deterministic, Collision
-
Free, and Robust MAC Protocol for Sensor
Networks

M. Ringwald and Kay Roemer

Pro c. IEEE Eu ro p e a n Wo rks h o p o n Wire le s s
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MAC TASARIMLARI

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Sensor Networks
(EWSN) 2005, 2005

[
BibTeX
]

BMA

Bit
-
Map
-
Assisted:

A rotating duties scheme (based on LEACH) where
nodes in turn act as an access point controlling the TDMA schedule. At the
beg
inning of each frame nodes send 1 bit to the access point indicating
wether or not they have data to transmit. Th elength of a frame depends on
the number of active senders in the cluster.



A bit
-
map
-
a
ssisted energy
-
efficient MAC scheme for wireless sensor networks

J. Li and G. Lazarou

IPSN04, 2004

[
BibTeX
]

BuzzBuzz

BuzzBuzz:

a small layer on top of the 802.15.4 physical la
yer that employs
multiple headers per packet and FEC (Reed
-
Solomon) to handle external
interference caused by WiFi traffic.



Surviving Wi
-
Fi Interference in Low Power ZigBee
Networks

C.
-
J. Liang, B. Priyantha, J. Liu and A. Terzis

SenSys10, 2010

[
BibTeX
]

Crankshaft

Crankshaft:

is a TDMA
-
style protocol designed for dense networks.
Crankshaft is receiver
-
based to limit overhearing, and slot selection is by
node ID (modulo #slots/frame). Contention is resolved by senders
-
only
through CSMA+Sift before the slot
-
owner(s) poll, much l
ike SCP
-
MAC.



Crankshaft: An Energy
-
Efficient MAC
-
Protocol For Dense Wireless Sensor
Networks

G. Halkes and K. Langendoen

EWSN07, 2007

[
BibTeX
]

CSMA
-
MPS

CSMA with Mimimum Preamble Sampling:

Incremental improvement
over WiseMAC. Uses the alternating Tx/Rx wakeup scheme from STEM to
cut the average preamble length in halve.



CSMA
-
MPS: A Minimum Preamble Sampling MAC Protocol for Low Power
Wireless Sensor Networks

S. Mahlknecht and M. Boeck

IEEE Int. Workshop on Factory Communication Systems, 2004

[
BibTeX
]

CSMA/ARC

Randomized CSMA with Adaptive Rate Control:

A CSMA scheme
designed to be energy efficient and provide fairness to routed
-
through
traffic. Employs random waits and backoffs to handle contention. No
additional signaling (not even an ACK).



A
Transmission Control Scheme for Media Access in Sensor Networks

A. Woo and D. Culler

7th ACM Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom),
2001

[
BibTeX
]

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DMAC

Data ga
thering MAC:

Addresses the latency overhead of S
-
MAC for the
convergecast communication pattern, by staggering receive/send slots
according to the level in the tree. Uses CSMA with ACKs to arbitrate
between children, and schedules overflow slots whenever a

msg is received
(much like T
-
MAC's adaptive duty cycle).



An Adaptive Energy
-
Efficient and Low
-
Latency MAC for Data Gathering in
Sensor Networks

G. Lu, B. Krishnamachari and C. Raghavendra

Int. W
orkshop on Algorithms for Wireless, Mobile, Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
(WMAN), 2004

[
BibTeX
]

f
-
MAC

framelet
-
MAC:

A deterministic MAC layer that gives hard guarantees on
messag
e transfer delays and available bandwidth, by having nodes send
each message as a sequence of N framelets. Careful selection of the framelet
frequency of each node guarantees collison
-
free transmission of at least 1
framelet. f
-
MAC works best in static and

sparsely populated networks.



f
-
MAC: A Deterministic Media Access Control Protocol Without Time
Synchronization

A. Barroso U. Roedig and C. Sreenan

EWSN06, 2006

[
BibTeX
]

FLAMA

FLow
-
Aware Medium Access:

Improves on TRAMA by removing the
periodic traffic information exchange between two
-
hop neighbors. This
information is now transmitted upon request only (e.g., when an application
flow is established) making FLAMA more efficient.



