ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF
SEISMIC
VULNEARBILITY

AND
RETROFIT
MEASURES
-

A
MULTICRITERIA

ANALYSI
S

Iuliana Arma
ş

Maria Boştenaru

Overview


Analysis scales


Review existing Methods


Actors


Ontology


Indicators


Analytical hierarchy


Automated methods


Structural


socio
-
economic analysis interdependence


Conclusions

Analysis scales


Element


Building


Neighbourhood/ci
ty level

Existing methods


Urban scale


At urban planning level there were Fingerhuth and Koch who clarified the moderating role
of the architect, among experts, passive public and active affected people.


At regional planning level it was Strassert (1995) developing a method of balancing we
will later employ.



Building scale


Inclusion of the factor cost into multicriteria decision analysis has been done more recently
by the team of Caterino et al (2007 and 2009), with a view to bracing of a reinforced
concrete building, but employing passive damping.


For technical decision we built upon the book of Malczewski (1999) regarding spatial
problems.


For the role of the architect Richter (course work) made a role model in the decision space
between goals, resources, benefits and costs.


In renovation the model used in Weissenhof was described by Nägele (1992). Also Nägele
(1992) employed balancing.


The ATC
-
40 considers a series of actors specifically for seismic retrofit. Both the latter
employ matrixes (decision tables).


The role of the users were considered also by Ottokar Uhl in the model developed for the
Hollabrunn in the 1970s, the glory time of participatism.

Urban scale
-

Actors


Geologist


Civil engineer


Economic
-
inhabitant


Social
-

inhabitant

Building
-

Actors


Architect


Civil engineer


Social
-

inhabitant


Economic
-

investor

Actors in WHE


Architect


Civil engineer


Socio
-
economic
aspects


Proiect
management

Exemple

of interwar building WHE


WHE

Building ontology > IT


Indicators

building

Indicators in WHE


Taxonomy in progress

Urban ontology (COST TU0801
training school)


Sisi

Analitical hierarchy urban


Indicatori
-

urban


Methods of indicator aggregation


pair
-
wise
comparison and
outranking
techniques were
used to weight the
relative
importance of
alternatives in the
groups of sub
-
criteria, based on
expert knowledge.

Analytical hierarchy building


Interdependence structural


socio
-
economic


Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
spallig
reached
.
Elm
:
Cb
51
ba
.
Unc
Conc
Strain
=
-
0
.
002173
-
G
.
p
.
(b)
Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
spallig
reached
.
Elm
:
Cb
2051
a
.
Unc
Conc
Strain
=
-
0
.
002116
-
G
.
p
.
(b)
Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
spallig
reached
.
Elm
:
C
2031
a
.
Unc
Conc
Strain
=
-
0
.
002198
-
G
.
p
.
(b)
Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
yield
reached
.
Elm
:
C
11
bb
.
Steel
Strain
=
0
.
002502
-
G
.
p
.
(a)
Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
yield
reached
.
Elm
:
C
2011
a
.
Steel
Strain
=
0
.
002633
-
G
.
p
.
(b)
Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
fracture
reached
.
Elm
:
C
2011
b
.
Steel
Strain
=
0
.
069858
-
G
.
p
.
(a)
Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
fracture
reached
.
Elm
:
C
2011
b
.
Steel
Strain
=
0
.
109096
-
G
.
p
.
(b)
Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
crush
reached
.
Elm
:
C
2011
b
.
Conf
Conc
Strain
=
-
0
.
007241
-
G
.
p
.
(a)
Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
crush
reached
.
Elm
:
C
2011
b
.
Conf
Conc
Strain
=
-
0
.
04781
-
G
.
p
.
(b)
Otpt
No
:
73
Time=
9
,
3360
,
yield
reached
.
Elm
:
C
5011
b
.
Steel
Strain
=
0
.
005749
-
G
.
p
.
(a)
Typical log
-
file output
Otpt No:

Time=

reached

Elm:

Mat 1

Mat 2

Strain =

Gauss point

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz3412.

Unc

Conc

0.000107

G.p.(b)

1

0.1500,

crack_core

bmz2511.

Conf

Conc

0.000101

G.p.(a)

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz2511.

Unc

Conc

0.000113

G.p.(a)

1

0.1500,

crack_core

bmz2512.

Conf

Conc

0.000108

G.p.(b)

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz2512.

Unc

Conc

0.000122

G.p.(b)

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz4411.

Unc

Conc

0.000101

G.p.(a)

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz
4412.

Unc

Conc

0.000109

G.p.(b)

1

0.1500,

crack_core

bmz3511.

Conf

Conc

0.000104

G.p.(a)

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz3511.

Unc

Conc

0.000116

G.p.(a)

1

0.1500,

crack_core

bmz3512.

Conf

Conc

0.000111

G.p.(b)


Log
-
file output imported in MS Excell
ID

Otpt
No:

Time=

reached

Elm:

Mat 1

Mat 2

Strain =

Gauss point

1

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz3412.

