Writing the Research Paper.docx

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Writing the
Chapter 1 of a Research Paper


A. Introduction


An introduction familiarizes the reader with the background of the study, statement of the
research problem investigated, why the study was conducted, who will benefit from the study,
and how
these target groups will benefit from the study.


The following sub
-
sections of the Introduction:


1. Background of the Study


In the background of the study, the origin of the problem is defined. It is where you
describe the events which led to your resea
rch. Did the problem arise as an answer to a problem
in the community? Is it from the discussion with friends about current issues? From reading
various types of literature? From listening to radio programs or watching TV programs? From
observing people an
d unfolding of natural events or visiting laboratories or other research
facilities? State essentially how you came upon the problem you decided to work on.



Checklist in writing the background of the study:


Example:


Background of the Study




Many medicines and drugs are derived from plants. Synthetics and pharmaceuticals are based on
natural compounds first found un plants, bacteria and fungi. Although modern medicines are
pre
dominantly composed of scientifically developed synthetic drugs, still about 40% of all prescribed
drugs are derived from natural substances such as plant sources.




Due to the present economic crisis, people living in remote areas found it difficult to b
uy
medicines for their ailments. They usually resort to nature in the
form of herbal medicines which they
found to be effective in many cases. Many plants in our country have been reported to have medicinal
uses (Quisumbing, 1978).



Recently, the medicina
l field has focused its interest on herbal medicine and has been looking for
indigenous materials for a drug substitute. One of the abundant and common medicinal fern
species in
Central Mindanao University and throughout the Philippines is Drynariaquercifo
ria (Linn.)J. Sm.,
commonly called as oak
-
leaf fern or cab
-
cab (Zamora, 1896; Amoroso, 1987). This fern species has been
reported to be anti
-
bacterial, anti
-
helminthic and effective against cough (Quisumbing, 1978; Zamora,
1986). Thus, there is a need to c
onduct histochemical test to find out the active principles in plant tissues
and to determine its efficacy as an anti
-
bacterial plant.



2. Statement of the Problem


In the statement of the problem, the problem is divided into main and sub
-
problems. For
most beginners in research, this is done to make the task at hand manageable for planning
purposes. It also leads to defining the data that must be obtained to answer the problem. Since
each sub
-
problem is a researchable unit, the solutions of the sub
-
prob
lems taken together,
combine to solve the main or entire problem.

Criteria

Yes

No

Background of the study





1. A
nswers the question "why will you

conduct the study?"





2. It describes the circumstances that suggested the research





3. It recounts the extent
to be
done on the topic or issue leading directly to the problem
to
be
studied





4. Uses
passive voice



5.
Paragraph is clearly stated with a focus.



6.
Concluding paragra
ph summarizes and draws a clear and

effective conclusion
.




The hypotheses tested in the experiment are mentioned in this sub
-
part of the
introduction. They can be stated in the interrogative or declarative form. Some researchers prefer
the interrog
ative form because it focuses one’s attention on the potential solution to the problem.


A2. Statement of the problem


Yes

No

1. Answers the question "What did you study?"





2. It clearly, accurately and briefly states the issue that was studied





3. The problem is divided to main and sub
-
problems



3. It is defined in terms of data that can be obtained





3. Significance of the Study


The significance of the study justifies why pursuing the problem is worthwhile. The
findings from the study could address a felt need or make a significant contribution to new
knowledge, assist policy formulation and help improve the quality of living. The

groups who will
benefit and how they will benefit from the study are clearly described in this part of the
introduction.


Checklist:


Significance of the study

Yes

No

Describes…





1. the relevance of the research to the felt needs





2. how the
research output maybe directly useful to people





3. socio
-
economical importance



3. how the research contributed to the advancement of science






Sample:


The Philippines is dependent on importation of essential oils from Europe and the United States,
despite the fact that it is one of the tropical countries rich in essential oil
-
bearing plants (Anzaldo, 1982).
Our country practically imports more that 90% o
f our requirements and ranks 8the among the essential oil
importing
countries (Dar, 1997)


The traditional method of essential oil extraction is by steam distillation. However, the process
involves the use of much energy and it yields small quality of oil
apart from loosing some of its
components.


This study was conducted to develop a new technology in extracting essential oils from locally
available lemongrass that will account for maximum yield, better quality and stability; thus, alleviating
the supply

of essences and coping with the increasing demand. This project can be considered as an initial
phase to scale up the production of essential oils using pectic enzymes previously established by the
BIOTECH. It can also be the basis for other pectinase app
lications.


This is also in support to the long standing concern of economic stagnation in the rural areas of
many developing countries by the United Nations. The program for the development of the essential oil
industry was perceived to answer these conce
rns. As stressed by UNIDO, it is an “agro
-
based industry
that can utilize rural sector participation in the cultivation and harvesting of raw materials and to some
extent, even in the field of distillation activities”


4. Scope and Limitation of the Study



The scope and Limitations of the study defines the samples in the study, the treatments
the samples are subjected to, any existing limitations of the samples known at the time of the
investigation, and limitations of data
-
gathering devices/methods. Sourc
es of samples, their
quantity, and seasonal nature, if there is any, are

also being mentioned in this part of the research
paper. Accuracy and precision of equipment used in the study are also stated.

Setting the scope and limitations of the study includes giving the time frame for the
research in addition to where it will be conducted. Appreciating the results of the investigation is
often in the light of these defined scope and limitations.




Checkl
ist




Sample:



This study will be conducted at the Immunology and Enzyme Laboratory of the National Institute
of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of the University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna on
May
1
-
31, 1999. The second trial will be conducted at Cinco’s residence and the Filipinas Palmoil Plantations,
Inc. from August 28 to December 29, 1999. The study will only focus on the effect of the enzyme
pectinase on the production of essential oil from

le
mon grass. This study is

concerned in determining the
percent essential oil yield and in performing its physic
o
-
chemical analysis.


The researcher will utilize the available laboratory apparatus such as the
Electro mantel

oil
extraction evaporator of th
e FPPI palm oil

laboratory. Data gathering and statistical analysis has the
limitation of bias.



Timetable


Activity

Date to be accomplished

Date to be Submitted

1. Writing the Background of the study

Nov. 15, 2010

Nov. 15, 2010

2. Writing of the
Statement of the problem

Nov. 16, 2010

Nov. 16, 2010

3. Significance of the study

Nov. 17, 2010

Nov. 17, 2010

4. Scope and limitation

Nov. 18, 2010

Nov. 18, 2010



Scope and Limitation of the study


Yes

No

Describes





1. scope of the area of study





2. scope of the problem





3. time frame of the study





4. limitations in the
population and
sample size





5.
treatments

to be
d
one



6.
,

instruments to be used



7. research
design