Energy
-
Efficient, Application
-
Aware Medium Access for Sensor Networks

V. Rajendran, J. Garcia
-
Luna
-
Aceves and K. Obraczka

2nd IEEE Conf. on Mobile Ad
-
hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS 2005),
2005

[
BibTeX
]

LMAC

Lightweight MAC:

A self
-
organizing TDMA scheme in which each node
owns a slot in a fixed
-
length frame, in which it may send data to any of its
neighbors. As part of its header, a node broad
casts the occpied slots in its
one
-
hop neighborhood, allowing new nodes to select a unique two
-
hop slot
guaranteeing collison
-
free operation (hence, no ACKing). All nodes must
listen in on all slots to check for incoming traffic and to maintain
synchroniza
tion.



A Lightweight Medium Access Protocol (LMAC) for Wireless Sensor Networks

L. van Hoesel and P. Havinga

INSS04, 2004

[
BibTeX
]

LPL

Low Power Listening:

Nodes periodically check with a single probe if the
channel is clear, so they can power down immediately. If the channel is
busy, however, they ke
ep listening until a startsymbol is detected. This
reduces idle listening overhead at the expense of sending out long
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MAC TASARIMLARI

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preambles (which must be larger than the check iterval).



Mica: a wireless platfo
rm for deeply embedded networks

J. Hill and D. Culler

IEEE Micro, 2002

[
BibTeX
]

MMAC

Mobility
-
adaptive MAC:

a TDMA scheme in which traffic schedules are
based on information about traffic loads as well as mobility patterns of
individual nodes. This info is sent periodically to a cluster head, which
relays all info to its nodes with a single broadcast. Each TDMA

frame
contains a scheduled access section (of variable length) and a random access
section (the remainder).



MMAC: A Mobility
-
Adaptive, Collision
-
Free MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor
Networks

M.
Ali, T. Suleman and Z. Uzmi

Proc. 24th IEEE Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference
(IPCCC'05), 2005

[
BibTeX
]

PACT

Power Aware Clustered TDMA:

uses passive clustering to creatre a
backbone communication network of clusterheads and gateway nodes.
These (active) nodes get preference in selecting slots in PACT's distributed
slot assignment procedure at the start of each frame, which consists of a
n
umber of mini control slots where nodes claim their share of the following
sequence of data slots.



Low Power TDMA in Large Wireless Sensor Networks

G. Pei and C. Chien

MILCOM01, 2001

[
BibTeX
]

PEDAMACS

Power Efficient and Delay Aware Medium Access:

A TDMA scheme
that extends the common single hop TDMA to a multi
-
hop sensor network,
using a high
-
powered access point to
synchronize the nodes and to schedule
their transmissions and receptions.Equivalent to [Arisha:2002].



PEDAMACS: Power Efficient and Delay Aware Medium Access Protocol f

or
Sensor Networks

S. Coleri

UC Berkeley, 2002

[
BibTeX
]



PEDAMACS: Power Efficient and Delay Aware Medium Access Protocol

for
Sensor Networks

S. Coleri
-
Ergen and P. Varaiya

IEEE Trans. on Mobile Computing, 2006

[
BibTeX
]

PicoRadio

NN:

A multi
-
channel CDMA scheme proposed for the PicoRadio project. A
second, simple (tone) radio is used to wakeup neighbors and have them
switch on the full radio.



Low Power Ditributed MAC for Ad
Hoc Sensor Radio Networks

C. Guo, L. Zhong and J. Rabaey

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MAC TASARIMLARI

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IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2001

[
BibTeX
]

PMAC

Pattern
-
MAC:

A distributed, adaptive TDMA
-
lik
e scheme in which nodes
exchange traffic patterns to establish in which slots they should be awake to
accomodate the load. Within a slot nodes use CSMA/CA to establish who
will actually be sending (and receiving).



