rok 2006 Aaboen L, Lindelof P, von Koch C, Lofsten H (2006 ...

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Aaboen L, Lindelof P, von Koch C, Lofsten H (2006) Corporate governance and performance of small high
-
tech firms in Sweden. Technovation 26:955
-
968 The approach uses data from a sample of 183 small high
-
tech firms, new, technology
-
based
firms (small high
-
tech firms) in Sweden (54 variables under the headings
of work experience, board and advice, financing, motivation
-
performance priorities, technological
innovation and strategy). This study identifies some core areas of importance in corp
orate governance. Few
managers in this study had a strong background and experience of finance and the preparation of business.
Only 64 per cent of the managers have had previous work experience before starting the firm. The survey
makes it clear that the
small high
-
tech firms are likely to have a strong link with banking institutions. The
consequence of these links is that most of the firm's capital supply is from banks, and that there are strong
ownership links between banks and industry. The background o
f the founder does seem to have had an
effect on the problem of financing and ownership issues. It is private sector organizations (banks) and
families that are most frequently consulted by small high
-
tech firms (However, low means). It is also the
private

and public sector organizations, in connection with external board membership, regional
development agencies and banks that are most frequently consulted. In the future, it is reasonable to search
for factor patterns that can begin to explain and predict
the direction of corporate governance in small new
technology
-
based firms.


Adamides ED, Karacapilidis N (2006) Information technology support for the knowledge and social
processes of innovation management. Technovation 26:50
-
59 While the management o
f innovation is the
most knowledge
-
intensive organizational process, its information technology support has received only
fragmented attention. The majority of systems proposed are either aiming at augmenting individual
creativity and productivity, or at i
ncreasing the productivity of communication among the actors involved. In
this paper, building on the view of innovation as a process of consecutive problems resolution, we present an
information systems framework that aims at integrating different actors'

perspectives and tools across
different activities, by explicitly addressing the knowledge and social dynamics of the whole process. The
framework is based on a systemic problem
-
knowledge representation scheme and an evolutionary problem
-
resolution method
ology that supports the innovation process in its entirety, enabling the gradual 'breeding' of
innovation concept(s). After reviewing the relevant literature, we present the structure, functionality and use
of Knowledge Breeder, a web
-
based software system

that implements this methodology through a structured
dialogue and a formal argumentation scheme. By means of a use case we show how this system can support
the innovation process effectively.


Adams
-
Bigelow M, Kleinschmidt EJ, Kuczmarski TD, Notargiacomo

R, Peters LS (2006) Rejoinders to
"Establishing an NPD best practices framework". Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:117
-
127


Akdeniz MB (2006) The design of things to come: How ordinary people create extraordinary products.
Journal of Produ
ct Innovation Management 23:467
-
469


Akgun AE, Lynn GS, Byrne JC (2006) Antecedents and consequences of unlearning in new product
development teams. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:73
-
88 Unlearning, which first
appeared almost 30 years

ago as a subprocess of the organizational learning process, has received only
limited attention in the literature. Rather than building on empirical research, the existing scholarship is
largely anecdotal, aimed at reviewing the literature and generating
new insights. Further, unlearning studies
tend to analyze the organizational level and neglect smaller units such as work groups and teams. To address
this gap in the understanding of unlearning, this article empirically investigates unlearning in work gro
ups in
general and new product development (NPD) teams in particular. This study, based on the literature of
organizational memory and change, operationalized team unlearning as changes in beliefs and routines
during team
-
based projects and then discussed
the importance of unlearning behavior in NPD teams.
Specifically it was argued that unlearning guards beliefs and routines against rigidity to cope with
environmental turbulence. This is of particular note when rigid product development procedures and grou
p
beliefs inhibit the reception and evaluation of new market and technology information and reduce the value
of perceived new information. To test the antecedents and consequences of the team unlearning model, 319
NPD teams were investigated. Using structu
ral equation modeling, it was found that (1) team crisis and
anxiety have a direct impact on team unlearning; (2) environmental turbulence also has a direct impact on
both team crisis and anxiety and team unlearning; and (3) after team beliefs and project
routines have
changed, implementing new knowledge or information positively affects new product success. Specifically,
the findings revealed that changes in team members' collective beliefs in accordance with environmental
changes and the in
-
process planni
ng or adjustment of project work activities and procedures as the projects
evolve enable teams to develop and launch new products successfully. Also, results indicated that team
crisis and anxiety in NPD projects assist team members in revising their previ
ous beliefs and routines when
project teams are performing in turbulent environments. This article suggests that managers can enhance
team unlearning by (1) creating a sense of urgency by introducing an artificial crisis; and (2) avoiding the
groupthink ph
enomena by bringing in an outsider to challenge existing policies and procedures, and training
the team on lateral thinking. In addition, managers can plan project activities in a flexible manner that allows
changes as the project evolves to facilitate tea
m unlearning. However, managers should also be cautious
when promoting team unlearning. Without careful and considerable evaluation, change in beliefs and
routines can cause information/knowledge loss.


Amir
-
Aslani A, Negassi S (2006) Is technology integra
tion the solution to biotechnology's low research and
development productivity? Technovation 26:573
-
582 The demand for innovative and cost
-
effective
products has had considerable impact on the Research and Development (R&D) portfolio of pharmaceutical
companies. With the advent of the new enabling technologies, the biotechnology revolution has created a
need for a new and more appropriate paradigm for drug development. The progress in the biological
understanding of disease processes and related technol
ogical developments have been a major step forward
for drug discovery. However, the great majority of the biotechnology companies are confronted with the
same issues as major pharmaceutical companies in terms of R&D productivity. This article intends to un
fold
the challenges faced by biotechnology companies involved in drug discovery by managing the complexity,
uncertainty and urgency of technology integration through organic, acquisition and partnering strategies
have become priorities for biotechnology co
mpanies in helping them achieving more efficiency in their
pharmaceutical R&D efforts. Such strategies help biotechnology companies apply their technologies across
a broad range of applications within the drug discovery value chain to maximize opportunitie
s for product
development. Competitive advantage in the marketplace ultimately derives from providing better speed,
cost, quality and direction.


Anderson BP (2006) A handbook of intellectual property management. Journal of Product Innovation
Management 23
:386
-
388


Anderson BP (2006) Intellectual property law in China. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:386
-
388


Appleyard MM, Brown C, Sattler L (2006) An international investigation of problem
-
solving performance
in the semiconductor indus
try. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:147
-
167 Using a unique
survey of engineers in major semiconductor companies located in Japan, South Korea, and the United States,
this article analyzes how a firm's human resource (HR) system (i.e., prac
tices that structure work, develop
skills, and reward performance) and knowledge system (i.e., information access, sharing and control) are
related to the problem
-
solving performance of engineers. Because of the short product market life cycles in
the semi
conductor industry, expeditious problem solving is an important performance goal. Therefore, this
article examines the performance of engineers in terms of the time it takes them to solve problems in the
context of their firms' HR and knowledge systems. It

was anticipated during this study that externally
oriented organizational systems, which support individual career performance and mobility (an externally
oriented HR system) and the use of private knowledge sources (an externally oriented knowledge syste
m),
would be associated with superior performance in terms of problem
-
solving speed. The findings support this
hypothesis and demonstrate the importance of externally oriented HR systems and at the same time suggest
the surprising insignificance of the ori
entation of the knowledge systems. These findings are applicable to
engineers in the sample from the United States, whereas the findings for the Korean and Japanese engineers
are inconclusive. International variation is found where the U.S. engineers work
under the most externally
oriented and the Japanese engineers under the least externally oriented systems, and the Korean engineers
fall in between. The findings of this article suggest that when constructing a work environment for new
product development,

managers should take into account how the underlying components of their
organizational systems contribute to an internal or external focus, and how this orientation may influence
performance.


Assimakopoulos D, Yan M (2006) Sources of knowledge acquisiti
on for Chinese software engineers. R & D
Management 36:97
-
106 This research adopts a triangulation strategy based on ethnographic case study
and questionnaire survey shedding light on how Chinese software engineers acquire codified and tacit
knowledge
in their daily development work. Software engineers make effective use of complementary
resources within a broad spectrum of choices for seeking advice, learning how to solve technical problems,
and transferring knowledge to the local community of practice

from far beyond the organizational boundary.
The analysis focuses on patterns of advice seeking relations within and across project team boundaries, also
highlighting the Internet software technology forums as an important channel for technical informatio
n
sharing across organizational boundaries. The implications for R&D managers are also discussed with
special reference to software development and other knowledge intensive computer related work in China.