Unc

Conc

0.000107

G.p.(b)

2

1

0.1500,

crack_core

bmz2511.

Conf

Conc

0.000101

G.p.(a)

3

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz2511.

Unc

Conc

0.000113

G.p.(a)

4

1

0.1500,

crack_c
ore

bmz2512.

Conf

Conc

0.000108

G.p.(b)

5

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz2512.

Unc

Conc

0.000122

G.p.(b)

6

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz4411.

Unc

Conc

0.000101

G.p.(a)

7

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz4412.

Unc

Conc

0.000109

G.p.(b)

8

1

0.1500,

crack_core

bmz3511.

Con
f

Conc

0.000104

G.p.(a)

9

1

0.1500,

crack_cover

bmz3511.

Unc

Conc

0.000116

G.p.(a)

10

1

0.1500,

crack_core

bmz3512.

Conf

Conc

0.000111

G.p.(b)


Log
-
file imported in MS Access
Gesamtsumme von ID

yield

crush

spall

crack_core

crack_cover

element

15

4

1

2

4

4

bmx121

14

4


2

4

4

bmx122

14

4


2

4

4

bmx133

14

4


2

4

4

bmx141

14

4


2

4

4

bmx142

10

2



4

4

bmx152

10

2



4

4

bmx153

10

2



4

4

bmx154

8




4

4

bmx161

8




4

4

bmx162


MS Access query
Formulas


principle of addition

Repar
ation of a column damaged till yield
/crush

=

48,16 x


+ 1 x


+ 270 x


+ 10 x

+ 25 x


+ 1 x



(1)

Reparat
ion of a column damaged till
reinforcement
yield/
concrete
crush

=

41,68 x


+ 1 x


+ 2 x


+ 270 x


+ 0,9 x

+ 2,4 x

+ 1 x

+ 0,75 x



(2)

Reparat
ion of a column damaged till
spall

=

22,67 x


+ 0,33 x

+ 270 x


+ 10 x

+ 25 x


+ 0,33 x



(3)

Reparat
ion of a beam damaged till spall

=

23,91
x


+ 0,0572 x


+ 0,8 x


+ 0,009 x

+ 0,18 x



(4)

Reparat
ion of a column with rifts

= 36,48 x


+ 4,8 x


+ 0,015 x

+ 4,8
x


(5)

Reparat
ion of a beam with rifts

= 38 x

+ 6,75 x


+ 0,015 x


+ 6,75 x


(6)

The formulas are based on the
devices
.
The unknown depend on countr
y and time as
follows
:

-



is

he

hour salary
,

-



is

the price for bringing away concrete
,

-



is

the price for

1kg
steel
,

-



is

the price for scaffolding

1m²
,

-



is

the price for supporting the scaffolding 1m
,

-



is

the preice for
1m³
concrete
,

-



is

the price for a
hole in the slab
,

-



is

he

price for
1m²
plastering
,

-



is

the approximative price for injection materials
,

-



is

the price for brining away the old plastering

(1m³).

Total
reparation

cost

=

reparation

cost

for

yield
/
crush

colum

x
nr
.
of

yield

crush
/
columns

+

Reparation
cost

for

spall

column

x
nr
.
of

spall

columns

+

Reparation
cost

for

rifts

colum

x
nr
.
of

rifted

colums

+

Reparation
cost

for

yield
/
crush

beam x
nr
.
of

yield
/
crush

beams

+

Reparation
cost

for

spall

beam x
nr
.
of

spall

beams

+

Reparation
cost

for

rifts

beam x
nr
.
of

rift

beams


While

the

numbers

can

be

counted

with

the

procedure

shown

before

Total
preventive

retrofit

costs

=

Costs

for

a
measures

device

x
nr
.
of

elements


Alternatively

a
project

management

software

can

be

employed
.

Moment of the measure
Extent of the measure
Extent of the measure
Costs
Reparation
Rebuilding
Retrofit
Comparison to agent based automated
method


Computer tools can aid local decision makers in
postearthquake

disaster staff.
Fiedrich

(2004) proposed the
integrative model EQ
-
RESQUE to support the
prioritisation

of intervention zones and the
efficient

allocation of help
-
and
-
rescue resources through action proposals. A distributed
simulation system (high level architecture) connects its two
interacting components:



simulation of the dynamic disaster environment and of the work
of resources;


decision process
modelling

using software agents mathematically
optimised

with expert knowledge concerning the multiple tasks
and the communication structures and decision competences within
the disaster staff.

Conclusions


Positive aspects:


Easy to follow and to understand decision
process, especially for the stakeholders



Drawbacks:


Subjective
approache

to a high degree



Improvement proposals:


New
algorythm

?

Thank you

Iuliana Arma
ş

Maria Boştenaru

Bucharest