PMAC: an adaptive energy
-
efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks

T. Zheng, S. Radhakrishnan and V. Sarangan

IPDPS05, 2005

[
BibTeX
]

Preamble
sampling

Aloha with Preamble Sampling:

Reduces the idle listening overhead of
classical ALOHA by transmitting a long reamble, allowing receivers to poll
periodically for incoming traffic. Very similar to LPL, which is based on
CSMA.



Aloha with Preamble Sampling for Sporadic Traffic in Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor
Networks

A. El
-
Hoiydi

IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2002

[
BibTeX
]

RATE EST

Rate Estimation MAC:

uses a separate wakeup radio to awake the
destination when needing to send a data packet. Includes an optimization to
avoid waking up ALL 1
-
hop neighbors. Each data packet includ
es an
interval for the receiver to schedule a triggered wake
-
up on the data radio to
receive the next (batch of) packet(s). The length of the interval depends on
the estimated data rate of the application. The use of triggered wakeups
makes RATE EST more e
fficient than STEM.



Minimizing Energy Consumption in Sensor Networks using a Wakeup Radio

M. Miller and N. Vaidya

IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC0
4),
2004

[
BibTeX
]



A MAC Protocol to Reduce Sensor Network Energy Consumption Using a
Wakeup Radio

M. Miller and N. Vaidya

IEEE Trans. on Mobile Computing, 2005

[
BibTeX
]

RI
-
MAC

Receiver
-
Initiated MAC:

shares the LPL
-
philosphy of having the sender
pay the price, but reverses the roles in the rendez
-
vous action to minimize
channel usage (i.e. no long preambles). It is the receiver who sends out
invitation beacons at regular intervals, where a sender must

wait until it sees
one and respond by sending the message. Collisions are detected at the
reciver, who then sends out a new beacon specifying a contention window,
increasing its length on consecutive collisions.



RI
-
MAC: A Receiver
-
Initiated Asynchronous Duty Cycle MAC Protocol for
Dynamic Traffic Loads in Wireless Sensor Networks

Y. Sun, O. Gurewitz and D. Johnson

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SenSys03, 2008

[
BibTeX
]

S
-
MAC

Sensor MAC:

The classic CSMA
-
style protocol for sensor networks.
Nodes synchronize on time (by building virtual clusters) and employ a
FIXED duty cycle to save energy (i.e. to reduce idle listening overhead). S
-
MAC includes carrier sense, collison avoidance (RTS/CTS
signalling), and
overhearing avoidance.



An Energy
-
efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

W. Ye, J. Heidemann and D. Estrin

21st Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications So
cieties
(INFOCOM), 2002

[
BibTeX
]

S
-
MAC/AL

Sensor MAC with adaptive listening:

Reduces multi
-
hop latency of S
-
MAC by extending the active period when handling traffic to see if
more is
coming. Equivalent to T
-
MAC's adaptive duty cycling mechanism.



Medium Access Control with Coordinated, Adaptive Sleeping for Wireless Sensor
Networks

W. Ye, J. Heidemann and

D. Estrin

IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking, 2004

[
BibTeX
]

SCP
-
MAC

Scheduled Channel Polling:

Evolution of S
-
MAC/AL with efficient
channel polling (LPL). All nodes synchronize on
a common slot structure.
Sending nodes contend for sending out a busy tone (step 1) just before the
beginning of a slot to "wakeup" receivers. The data msg is send next (step
2) using standard contention resolution. Thus the overhead of contention
resoluti
on is largely paid by the senders (in step 1) unlike with standard LPL
where all nodes listen in (only step 2).