Atuahene
-
Gima K, Li HY (2006) The effects of form
al controls on supervisee trust in the manager in new
product selling: Evidence from young and inexperienced salespeople in China. Journal of Product
Innovation Management 23:342
-
358 How should sales managers enhance the support and commitment of
young
, inexperienced sales people during a new product selling? Some scholars have suggested sales
managers should use formal controls (i.e., output and process controls) to develop the salespeople's trust in
their benevolence. Drawing on a sample of young, ine
xperienced sales people with rather low education
selling new products in China's competitive, volatile, and transitional economic environment, the present
study investigates the relationship between output and process controls and supervisee trust (i.e.,
the
salesperson's trust in the sales manager). The empirical results of the study suggest that process and output
controls have differential effects on supervisee trust. Specifically, the results indicate that process control
enhances supervisee trust by i
tself and also under conditions of intense training for new product selling and
when market volatility is perceived as high. However, process control hinders supervisee trust when the
manager is long
-
term oriented and engages in participative supervision.
It was found that output control
engenders supervisee trust when the manager is long
-
term oriented but hinders supervisee trust when
salespeople have undergone intensive training for new product selling. Implications of these results are
provided for both
researchers and practitioners involved in launching and selling new products.


Ball DF, Rigby J (2006) Disseminating research in management of technology: journals and authors. R & D
Management 36:205
-
215 This paper describes part of a study into the e
mergence and evolution of the
management of research and development (R&D), innovation and technology as a subject in its own right. It
deals with communicating research in this area via the relevant journals. The first part of this paper describes
the his
tory and development of the bulk of the relevant journals. The second part focuses on the extent and
frequency of author participation and the author affiliation in the journals described in the first part of the
paper. Computing the number of author entri
es in these journals for the years 1954
-
2003 demonstrates the
substantial increase in publication over this period. The analysis also examines the affiliation of authors by
dividing the sample into academic and non
-
academic. Finally, the study then sets ou
t to identify those who
make up the 'community' on the basis of publication in these journals over the period 1954
-
2003. The
importance of the study is not only as an historical record but also to act as a guide to practicing R&D
managers on which journals

would best meet their needs.


Baraldi E, Nadin G (2006) The challenges in digitalising business relationships. The construction of an IT
infrastructure for a textile
-
related business network. Technovation 26:1111
-
1126 This article analyses the
phenome
non of the digitalisation of buyer
-
seller relationships. We discuss and systematise the challenges of
constructing an IT infrastructure capable of sustaining the inter
-
firm interactions necessary in a business
network. In particular, we deal with two relev
ant main questions (1) how are IT tools constructed and
introduced into business networks to sustain relationships and (2) what type of challenges emerge during
such attempts to construct and introduce IT. Relying on the case of an IT project for the "Stel
la" network (an
Italian home
-
textile network), we highlight the challenges related to resource heterogeneity and process
complexity. Furthermore. we analyse the relevance of such issues as inter
-
firm trust, power and dependence
in similar IT projects. Part
icular emphasis is then given to the possibility of the IT system representing not
only the formal, but also the informal interactions among firms, and consequently, to the intrinsic limits to
codifying relationships into rigid models. Even if the purpose
of this paper is not to suggest generalised
solutions to the above challenges, we describe how each of them was faced by the project team in the
"Stella" network and we propose an indicative list of managerial implications relevant for all IT projects that

stretch to whole business networks.


Barczak G, Kahn KB, Moss R (2006) An exploratory investigation of NPD practices in nonprofit
organizations. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:512
-
527 Studies of practices in new product
and service
development have focused predominantly on for
-
profit organizations, whereas attention to the
nonprofit sector has been minimal. Such attention is needed given that nonprofit organizations are unique in
their structures and are growing with regards to impac
t on the world economy and society in general.
Moreover, such disparate attention suggests a void in this discipline's understanding of new product
development (NPD) practices of nonprofit organizations. Two particular research questions are posed: (1)
To
what extent are the practices of for
-
profit organizations employed in nonprofit organizations? (2) How do
the practices of nonprofits compare to those of for
-
profit organizations? In the course of answering these
questions, the present study reviewed liter
ature and the Product Development and Management Association
(PDMA) certification work. The study subsequently identified six dimensions of successful NPD efforts:
strategy, portfolio management, process, market research, people, and metrics and performanc
e
measurement. These dimensions were applied via an in
-
depth case
-
study methodology to six large, U. S.
nonprofit organizations: American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), American Cancer Society,
American Heart Association, American Red Cross, Boys a
nd Girls Club of America, and Goodwill
Industries. The dimensions assisted in categorizing and analyzing the responses of 40 respondents across the
six organizations. Results show that some NPD practices of large nonprofit organizations are similar to for
-
profit organizations, but other practices are more distinctive and related to the nature of nonprofit
organizations. Large nonprofit organizations tend to be very good at articulating their mission, embedding it
throughout, and using it to drive programs a
nd activities. These organizations tend to view product
development as a tactical endeavor versus a strategic one and do not engage in portfolio management
practices for their new programs. Instead, broad criteria such as fit with mission, funding availabi
lity, and
presence of a champion are used for evaluating programs. The NPD process tends to be informal with little
structure, and individual departments and local chapters tend to undertake their own NPD initiatives and
have their own process for doing so
. Non
-
profits place a heavy emphasis on ideation and less emphasis on
other activities such as concept development and testing, project evaluation, and business analysis. Pilot
testing is the most used type of market research. These results suggest that NP
D processes within large
nonprofit organizations share some of the same weaknesses as those of for
-
profit organizations, with NPD
metrics being a particularly weak area. The NPD practices of nonprofits also have some unique
characteristics that include the

following: a heavy emphasis on the mission, a desire for flexibility, strong
influence of external sponsors, and difficulty in assessing long
-
term program success. Management of
nonprofit NPD and directions for future research are discussed.


Barlow J, Ba
yer S, Curry R (2006) Implementing complex innovations in fluid multi
-
stakeholder
environments: Experiences of 'telecare'. Technovation 26:396
-
406 'Telecare' is the use of information and
communication technology to facilitate health and social care de
livery to individuals in their own homes.
Governments around the world are seeking to introduce telecare partly to help address the challenges posed
by an ageing society. Telecare is inherently complex to implement and operate because it involves
combinati
on of technological and organisational innovation in an environment of diverse stakeholders.
Using research on two telecare schemes in the UK, the paper explores the way project complexity,
organisational context and project management approach interacted
during the planning and implementation
phases. The paper discusses how insights from research in related areas, including medical technology and
service sector innovation in general, could help to explain why mainstream telecare delivery has been
difficult

and draws conclusions on the role of project management in the implementation of innovation.


Bayona C, Corredor P, Santamaria R (2006) Technological alliances and the market valuation of new
economy firms. Technovation 26:369
-
383 The article investig
ates a sample of 69 announcements of
technological alliances involving new economy firms in Spain, over the five
-
year period from 1997 to 2002.
The purpose of the study is to analyse the impact of these announcements on share prices and volatility in
these

firms. Various alliance characteristics are also examined in order to analyse their influence on stock
market prices. Our findings suggest that, while there is no overall reaction of share prices to the
announcement of technological alliances, there is an

increase in volatility during the event window.
Nevertheless, the analysis enables us to conclude that the market valuation is more positive for joint
ventures and cross
-
border, cross
-
sectoral, and two
-
partner alliances. The observed effect on volatility
indicates that the announcement of the formalisation of these alliances constitutes an abnormal amount of
information, with a potentially significant effect on the variability of share prices.


