LINCOLNSHIRE FIRE & RESCUE

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

LINCOLNSHIRE FIRE & RESCUE

BUILDINGS AND
STRUCTURES 1

Building Types
and Components

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

AIM

To provide students with a
basic understanding of
building design and the
principal components.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

At the end of the session students will be
able to:


State the commonly used construction
materials and types.


Identify types of doors and windows
commonly used.


List the principal components of a
staircase.


List the types of roof commonly found.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

COMMON BUILDING
MATERIALS


Brick


Block


Stone


Concrete


Timber


Metal

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

BUILDING BOARDS


Fibre


Plaster


Asbestos


Plywood


Block


Plastic

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

TYPES OF BUILDINGS


Solid or ‘traditional’ construction


Structural steel frame construction


Reinforced concrete construction


Modular system construction


Portal frame construction


Composite construction.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

SOLID CONSTRUCTION


Solid load bearing walls


Set back at upper floors


Commonly made of brick, concrete
blocks or stone


Cast iron columns


Cast iron or timber beams


Warehouses, mills, factories and
offices.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

BUILDINGS AND
STRUCTURES

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

STRUCTURAL STEEL


High number of design options


Skeletal framework often complex


Loads carried by beams


Structure is covered by cladding


Large use of glass, polycarbonate and
plastic


Large shopping centres, sports centres
and multi
-
storey offices.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

STRUCTURAL STEEL

Stanchions

Main beams

Roof spans between main beams

Tie Beam

Floor spans between main
beams

Secondary beam

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

REINFORCED CONCRETE


Alternative to steel frame


Columns support beams on which are laid
slab flooring sections


Columns, beams and slabs integrally cast
to form a monolithic structure


Two common methods of construction.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

REINFORCED CONCRETE(1)


Pre cast reinforced concrete frame


Factory produced frame components


Transported for assembly on site


Similar techniques to steel frame.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

REINFORCED CONCRETE(2)


Composite construction


Utilises the advantages of modern
lightweight structural steelwork


‘Marriage’ between steelwork & pre cast
concrete columns.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

Gable
columns

Concrete
Spine beam

Steel
Spine
beam.

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

MODULAR STRUCTURES


Pre fabricated components



High design flexibility



Specially designed connectors



Encased in concrete to provide a degree
of fire and corrosion protection.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

MODULAR BUILDING

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

TYPICAL MODULAR CONNECTOR

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

Concrete ribs

R.C. edge beam

Concrete topping

Hollow clay
floor blocks

Filler tiles

Rib reinforcement

Reinforcement

Voids

Ceiling
finish

HOLLOW BLOCK AND PLANK
FLOORING

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

Typical hollow floor unit details

Internal support

Void

Floor finish

Cement/sand screed

Grouted joints

Floor finish

Cement/sand
screed

Typical channel section floor unit details

HOLLOW BLOCK AND PLANK

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

PRE CAST CONCRETE SLAB

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

DOORS, WINDOWS AND
ROOFLIGHTS




TYPES OF DOOR



Hinged



Swing



Revolving



Sliding



Folding



Cantilever



Roller shutter

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

HINGED DOORS


Most commonly found type



All close against a rebate on the door
jamb



Four commonly found types


Flush


Panelled


Ledged


Metal

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

SWING DOORS


Pin hinges allow door to swing in any
direction



Door jamb not fitted with a rebate



Often partially glazed using wired glass or
copper glazing bars



Found in restaurants, department stores and
hotels.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

REVOLVING DOORS


Present an obstruction to firefighting
operations unless dealt with



Usually 4 or 2 ‘wings’



Designed to be collapsed down



Essential they are used in conjunction with
a hinged door.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

SLIDING DOORS



Solid

or

lattice

construction



Widely

used

in

commercial

buildings



Can

slide

on

one

or

both

sides

of

an

opening

or

into

a

central

recess



Lattice

type

usually

for

security

or

to

protect

an

area

such

as

a

lift

or

lift

shaft
.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

FOLDING DOORS



Usually lightweight construction



Similar in design to hinged doors



Two or more leaves hinged together



Whole door opens to one side only



Often used to separate two rooms.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

CANTILEVER DOORS



Door is counter balanced and pivoted so it
rises upwards



Lies horizontal when open



Generally fits flush to the opening when
closed



Usually found on garages.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

ROLLER SHUTTERS


Nearly always made of steel



Small examples can be raised by hand



Large examples usually operated by
means of gearing and handle or chain and
block



Usually found on commercial premises.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

FIRE DOORS

A standard fire door will:



Serve to contain the outbreak of fire


Restrict the spread of fire gases into
otherwise unaffected parts of the building


A closed door restricts oxygen movement,
thus helping to starve the fire

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

WINDOWS


Allow

natural

light

into

a

building



Serve

to

provide

ventilation

to

rooms



Generally two types, referred to according
to the method of opening


Casement


Sash

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

CASEMENT WINDOWS



The simplest form consists of a
rectangular frame with the casement
hung on it



When more than one casement can be
opened it is referred to as a 2,3 or 4 light
casement.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

DEADLIGHT


FRAME

VENTLIGHT

TRANSOM.

CASEMENT

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

SASH WINDOWS


Pivoted sash
-

opening part supported by
pivots at each side of opening part of
window or top and bottom



The term ‘SASH’ refers to the opening
portion and includes the glass and the
surround



Partially inside and outside of opening
when open.

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

SASH WINDOWS


Sliding sash windows



Slide vertically



Double hung is the common form of this
type of sash, both sashes slide vertically in
the frame



Another type consists of two sashes, one
or both of which can be opened horizontally

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

STAIRS AND
ROOFS

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

STAIRS


Common materials


Wood


Stone


Pre cast concrete


Steel


Composite

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

STAIRS

TREAD

RISER

BEARER

NOSING

STRING

CAPPING

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

PITCH LINE

RUN

GOING

RISE

SPANDREL

NEWEL
POST

HEADROOM

BANNISTER

STAIRS

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

ROOF DESIGN


Flat roofs


Pitched roofs


Mansard


Trussed


Portal or ridge
-
framed

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

PITCHED ROOFS

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

PITCHED ROOFS

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

CONFIRMATION

Learning Outcomes


State the most commonly used construction
materials and types


Identify types of doors and windows
commonly used


List the principal components of a staircase


List the types of roof commonly found.

Assessments will be based on this lesson and
the corresponding study note

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Lincolnshire Fire and Rescue’s Training Centre

THE END