Ultra
-
Low Duty Cycle MAC with Scheduled Channel Polling

W. Ye and J. Heidemann

USC/Information Sciences Institute, ISI
-
TR
-
2005
-
604, 2005

[
BibTeX
]



Ultra
-
Low Duty Cycle MAC with Scheduled Channel Pol
ling

W. Ye, F. Silva and J. Heidemann

SenSys06, 2006

[
BibTeX
]

SEESAW

SEESAW:

is quite similar in spirit to LPL in that nodes periodically listen
for incoming traffic and senders pay the price in additional transmission
time to catch the listen interval. However, listening is performed at the
packet level, and each node chooses its

own interval, which allows for
balancing energy consumption (heavily loaded nodes use short listen
intervals). A heuristic is used to automatically tune a node's individual
protocol parameters (listen period and interval, number and rate of
notification p
ackets, etc.)



Exploring the Design of an Asynchronous and Asymmetric MAC Protocol

R. Braynard, S. Ravi and C. Ellis

3rd Int. Workshop on Measurement, Modeling and Performance Analys is of

Wireless Sensor Networks (SenMetrics), 2005

[
BibTeX
]

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Extending Network Lifetime Using an Automatically Tuned Energy
-
Aware

MAC
Protocol

R. Braynard, A. Silberstein and C. Ellis

EWSN06, 2006

[
BibTeX
]

Sift

Sift:

A randomized CSMA protocol that uses a fixed
-
length contention
window with a non
-
unifor
m probability distribution of transmitting. This
provides very effective collision resolution across a wide range of the
number of senders.



Sift: A MAC Protocol for Event
-
Driven Wirele
ss Sensor Networks

K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan and Y. Tay

MIT, LCS
-
TR
-
894, 2003

[
BibTeX
]



Collision
-
minimizing CSMA
and its applications to wireless sensor networks

Y. Tay, K. Jamieson and H. Balakrishnan

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2004

[
BibTeX
]



Sift: A MAC Protocol for Event
-
Driven Wireless Sensor Networks

K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan and Y. Tay

EWSN06, 2006

[
BibTeX
]

SMACS

Self
-
organizi
ng Medium Access Control for Sensor networks:

uses
FDMA to avoid collisions between links. Requires a regular "find neighbor
phase" in which links are discovered and assigned to random frequency
band. The underlying assumption that there are many bands doe
s not hold
for current low
-
power radios.



Protocols for Self
-
Organization of a Wireless Sensor Network

K. Sohrabi, J. Gao, V. Ailawadhi and G. Pottie

IEEE Personal Communications, 2000

[
BibTeX
]

SS
-
TDMA

Self
-
Stabilizing MAC:

All trafic is scheduled in a fixed sequence of rounds
(e.g., north, south, east, west) to guarantee collison
-
free transmissions. Very
simple, but of limited applicability (GRID
-
like topologies only).



TDMA Service for Sensor Networks

S. Kulkarni and M. Arumugam

ICDCS04, ADSN workshop, 2004

[
BibTeX
]



SS
-
TDMA: A Self
-
Stabilizing MAC for Sensor Networks

S. Kulkarni and M. Arumugam

chapter in "Sensor Network Operations", S. Phoha, T. La Porta, C. Griffin (editor),
2006

[
BibTeX
]

STEM

Sparse Topology and Energy Management:

Uses two radios. A very low
-
power one to wakeup a target node. And a second, full
-
fledged radio for
data communication. For efficiency low power listening (see LPL) is used
on the signalling radio, and to reduce the associated latency target nodes
explici
tly acknowledge the wakeup on the signalling radio.



Optimizing Sensor Networks in the Energy
-
Latency
-
Density Design Space

C. Schurgers, V. Tsiatsis, S. Ganeriwal and M. Srivastava

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IEEE Transactions

on Mobile Computing, 2002

[
BibTeX
]

T
-
MAC

Timeout MAC:

An improvement on basic S
-
MAC. To handle traffic
fluctuations in time and space T
-
MAC uses an ADPATIVE duty cycle,
implemented as a timeout after the last event Problems with high loads
(early sleeping of 2nd hop neighbors) and multi
-
hop latency (max 3 ho
ps
per slot). Equivalent to S
-
MAC/AL.