Becheikh N, Landry R, Amara N (2006) Lessons from innovation e
mpirical studies in the manufacturing
sector: A systematic review of the literature from 1993
-
2003. Technovation 26:644
-
664 What is
innovation and what determines its development in manufacturing firms? The literature on the topic has
evolved exponenti
ally during the last decades. However, the divergence of the research results makes it so
that the innovation process is still poorly understood. Relying on a systematic review of empirical studies
published between 1993 and 2003, this article propose and
discuss a framework which brings together a set
of variables related to the innovation process and the internal and contextual factors driving it. The ensuing
results highlight several avenues which would help managers and policy makers to better foster in
novation
and researchers to better channel their efforts in studying the phenomenon.


Becker B, Gassmann O (2006) Gaining leverage effects from knowledge modes within corporate incubators.
R & D Management 36:1
-
16 This paper analyzes the kind of knowle
dge that facilitates hatching and
leveraging of technologies through the incubation process. Four corporate incubator types can be
distinguished according to their source and type of technology: fast
-
profit incubators, market incubators,
leveraging incubat
ors, and in
-
sourcing incubators. Applying the knowledge
-
based view of the firm, four
modes of mainly tacit knowledge were identified in respect to the different incubator types: (1)
entrepreneurial knowledge, (2) organizational knowledge, (3) technological

knowledge, and (4)
complementary market knowledge. Knowledge strategies include both the leveraging of internal knowledge
as well as the in
-
sourcing of external knowledge for the firm through the corporate incubator. The research
is based on an analysis o
f a European Commission dataset from a benchmarking survey of 77 incubators as
well as 52 interviews in 25 large technology
-
driven corporations in Europe and the United States.


Belecheanu R, Riedel J, Pawar KS (2006) A conceptualisation of design context
to explain design trade
-
offs
in the automotive industry. R & D Management 36:517
-
529 The paper explores decision
-
making rationale
when making trade
-
offs in design. A case study of a mass
-
market car manufacturer was conducted using
interviews, qualitati
ve questionnaires and observation. It revealed that decision
-
making practices in trade
-
off
situations depend on the way that decision makers perceive the relative importance of design targets and
trade
-
off criteria. These practices are unformalised and emb
edded in the larger processes of car development
and often contradict the technical guidelines for making trade
-
offs that exist in the company. The paper
presents a conceptual framework to explain the rationale of trade
-
offs in different design contexts. H
ow to
apply this framework to understand design trade
-
offs is described with an illustration of its use in two real
life examples.


Berends H, van der Bij H, Debackere K, Weggeman M (2006) Knowledge sharing mechanisms in industrial
research. R & D Manageme
nt 36:85
-
95 Previous research has firmly established the importance of
knowledge sharing in Research and Development (R&D) settings. However, current theories provide only
fragmented insights into the origination of knowledge sharing, and thus offer li
mited guidance for
knowledge management practices in R&D. To integrate and extend these fragmented insights, we undertook
two exploratory field studies of knowledge sharing in industrial research organizations. The contributions of
this study are the follo
wing. First, we introduce three dimensions that differentiate origination mechanisms
for knowledge sharing. Second, we show that some of these mechanisms correspond to mechanisms
assumed in particular streams of literature, whereas others have been neglect
ed till now. Third, based on our
field studies, we show that each of these knowledge
-
sharing mechanisms have a different value for industrial
research practices. Therefore, knowledge management in R&D should facilitate and stimulate a broad
portfolio of kn
owledge
-
sharing mechanisms.


Bernstein B, Singh PJ (2006) An integrated innovation process model based on practices of Australian
biotechnology firms. Technovation 26:561
-
572 An integrated approach to managing the innovation
process is attractive for o
rganizations for many reasons. However, there is a relative paucity of models that
describe this approach. In this paper, an attempt is made to produce one such model. Based on a multiple
case study design involving nine biotechnology companies and one pea
k industry body from Australia, a
conceptual model is proposed that has the linear stage process model as the backbone. The twin mechanisms
of market pull and technology push are incorporated within the model, with a set of key organizational
constructs (m
anagement, communication, structure and control) embedded within these mechanisms.
Overall, the results of this study improve our understanding of the innovation process by building a more
comprehensive and integrated conceptual model.


Bigliardi B, Dormio

AI, Nosella A, Petroni G (2006) Assessing science parks' performances: directions from
selected Italian case studies. Technovation 26:489
-
505 Performance measurement of science parks is
becoming paramount and calls for more rigorous approaches. The pr
esent work is aimed at providing a
sound and theory
-
grounded methodological framework to science parks performance measurement and
some practical suggestions useful for the design and the implementation of a Science Park's (SPs)
performance evaluation. By
the review of recent literature it emerges that such a system is draw up as from
the real mission and strategy of the SPs, that are influenced by the environment context, the stakeholder's
commitment, the life
-
cycle of the SP, besides their technical and s
cientific cultures. Based on the analysis of
four Italian case studies, the empirical findings partly lend support to previous research output and partly
add new elements of discussion to the debate. More specifically, major results are that the evaluation

criteria
should be aligned with science park (a) actual mission, (b) major stakeholders commitment, (c) economic
regional conditions, (d) legal forms, (e) nature of the scientific competence base available within research
centres and (f) SP's life
-
cycle s
tages.


Borjesson S, Dahlsten F, Williander M (2006) Innovative scanning experiences from an idea generation
project at Volvo Cars. Technovation 26:775
-
783 This paper discusses a project at Volvo Cars aimed at
idea generation and product expansion prop
osals. A major concern of many businesses is how to organize
and manage early phases of product development
-
the front end
-
to ensure innovativeness. Drawing on
models for new concept development, environmental scanning may be seen as a tool for executing id
ea
genesis, however, different in its components, as compared to environmental scanning for strategy purposes.
The case at Volvo Cars clearly showed the need for focusing on the back
-
end of the scanning process to
balance the need for uncertainty reduction

without prematurely closing the scope of innovativeness.


Bosworth DL (2006) Economic and management perspectives on intellectual property rights. R & D
Management 36:463
-
465


Boyle T, Kumar V, Kumar U (2006) Determinants of integrated product develo
pment diffusion. R & D
Management 36:37
-
54 Integrated product development (IPD) is an approach for developing new products
focused on the early and active involvement of design, manufacturing, marketing and other key new product
development (NPD) stake
holders in order to achieve cross
-
functional integration and concurrent execution
of various NPD activities. The benefits of IPD are well known in both the academic literature and popular
press, including significant reductions in NPD cycle time and costs.

However, in spite of these benefits, for
the majority of manufacturing organizations, IPD is not used on 100% of NPD projects. This research
develops a model of the organizational contextual factors influencing the diffusion of IPD in organizations.
Resul
ts of surveying 269 NPD managers indicate that the complexity of certain IPD practices and support
for IPD directly influence IPD diffusion, while an innovative organizational climate and the complexity of
the organization's NPD activities indirectly influ
ence IPD diffusion through IPD support.


Bredin K, Soderlund J (2006) HRM and project intensification in R&D
-
based companies: a study of Volvo
Car Corporation and AstraZeneca. R & D Management 36:467
-
485 Projects have become the standard
mode of organi
sing R&D activities. The main focus of this paper is to analyse the relationship between the
project operations of the R&D
-
based firm and its Human Resource Management (HRM). This paper draws
on a comparative case study of AstraZeneca and Volvo Car Corpora
tion. It is argued that the project
intensification currently under way has some important structural and content effects on the HRM practice
of the firms. As to the content effects, we identify five critical areas within the HRM practice where special
att
ention is needed due to project intensification. As to the structural effects, we identify two separate logics
for HR specialists: the HR
-
based logic and the task
-
based logic. These logics give new knowledge about the
design of the HR organisation and how
the HR departmental structures should be adapted in a project
-
intensive setting. The case studies also illustrate three alternative roles for line managers when they assume
increased HR responsibility.


Brockhoff K (2006) The behavioral foundations of stra
tegic management. R & D Management 36:107
-
107


Broring S, Cloutier LM, Leker J (2006) The front end of innovation in an era of industry convergence:
evidence from nutraceuticals and functional foods. R & D Management 36:487
-
498 Industry
convergence, defined as a 'blurring' of boundaries between industries, induced by converging value
propositions, technologies and markets, appears to be a pervasive phenomenon leading to the emergence of
inter
-
industry segments. A current example of conver
gence can be witnessed in the nutraceuticals and
functional foods sector, emerging at the boundary between the food and pharmaceutical industries. Not only
technologies blur, but there is also a convergence of demand structures: consumers try to satisfy di
fferent
needs in one transaction. In this context, this paper explores how actors from different industry
-
specific
resource backgrounds can engage in an innovative activity requiring new technological and marketing
competences. Given that absorptive capaci
ty is limited by existing competences, this paper asks how
organizations with different R&D competences are able to seize opportunities for innovation emerging from
convergence. Empirical findings based on primary data collected from 54 R&D projects of a n
utraceutical
cluster show that there are different approaches of front end decision making: while some firms follow
existing processes for front end decision making, others leave existing paths and need partners to fill in gaps
already identified at the fr
ont end of innovation.


Brown S, Fai F (2006) Strategic resonance between technological and organisational capabilities in the
innovation process within firms. Technovation 26:60
-
75 The literature on innovation has been both rich
and varied in approach

and has provided much insight into the process of, and difficulties contained within,
innovation. A number of important concepts including those of path dependency, technological trajectories,
together with the plethora of articles concerned with organiza
tional learning, involving the contribution and
limitations of tacit knowledge, have helped us to understand the nature of innovation. As important as these
strands of literature are, we suggest that a key weakness in much of the literature on innovation i
s that it
does not deal sufficiently with the contextual issues concerning the changing paradigms of manufacturing
and the profound impact that these developments have had upon the innovation process. We offer the
concept of strategic resonance as a missin
g ingredient within some firms who are now faced with conditions
of hyper competition where ongoing innovation is a key requirement. The concept of strategic resonance is
not offered as a prescriptive panacea but it is suggested that firms need to understa
nd and remove the
blockages to strategic resonance as part of their innovation development processes.


Bstieler L (2006) Trust formation in collaborative new product development. Journal of Product Innovation
Management 23:56
-
72 This research examines
antecedents of trust formation in new product development
partnerships and the effect of trust on performance. Trust is modeled as an outcome of communication
behavior, shared problem
-
solving, perceived fairness, the existence of conflicts during the devel
opment
project, and partner egoism. The hypotheses are tested with data on 44 product development partnerships
representing the perspective of the manufacturer. The findings suggest that communication behavior and
fairness are positive contributors to trus
t. In contrast, conflicts during product development and perceived
egoism of the partner appear to have a detrimental effect. High levels of trust were found to create the
conditions for successful outcomes. A higher level of trust clearly differentiates b
etween high
-

and low
-
performing collaborative relationships in new product development. Trust also was found to be a powerful
mediator, particularly as it relates to mitigating conflicts during such partnerships.


Buesa M, Heijs J, Pellitero MM, Baumert T
(2006) Regional systems of innovation and the knowledge
production function: the Spanish case. Technovation 26:463
-
472 This working document is based on a
broad multivariate data analysis of the regions conforming the Spanish R&D system, with the purpo
se of
establishing a typology of the regional innovation systems. The paper consists of four parts. It begins with a
brief introduction reviewing the main theoretical approaches. In the second part, we use a factorial analysis,
which allows us to different
iate between four main factors that have an impact on the regional innovation
capacity: The Regional Production and Innovation Environment, the University, the Public Administration
and Private Enterprise. In the third part, we determine a typology of the
Spanish R&D system using the
cluster analysis with the four factors detected before. The regions that stand out are Madrid (Public
Administration), Catalonia (Environment), Basque Country (Enterprises) and Navarra (University), the rest
of regions showing
the heterogeneity of the regional R+D system in Spain. Finally, we use patents as a
measure of the innovative capacity of the Spanish regions, calculating a regression with the four factors
explained before. We confirm the importance of the Regional Produc
tion and Innovation Environment more
than other factors on this kind of output.


Buganza T, Verganti R (2006) Life
-
cycle flexibility: How to measure and improve the innovative capability
in turbulent environments. Journal of Product Innovation Management 2
3:393
-
407 Managing innovation
in rapidly moving environments, such as Interned
-
based services, is a major challenge for the consolidated
theories on product and service development. The innovation management literature identifies flexibility as
the rig
ht way for coping with these challenges. By increasing the development process flexibility, it is
possible to reduce the development time as well as the time and cost needed for last
-
minute concept
changes. But this is not enough. The product or service mu
st also be flexible after it has been released: A
life
-
cycle flexibility (LCF) must be pursued. Focused on the Italian on
-
line discount brokers industry, this
article is a result of a two
-
staged research process that started with a qualitative explorative
phase (i.e., case
-
study methodology) and ended with a quantitative explorative one (i.e., questionnaire methodology). It
identifies three different LCF dimensions
-
frequency of adaptation, rapidity of adaptation, and quality of
adaptation
-
and it defines a m
etric for each of them. Subsequently, it identifies five managerial and
organizational practices that increase at least one of the three LCF dimensions: (1) to manage the back
-
end
technological competences; (2) to share the front
-
end technological competen
ces with external suppliers; (3)
to utilize open and standard technologies; (4) to have a low formalization of the new service development
(NSD) procedures; and (5) to have high formalization of the NSD organization.


Calantone RJ, Chan K, Cui AS (2006) De
composing product innovativeness and its effects on new product
success. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:408
-
421 Does product innovativeness affect new
product success? The current research proposes that the ambiguity in findings may be due

to an overly
holistic conceptualization of product innovativeness that has erroneously included the concepts of product
advantage and customer familiarity. This article illustrates how the same measures have often been used to
assess product advantage wit
h product innovativeness and product innovativeness with customer familiarity.
These paired overlaps in measurement use are clarified in this research, which decomposes dimensions of
product innovativeness along conceptual lines into distinct product innov
ativeness, product advantage, and
customer familiarity constructs. To further support this decomposition, structural equation modeling is used
to empirically test the distinctions. The measurement model supports the conceptual separation, and the path
mode
l reveals contingent effects of product innovativeness. Although product innovativeness enhances
product advantage, a high level of innovativeness reduces customer familiarity, indicating that product
innovativeness can be detrimental to new product succes
s if customers are not sufficiently familiar with the
nature of the new product and if innovativeness fails to improve product advantage. This exercise in metric
development also reveals that after controlling for product advantage and customer familiarity
, product
innovativeness has no direct effect on new product profitability. This finding has strong implications for
firms that mistakenly pursue innovation for its own sake. Consideration of both distribution and technical
synergy as driving antecedents d
emonstrates how firms can still enhance new product success even if an
inappropriate level of innovativeness is present. This leads to a simple but powerful two
-
step approach to
bringing highly innovative products to market. First, firms should only emphas
ize product innovativeness
when it relates to the market relevant concepts of product advantage and customer familiarity. Second,
existing technical and distribution abilities can be used to enhance product quality and customer
understanding. Distribution
channels in particular should be exploited to counter customer uncertainty
toward newly introduced products.


Cantisani A (2006) Technological innovation processes revisited. Technovation 26:1294
-
1301 This work
is part of an inquiry into the causes of
the small occurrence of innovations in the Brazilian society. It was
based on a retrospective analysis of cases experienced by the author, as well as on the study of certain
industries. The systemic model of the technological innovation process presented h
ere, while revisiting the
models in the literature, emphasizes the crucial role of the activity of the conception of new ideas and its
interaction with other phases of the process. Conception is critical and was, therefore, separated from other
activities
mainly because it is subject to the action of innovations inhibiting factors. A model for these
factors is also presented. The author expects that an enhanced understanding of the innovation process in its
complexity and of the action of inhibiting factors

will help R&D managers to achieve better success levels.


Carayannis EG, Popescu D, Sipp C, Stewart M (2006) Technological learning for entrepreneurial
development (TL4ED) in the knowledge economy (KE): Case studies and lessons learned. Technovation
26:41
9
-
443 Innovative technologies are reshaping the global economic landscape, by improving speed
and ease of communications and interaction among the various economic actors involved in the productive
cycle. In this paper, we discuss the role that technol
ogical learning and information and communication
technologies (ICT) play in fostering entrepreneurial development in the Knowledge Economy and support
our conceptual constructs with a series of case studies from developed, developing and transitioning
eco
nomies. We compare and contrast entrepreneurial initiatives, policies and practices and the experience of
ways and means to promote learning and entrepreneurship such as global/local (glocal), real
-
virtual
incubator networks (G
-
RVIN) and other real and vir
tual infra
-
structures and infra
-
technologies (such as
Innovation Networks and Knowledge Clusters or INKC) and derive lessons learned for policy makers,
practitioners and entrepreneurs.