An Adaptive Energy
-
Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

T. van Dam and K. Langendoen

SenSys03, 2003

[
BibTeX
]

TRAMA

TRaffic
-
Adaptive Medium Access:

A TDMA scheme based on a
distributed slot selection algorithm, which requires nodes to exchange two
hop information, but only every 100 frames to amortize the overhead. When
ru
nning out of packets nodes may release their slots for use by neighbors in
between schedule updates.



Energy
-
Efficient, Collision
-
Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor
Networks

V. Rajendran,
K. Obraczka and J. Garcia
-
Luna
-
Aceves

SenSys03, 2003

[
BibTeX
]



Energy
-
Efficient, Collision
-
Free Medium Access Control
for Wireless Sensor
Networks

V. Rajendran, K. Obraczka and J. Garcia
-
Luna
-
Aceves

Wireless Networks, 2006

[
BibTeX
]

WiseMAC

Wireless sensor MAC:

Improves on LPL by remembering th
e poll
schedules of neighbors, which allows for sending short preambles just in
time. Falls back to long preambles when clock drift gets too large.



Poster Abstract: WiseMAC, an Ultra Low Power MAC Pr
otocol for the WiseNET
Wireless Sensor Network

A. El
-
Hoiydi, J.
-
D. Decotignie, C. Enz and E. Le Roux

SenSys03, 2003

[
BibTeX
]



Wi
s eMAC: An Ultra Low Power MAC Protocol for Multi
-
hop Wireles s Sens or
Networks

A. El
-
Hoiydi and J.
-
D. Decotignie

Firs t Int. Works hop on Algorithmic As pects of Wireles s Sens or Networks
(ALGOSENSORS 2004), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 3121,
2004

[
BibTeX
]



WiseNET: An Ultralow
-
Power Wireless Sensor Network Solution

C. Enz, A. El
-
Hoiydi, J.
-
D. Decotignie and V. Peiris

IEEE Computer, 2004

[
BibTeX
]

X
-
MAC

X
-
MAC:

addresses the overhearing overhead associated with LPL's long
preambles by using a strobed sequence of short packets including the ta
rget
ID allowing for fast shutdown and response. Very similar to CSMA
-
MPS.
X
-
MAC also includes a lookup table to automatically select the optimal
check interval based on the (estimated) traffic load.

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X
-
MAC: A Short Preamble MAC Protocol For Duty
-
CycledWireless Networks

M. Buettner, G. Yee, E. Anderson and R. Han

University of Colorado at Boulder, CU
-
CS
-
1008
-
06, 2006

[
BibTeX
]



X
-
MAC: A Short Preamble MAC Protocol For Duty
-
CycledWireless Networks

M. Buettner, G. Yee, E. Anders
on and R. Han

SenSys06, 2006

[
BibTeX
]

Z
-
MAC

Zebra MAC:

A hybrid scheme that starts off as CSMA but switches to
TDMA when the load increases. Nodes run a distributed slot selection
algorithm and the owner of a slot gets precedence by using as small random
back
-
off value. Since all nodes must listen to all slot
s, Z
-
MAC builds on
LPL for energy efficiency.



Z
-
MAC: a hybrid MAC for wireless sensor networks

I. Rhee, A. Warrier, M. Aia and J. Min

SenSys05, 2005

[
BibTeX
]

[Arisha:2002]

NN:

A TDMA scheme where the sink (cluster head) periodically computes
a schedule based on traffic and battery
-
level information from the nodes
within reach. Direct node
-
to
-
node communication is possibl
e.



Energy
-
Aware TDMA
-
Based MAC for Sensor Networks

K. Arisha, M. Youssef and M. Younis

IEEE Workshop on Integrated Management of Power Aware Communications,
Computing and NeTworking (
IMPACCT 2002), 2002

[
BibTeX
]



last modified: 12
-
11
-
2010 10:06:49.0000000000 CET