Carayannis EG, Turner E (2006) Innovation diffusion and technology acc
eptance: The case of PKI
technology. Technovation 26:847
-
855 This paper proposed a model for security technology adoption and
implementation through the examination of factors affecting adoption and implementation of Public Key
Infrastructure (PKI) tec
hnology. In the early 1990s, PKI was widely believed to be the panacea for solving a
number of security issues that would open the door for business
-
to
-
business (13213) electronic commerce.
However, history has demonstrated a lack of broad
-
based adoption o
f PKI by organizations, although the
use of digital certificates has become fairly prevalent. Why has implementation of the PKI technology been
so narrow? What are the factors that mediate security technology adoption and implementation? Technology
use, di
ffusion and adoption literature provide a conceptual framework and theoretical motivation for
examining the case of PKI. Additional insight is provided by the examination of the experience of a few
organizations that have, to some degree, implemented PKI t
echnology, supplemented by a review of
published information on other organizational PKI experiences. The combination of theoretical and practical
considerations yield a security implementation model that we believe sheds light on the factors affecting
PKI

implementation and shows promise for examination of security technology adoption in general. We
believe that the model and the research that supports it has important implications for both academics and
practitioners in gaining a better understanding of t
he process for adoption of security technologies by public
and private organizations.


Carbonara N, Scozzi B (2006) Cognitive maps to analyze new product development processes: A case
study. Technovation 26:1233
-
1243 A few methods have been proposed in

the literature to identify and
address problems that arise during New Product Development (NPD). In this paper, cognitive maps are used
to investigate such problems. In particular, the development of four new sofa models as performed in a
company working
in Southern Italy is studied. Based on direct observations and interviews with actors
involved in the process, maps depicting the entire development process and the four examined cases are
developed and analyzed. The analysis results show that some interpr
etative and cognitive issues are mainly
responsible for the problems caused in NPD. Moreover, cognitive maps reveal a powerful tool to analyze
and study the NPD process.


Castellion G (2006) Fast second: How smart companies bypass radical innovation to ent
er and dominate
new markets. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:382
-
384


Castellion G (2006) Democratizing innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:193
-
195


Chang SC, Chen RH, Lin RJ, Tien SW, Sheu C (2006) Supplier involv
ement and manufacturing flexibility.
Technovation 26:1136
-
1146 Supplier involvement is touted as enhancing a firm's competitive edge, but
its linkage with specific dimensions of manufacturing flexibility (e.g., volume flexibility) has not been
establis
hed. This study investigates the relationship between supplier involvement, manufacturing
flexibility, and business performance in the motherboard. industry. Using data collected from 105
manufacturing firms, we first verified the effect of manufacturing f
lexibility on business performance. A
field study was then conducted to benchmark various supplier involvement practices in the motherboard
industry and to decipher the impact of supplier involvement on different dimensions of manufacturing
flexibility. Ou
r findings indicate that supplier involvement plays a major role in the development and
performance of a firm's manufacturing flexibility. More importantly, we found specific associations between
various supplier involvement activities and different dimens
ions of manufacturing flexibility. Not all
supplier activities contribute equally to the development of different types of manufacturing flexibility, and
manufacturing flexibility should be integrated with supply chain management. Finally, research proposi
tions
are presented and several managerial implications are discussed.


Chen CJ, Chung MC, Wei CH (2006) Government policy of technology selection for advanced traveler
information systems. R & D Management 36:439
-
450 Technology selection is widely rec
ognized for its
increasing importance in the field of technology management. Different from previous work that only used a
single evaluation method, this study uses the grey statistics method with survey techniques and scenario
approach to develop a three
-
stage model for the technology selection issue. An empirical case of the
Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) technology selection in Taiwan was chosen to illustrate the
application of this model on the technology selection problem. The results indi
cate that GPS/GIS technology
is the preferred ATIS technology developed in Taiwan. The application of the model provides an avenue for
government policy makers and researchers to deal effectively with the technology selection issue.


Chen HH, Lee AHI, Tong

YH (2006) Analysis of new product mix selection at TFT
-
LCD technological
conglomerate network under uncertainty. Technovation 26:1210
-
1221 Since new product development
(NPD) is characterized by a tremendous degree of complexity and uncertainty, no si
ngle development
approach within a firm will necessarily lead to a final successful product. To increase the possibilities of
having products developed successfully, NPD mix is usually selected in practice, and this leads to an even
more complicated and un
certain problem of choosing an appropriate set of new products. In addition,
surviving independently in a high technology industry is very difficult, and a firm needs to take serious
consideration of technological conglomerate network (TCN) in NPD selectio
n. There are currently few
mathematical or effective models practically proved to be able to handle these critical and complicated
issues, and this is the challenge of the research. Critical success factors (CSFs) of NPD in TCN is first
discussed, and 10 C
SFs within three groups are selected. While analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a popular
multi
-
criteria decision
-
making (MCDM) method, is capable of dealing with the aforementioned managerial
problems by generalizing subjective judgment of experts, human ju
dgment is usually imprecise and vague.
To compensate this deficiency in AHP, a fuzzy AHP model is proposed, and a firm is able to select the most
appropriate product mix for development by applying the model.


Chen XD, Reger G (2006) The role of technology

in the investment of German firms in China.
Technovation 26:407
-
415 China, as being the largest foreign direct investment (FDI) host country in the
world and the leading developing country in terms of volume of FDI inflows, has been increasingly
attra
cting international attention from companies and policy makers. As more and more German
manufacturing companies move into China, the investment is becoming larger in size and of higher quality.
In the meantime, issues of the motives and nature of German FD
I in China and related technological
activities are developed to a more important topic for both Chinese and overseas researchers. This paper
aims at the analysis and explanation of FDI movement driven by German companies in China and the role of
technolog
y hereby. Our research includes a literature review, a database analysis and a mail survey on
German firms investing in China. Different indicators suggest that the motives for German FDI are long
-
term based and are deeply market
-
oriented, which can be cha
racterised through seeking new markets and
enlarging market shares. Technology transfer is therefore mainly dedicated to production and managerial
facilities.


Cheng JMS, Sheen GJ, Lou GC (2006) Consumer acceptance of the internet as a channel of
distribution in
Taiwan
-

a channel function perspective. Technovation 26:856
-
864 A study of consumer acceptance of
the Internet as a channel of distribution in Taiwan was conducted using a channel function perspective. The
Technology Acceptance Model (
TAM) was adopted as the theoretical basis on which to develop the
research framework. The relevant research hypotheses were examined in three online channel function
environments (i.e., information collection, financial payments, and product variety/assort
ment). Most of the
hypotheses were supported by the empirical findings. The implications of these findings are highlighted, and
suggestions for future research are noted as well.


Chesbrough H, Crowther AK (2006) Beyond high tech: early adopters of open in
novation in other
industries. R & D Management 36:229
-
236 Companies have historically invested in large research and
development departments to drive innovation and provide sustainable growth. This model, however, is
eroding due to a number of factors.

What is emerging is a more open model, where companies recognize
that not all good ideas will come from inside the organization and not all good ideas created within the
organization can be successfully marketed internally. To date, Open Innovation concep
ts have been regarded
as relevant primarily to 'high
-
technology' industries, with examples that include Lucent, 3Com, IBM, Intel
and Millenium Pharmaceuticals. In this article, we identify organizations in industries outside 'high
technology' that are earl
y adopters of the concept. Our findings demonstrate that many Open Innovation
concepts are already in use in a wide range of industries. We document practices that appear to assist
organizations adopting these concepts, and discover that Open Innovation is

not ipso facto a recipe for
outsourcing R&D. We conclude that Open Innovation has utility as a paradigm for industrial innovation
beyond high tech to more traditional and mature industries.


Chiaroni D, Chiesa V (2006) Forms of creation of industrial clus
ters in biotechnology. Technovation
26:1064
-
1076 Since its origin, biotechnology has developed in few centres of excellence identifiable as
biotech clusters. Even if these usually present common features in terms of organisations involved and
critical
resources available, the process of creation significantly varies from case to case. Most literature
contributions, however, concentrated on the description of clusters that remain a "black box", where less
attention has been paid to their dynamics. This p
aper investigates different forms of cluster creation in
biotech, primarily based on five in
-
depth case studies of biotech clusters in Europe (Cambridge, Heildelberg,
Aarhus, Marseilles, Milano) at different stages of development. Moreover, the paper brief
ly analyses other 7
interesting cases of biotech clusters, both in Europe and US. The paper proposes a taxonomy identifying two
major forms of cluster creation: (i) spontaneous clusters, that are the result of the spontaneous co
-
presence
of key factors; (i
i) policy driven clusters, that are triggered by the strong commitment of governmental
actors whose willingness was to set the conditions for the cluster creation, either as a response to an
industrial crisis or as a deliberate decision to foster the biote
ch sector. In a few cases, both forms of cluster
creation coexist, thus determining a hybrid process.


Chipika S, Wilson G (2006) Enabling technological learning among light engineering SMEs in Zimbabwe
through networking. Technovation 26:969
-
979 The c
ontribution of networks to small and medium
enterprise (SME) development is analysed to a very limited extent in a Sub
-
Saharan African context, despite
the general claim that SMEs are important for both national economic development and poverty alleviation
.
The implication is that networks play a relatively minor role in this context, unlike their perceived
significance for SMEs in more developed countries. An analysis of networks and technological learning
among four light engineering SMEs in Zimbabwe, how
ever, reveals a clear positive association between the
two, while also showing that networks are not necessarily a magic bullet. Capacity, including motivation to
learn, and entrepreneurship qualities are important determinants of a firm's ability to make
use of networks.
Also, some networks might actually be disabling in terms of technological learning, while others will be
more or less important during the development trajectory of a firm. The study has important implications for
the role of enterprise su
pport organisations that seek to promote the development of SMEs in Zimbabwe,
and elsewhere in Sub
-
Saharan Africa.


Chiu YC, Chen B, Shyu JZ, Tzeng GH (2006) An evaluation model of new product launch strategy.
Technovation 26:1244
-
1252 The objective of

this article is to develop an empirically based framework for
formulating and selecting a product launch strategy. Managers usually face Fuzzy decision scenarios.
Traditional decision
-
making methods fail to satisfy a manager's need in this regard. Thus, a

hierarchical
fuzzy multi
-
criteria decision
-
making (Fuzzy MCDM) method for evaluating a new product launch strategy
is proposed in this study. In order to show the practicality and usefulness of this model, an empirical study
of the Taiwan IC industry is d
emonstrated. The results show that the fast follower strategy is the most
applicable.


Chorev S, Anderson AR (2006) Success in Israeli high
-
tech start
-
ups; Critical factors and process.
Technovation 26:162
-
174 This paper develops a model of the factors

deemed critical for success in high
-
tech new ventures in Israel. Israel presents an interesting forum, geographically distant from main markets
but richly endowed with human capital, new high
-
tech ventures are seen as an essential element of the
economy.
Yet, despite its importance, high
-
tech is characterised by risk and challenge. Consequently, a
model which draws on the experience of success and failure should be valuable. Our multi stage
methodology enrolled the wisdom and experience of founders, manage
rs and financiers of high
-
tech
businesses to identify and categorise the importance of the factors and the role played by these factors. We
found that success factors could be grouped as critical or as important. The first group categorised the idea,
strat
egy, the core team's commitment, expertise and marketing as critical. Important factors were deemed to
be management, customer relationships and research and development. The least important factors proved to
be those external to the firm, the economy, pol
itics and the general business environment. Overall the study
emphasises that the attitudes and abilities of the core team are paramount. Although the model is based on
the Israeli experience, many of the aspects are global. Consequently, the study may hav
e broad applicability.


Christensen CM (2006) The ongoing process of building a theory of disruption. Journal of Product
Innovation Management 23:39
-
55


Coombs JE, Bierly PE (2006) Measuring technological capability and performance. R & D Management
3
6:421
-
438 The relation between technological capability and firm performance is more complex than
what is generally assumed. Researchers have not been able to consistently find empirical support for this
apparently 'simple' relation. The objective of t
his study is to illustrate the theoretical and empirical
complexity of this relation and explain why the use of different measures can lead to dramatically different
results. In this study, we analyse the technological capability
-
performance relation in 20
1 large US public
manufacturing companies. A variety of patent statistics and a measure of research & development (R&D)
intensity are used as indicators for technological capability. The following six measures of performance are
used as dependent variables
: return on assets, return on equity, return on sales, market value, market value
added, and economic value added. The results vary substantially, depending on which measures are used for
the independent and dependent variables. A detailed understanding of

precisely what each measure
represents and the shortcomings of each measure is needed to explain why these differences exist. We
conclude by discussing the effectiveness of a variety of technological capability measures using patent
citations, and illustr
ate why a measure of R&D spending and the total number of patents are usually not
valid measures of a firm's technological capability.


Cornelius B, Persson O (2006) Who's who in venture capital research. Technovation 26:142
-
150 A
bibliometric analysis

of research papers in venture capital reveals an increasing interest over time by
researchers across a broad spectrum of business disciplines. It also reveals the dominance of North
American, particularly American researchers who entered the field early.
Interestingly, the analysis
demonstrates that two schools of entrepreneurial research compete for dominance in the venture capital
framework. Much of the core research, the knowledge base, crosses disciplinary lines but is developed, from
there
-
on, in a di
scipline specific fashion. Researchers whose primary interest is in finance and economics
use quantitative, neo
-
classical models almost exclusively and publish, with the exception of the most cited
authors, solely in economics and finance journals. These r
esearchers tend to be more successful at achieving
internal university funding for their projects while the second group, publishing in journals dedicated to
management and entrepreneurship research, uses a broader array of theoretical techniques, apply bo
th
quantitative and qualitative methodologies and are more often funded externally. The core group of
researchers, with reputations supported by large numbers of citations, appear to be able to raise funds both
internally (through university bodies) and ex
ternally.


Corso M, Martini A, Pellegrini L, Massa S, Testa S (2006) Managing dispersed workers: the new challenge
in Knowledge Management. Technovation 26:583
-
594 Knowledge Management (KM) has become a
central theme in today's business environment and

a commonly cited source of competitive advantage. In
today's global economy, many economic activities in and among firms are based on the contribution of
workers that are geographically dispersed and have loose contractual links with the company. Building

on
evidence from three case studies, this paper explores the relations between dispersed worker activities, KM
tools and worker satisfaction.


Cozzarin BP (2006) Are world
-
first innovations conditional on economic performance? Technovation
26:1017
-
1028

The objective of the research is to determine whether past economic performance has an
impact on a firm's ability to innovate. Specifically, the concern is with producing a world
-
first innovation, a
Canada
-
first innovation and a first
-
to
-
the firm innovat
ion taking prior performance into consideration.
Ordered logistic regression coefficients for market share, labour productivity and profit are statistically
significant for seven out of 12 industries. However, when compared to other firm level characterist
ics such
as strategies, competitive environment, information sources, R&D and use of patents the importance of
economic performance fades quite drastically. Across all industries this study found that internal information
was a very important factor for in
novation. In three of the 12 industries (clothing and textiles, metal, and
electric and computer) internal, external and general information were utilized by managers extensively.
Managers in the wood and paper, furniture, vehicles, and miscellaneous indus
tries utilize internal and
general information. While the plastics and machinery industries rely on internal and external information
sources. The remaining industries food, non
-
metal, and petrochemicals, rely on internal sources of
information exclusively
.


Csaszar F, Nussbaum M, Sepulveda M (2006) Strategic and cognitive criteria for the selection of startups.
Technovation 26:151
-
161 A decision aid is proposed that would enable venture capitalists to improve the
accuracy of their decision
-
making proce
sses. The methodology complements strategic criteria with cognitive
ones. When questions on technical know
-
how and business expertise do not give enough clues, they are
supplemented with a different viewpoint given by a cognitive model. The methodology is
demonstrated
using an e
-
Business case.


Danneels E (2006) Dialogue on the effects of disruptive technology on firms and industries. Journal of
Product Innovation Management 23:2
-
4


De Meyer A (2006) Innovating strategy process. R &

D Management 36:111
-
112


Demaid A, Quintas P (2006) Knowledge across cultures in the construction industry: sustainability,
innovation and design. Technovation 26:603
-
610 In the construction industry both the design and
management processes diffe
r significantly from the stylised models usually promoted in the academic and
business press. To the complexity that is normal business in construction industry projects add the
uncertainty associated with the changing legal and ethical imperatives of sust
ainable development and the
result is a mess. Innovative products, together with the companies that make them, are being built on the
back of a rigged market in recycled raw materials and policy changes are spawning unintended
consequences. Making sense of

those processes that use knowledge about sustainability, at the level of the
firm, is particularly daunting because companies behave differently in different international contexts. The
problem is further complicated by the collaborative nature of project
s; specialization and the need to
communicate with and between experts increases both costs and uncertainties. We discuss a fundamental
tension between understanding knowledge creation and use, and the drive to capture processes in formal
documents and sys
tems. We propose similarities between developments in the field of sustainability and
developments in the field of risk, with risk having the advantage of being further down the evolutionary line.
Both fields have strong dimensions of formal rules and soci
o
-
economic behaviours. Such complexity, we
argue, requires a number of perspectives to make sense of how knowledge is used in construction and allied
industries.


Dettwiler P, Lindelof P, Lofsten H (2006) Utility of location: A comparative survey between s
mall new
technology
-
based firms located on and off Science Parks
-

Implications for facilities management.
Technovation 26:506
-
517 This paper aims to highlight the role of facilities management (FM) for new
technology
-
based firms (NTBFs) that are locat
ed on respectively off Science Parks. It incorporates FM as a
contributory background element in the enhancement of the entrepreneurial environment, which is one
explanatory factor of the superior performance and growth of NTBFs located inside Science Park
s.
Differences in location preferences between on and off park NTBFs are brought into evidence in this paper
by means of an extensive quantitative survey. This resulted in the finding that the proximity to university is
especially significant among NTBFs i
nside parks. Furthermore, infrastructure has high significance in both
groups whereas significance of facilities cost differs in range of significance. In a model it is argued that FM
indirectly contributes to beneficial scenarios for interaction, interfir
m relations and networks that can be
found particularly in Science Parks. A discussion and a set of hypotheses in the conclusive part link FM and
location, issues to the performance for NTBFs.


Di Benedetto CA (2006) From the Editor. Journal of Product Inn
ovation Management 23:473
-
474


Di Benedetto CA (2006) From the editor. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:391
-
392


Di Benedetto CA (2006) Untitled. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:299
-
300


Di Benedetto CA (2006) From the

editor. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:201
-
202


Di Benedetto CA (2006) From the editor. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:105
-
105


Di Benedetto CA (2006) Welcome to a new volume of JPIM! Journal of Product Innovation Manag
ement
23:1
-
1


Diaz
-
Diaz NL, Aguiar
-
Diaz I, De Saa
-
Perez P (2006) Technological knowledge assets in industrial firms. R
& D Management 36:189
-
203 This research focuses on identifying and measuring the technological
knowledge assets that constitute
the basis of the knowledge management process and on the study of
contextual factors that determine their use. To that end, a longitudinal study of 1,444 Spanish industrial
firms between 1998 and 2000 was conducted using information gathered by the Survey
of Business
Strategies. The results enable us to identify technological knowledge assets with different levels of
codification and to have a general view of how age, size and sector affect the use of those assets by Spanish
industrial firms.


Dodgson M, Ga
nn D, Salter A (2006) The role of technology in the shift towards open innovation: the case
of Procter & Gamble. R & D Management 36:333
-
346 As with all new ideas, the concept of Open
Innovation requires extensive empirical investigation, testing and d
evelopment. This paper analyzes Procter
and Gamble's 'Connect and Develop' strategy as a case study of the major organizational and technological
changes associated with open innovation. It argues that although some of the organizational changes
accompanyi
ng open innovation are beginning to be described in the literature, more analysis is warranted
into the ways technological changes have facilitated open innovation strategies, particularly related to new
product development. Information and communications
technologies enable the exchange of distributed
sources of information in the open innovation process. The case study shows that furthermore a suite of new
technologies for data mining, simulation, prototyping and visual representation, what we call 'innov
ation
technology', help to support open innovation in Procter and Gamble. The paper concludes with a suggested
research agenda for furthering understanding of the role played by and consequences of this technology.


Dowling M, Helm R (2006) Product develop
ment success through cooperation: A study of entrepreneurial
firms. Technovation 26:483
-
488 In this paper we examine the moderating affect of age on the relationship
between cooperation and new product success for entrepreneurial firms in the high tech
nology region in and
round Jena in the former East Germany. Cooperative strategy has already been shown in a variety of
research settings to be an important strategic alternative for entrepreneurial firms to support growth
strategies. We develop hypotheses

that such cooperative relationships will also lead to higher new product
development success; however, the type of successful cooperation will vary with the age of the start
-
up firm.
Younger firms are shown to be more successful when they cooperate with o
ther firms, while older firms will
profit more from cooperation with research institutions. This study adds to a growing literature on the
importance of cooperative strategy for entrepreneurial firms.


Easingwood C, Moxey S, Capleton H (2006) Bringing high

technology to market: Successful strategies
employed in the worldwide software industry. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:498
-
511
The launch stage can be critical for many new products, but particularly so for technology
-
intensive ones.
Thi
s study examines this key stage in a high
-
tech sector: the worldwide computer software industry. Using a
research instrument developed across a number of high
-
tech sectors, but adapted to the targeted sector, it
describes a worldwide telephone
-
based survey

of 300 organizations, resulting in 190 interviews, a response
rate of 63%. It shows that five distinct and interpretable strategies are employed: (1) alliance strategy
involves forming early strategic alliances as well as tactical alliances at the executi
on stage together with the
development of unique distribution channels; (2) targeted low risk attempts to reduce the risk of adoption
among identified segments by producing versions of the product specifically customized to the segments; (3)
low
-
price orig
inal equipment manufacturer (OEM) is the only price
-
driven strategy and combines low price
with channel building to OEMs who are looking for attractive price
-
to
-
performance ratios; (4) broadly based
market preparation is an early
-
stage strategy that concen
trates on educating the market vis
-
a
-
vis the
technology and developing channels; and (5) niche
-
based technological superiority uses a technologically
superior product to dominate a niche and corresponds closely to the chasm
-
crossing strategy expounded by
M
oore and others. Regarding superior product performance, successful software companies first of all
engage in a broadly based preparation of the market but switch to a targeted strategy at the following stages
of positioning and execution, built around sup
erior technological performance and reduced risk. A
somewhat different mix of strategies is adopted when the objective is superior market development, namely
opening up new markets, reaching new customers, and developing new product platforms. Again the mi
x
includes broadly based market preparation, this time along with alliances. This strategy is very much about
working with partners. The broadly based market preparation strategy is key for both objectives, is long term
in nature, and avoids narrowly defin
ed niches. It seems that starting broad based and narrowing down,
perhaps to a niche, only at a later stage when this is clearly the appropriate thing to do, pays dividends.


Emden Z, Calantone RJ, Droge C (2006) Collaborating for new product development:
Selecting the partner
with maximum potential to create value. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23:330
-
341 The
partner selection process in the formation stages of collaborative new product development (NPD) is a
neglected topic. The present stu
dy investigated the partner selection processes to ascertain the potential of
creating competitively advantageous products through collaboration. The goal was to develop a process
theory of partner selection for collaborative NPD alliances using a theory d
evelopment approach. The
literatures on NPD, interfirm knowledge transfer and generation, and interorganizational relationships were
tapped. These literatures motivated the approach and the research questions. Parallel with the analysis of the
literature,
a series of case study interviews were conducted with managers currently in collaborative dyads.
Managers' inputs were used (1) to guide the theory development process and (2) to validate the relevance of
the literature
-
based assertions. The method of narr
ative analysis for building theory from case studies was
adopted: Multiple indicators were collapsed into single constructs, and recurring sequences or divergences
were analyzed. This resulted in the unveiling of phases in the partner selection process. Th
e study's findings
suggest that technological alignment of the partners triggered the partner
-
evaluation process. This phase was
followed, in order, by the strategic alignment and relational alignment phases. These later phases were as
important as the ini
tial phase in ensuring the transfer and integration of critical know
-
how and in creating
product value through collaboration. In addition to clarifying the definition of codevelopment alliances, this
study reveals a comprehensive theoretical model of the t
echnological, strategic, and relational aspects of
partner selection in codevelopment alliances, as well as the order in which these aspects are practiced.


Eng TY (2006) Mobile supply chain management: Challenges for implementation. Technovation 26:682
-
68
6 Mobile supply chain management (mSCM) is fast gaining recognition as a major source of cost
reduction and supply chain performance. However, there is little published academic literature on the
application and implementation of mobile and/or wireless

technology in SCM. This article attempts to
explore the challenges of mobile technology for successful implementation of mSCM. The implications of
mobile or wireless technology for successful implementation of mSCM are examined with reference to three
cri
tical areas of SCM: (1) competitive advantage based on the notion of value chain analysis in SCM; (2)
relationship management for successful collaboration along the supply chain and strategic partnerships; and
(3) coordination and integration of disparate
functions and activities to enhance overall supply chain
performance. The article identifies the implications of mobile technology for SCM and develops
propositions that have important consequences on the likelihood of a successful implementation of mSCM.


Eng TY, Wong V (2006) Governance mechanisms and relationship productivity in vertical coordination for
new product development. Technovation 26:761
-
769 This article explores the theoretical explanations of
governance mechanisms in vertical coordinatio
n between firms over the product life cycle stages with
reference to the high
-
technology industry. Firms in the high
-
tech industry face uncertainties of fast
-
changing
environments such as rapid technological innovations and shortening product life cycles.
Drawing on
transaction cost analysis in vertical coordination, conditions under which transactional inefficiencies may
arise are analyzed on different stages of product life cycle theory. Theoretical analysis suggests that
interaction patterns over a produ
ct life cycle produce differing implications for achieving cost minimization
and value maximization. The implications of this variation in transaction cost inefficiencies suggest that
there are different opportunities for enhancing efficiencies or for crea
ting value at different stages of the
product life cycle. The article proposes that by considering the impact of exogenous factors on the stage of a
product life cycle and relationship productivity, high
-
tech firms operating in volatile markets can safegua
rd
their exposure to transactional inefficiencies.


Falkingham LT (2006) Insight in innovation: Managing innovation by understanding the laws of innovation.
R & D Management 36:107
-
108


Fan PL (2006) Catching up through developing innovation capabilit
y: evidence from China's telecom
-
equipment industry. Technovation 26:359
-
368 The significance of the innovation capability of domestic
firms in late
-
industrialized countries is highly debated in the literature. This research studies the history of
Chin
a's telecom
-
equipment industry from the middle of 1980s to 2002, with a focus on the innovation
capability development of four domestic firms: Huawei, ZTE, DTT, and GDT. The research finds that
innovation capability and self
-
developed technologies have bee
n the key to leading domestic firms' catching
up with the multinational corporations. This finding is substantiated by both regression analysis between
'leadership of the telecom
-
equipment industry' and 'innovation capability' and development experience at

the
company level. This research emphasizes that domestic firms should prioritize building innovation
capability from the very beginning to build up their competitiveness and to survive the competition with the
multinational companies as well as other dom
estic companies. It also suggests that domestic firms should
focus on in
-
house R&D development to build their innovation capability, supplemented with external
alliances.


Feldman LP (2006) Product leadership: Pathways to profitable innovation. Journal of
Product Innovation
Management 23:99
-
100


Fennelly D, Cormican K (2006) Value chain migration from production to product centred operations: an
analysis of the Irish medical device industry. Technovation 26:86
-
94 The medical device industry in
Irel
and is largely confined to manufacturing operations. This narrow focus limits the competitiveness of the
industry in Ireland and consequently poses a threat to development and growth. Economic opinion indicates
that more emphasis must be placed on higher v
alue
-
added activities such as research and development
(R&D) and new product development. This paper explores the concept of value chain migration in the Irish
medical device industry. Specifically, it examines the shift from production to product
-
centred
operations in
the medical device industry. A significant proportion of organisations that occupy this industry are
multinational subsidiaries. Typically, subsidiaries depend on their parent company to develop new products
using R&D resources close to headq
uarters. Few subsidiaries have control of their product development
activities and spending on research and development is inadequate. Subsidiaries cannot depend on the
benevolent actions of the parent company to secure future viability. This study examine
s the competitive
environment of multinational subsidiaries based in Ireland. The nature and extent of R&D activity in the
industry is explored and potential threats and shortcomings are noted. The argument for and against moving
towards product centred op
erations is examined and presented. The findings of this study reveal that the
proactive subsidiary is far more responsive to its business environment than an organisation with centralised
control. For example, certain initiatives can help to maintain mark
et entry barriers, can help to control the
power of suppliers and customers and can help to guard against substitutes. Moreover, subsidiaries must
proactively manage the supply of new product developments by securing an adequate share of the output of
pare
nt company R&D. To do this, they must demonstrate solid performance, build local capabilities in new
product development and actively manage relationships.


Fernandes KJ, Raja V, Whalleyc A (2006) Lessons from implementing the balanced scorecard in a small

and medium size manufacturing organization. Technovation 26:623
-
634 The UK manufacturing sector is
facing massive challenges to survive in today's global and volatile marketplace. In an attempt to overcome
these challenges, companies are adopting newe
r management systems to clarify their vision and strategy and
translate them into action. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is one such approach which is gaining significant
interest, especially within the small and medium size enterprises (SME). In this paper,

a case study with a
SME demonstrates how BSC can be implemented successfully using a systematic and structured
methodology. This paper lists the experimental results of the proposed deployment method and highlights
the experiences, successes and lessons l
eant during the implementation process. In conclusion, this research
exercise confirms the validity and usefulness of the proposed methodology and offers managerial insights
and guidelines for similar implementations.


Fernandes KJ, Raja V, White A, Tsinop
oulos CD (2006) Adoption of virtual reality within construction
processes: a factor analysis approach. Technovation 26:111
-
120 Globalization has allowed construction
companies to become part of the global economy. However, this economic survival is dep
endent on their
ability to attain the levels of technology development, which can make them globally competitive. The UK
Construction sector is a highly knowledge intensive sector where tackling critical technology adoption
issues are central to their surv
ival. One such issue is of understanding factors that affect the adoption of
Virtual Reality within top UK construction firms in the public sector. Previous literature suggests that
various factors play a role in the adoption of VR systems; however. there
is little empirical research about
the factors affecting the adoption of this technology in the construction sector. This research paper
investigates forms of barriers that affect adoption of VR technology in top UK construction firms in the
public sector.

A three phase Factor Analysis Approach that incorporates discriminant and empirical analysis
reveals that factors such as Champion within a Company, Top Management Support, Internal Needs, Degree
of Business Competition, Coordination of Organizational Res
ources and Participation of Users would affect
the adoption of visualization technology.


Ferneley E, Bell F (2006) Using bricolage to integrate business and information technology innovation in
SMEs. Technovation 26:232
-
241 Small and Medium Sized Ente
rprises (SMEs) can experience difficulties
in adopting Information Systems (IS) and aligning them with their strategic development. Using the concept
of bricolage, an improvisational approach that allows learning from concrete experience, we explore IS
ado
ption and organisational change in two SME case studies. The case studies cover IS rationalisations and
innovations and small
-
and large
-
scale change over a 4
-
year period, and highlight the roles of different
actors, internal and external to the SMEs. We fi
nd that bricolage is a useful concept as it deals with the need
for SMEs to learn about the possibilities of IS in situ, simultaneously exploiting the can
-
do approach that is
usually found in SMEs. However, bricolage needs organisation space and the possib
ility for trust to grow
between end users, developers and management as visions are explored and revised. The paper concludes
with a set of guiding principles that can be adopted by SMEs to enable IS bricolage to contribute to an