Architecture Ch 16 - MyWeb

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Architecture


Post and Lintel

Arches

Domes

Cast
-
iron Construction

Frame Construction

Steel
-
and
-
Reinforced
-
Concrete

Construction

Technology

The materials and methods available to a given culture.

The basic technological challenge faced by architecture:

1.
Construct upright walls

2.
Put a roof over the empty space they enclose

Key Terms

Shell system~ one
basic material
provides the
structural support
and the outside
covering of a
building.

Skeleton
-
and
-
skin~
consists of an
interior frame, the
skeleton, that
supports the more
fragile outer
covering of the
building, the skin.

Tensile Strength~
the ability of a
building material to
span horizontal
distances without
support and without
buckling in the
middle.

Technology
Continued

This is the simplest method
of making a building, in
which the walls themselves
bear the weight of the roof.

Can be done stacking
materials such as
stones, bricks, mud
and straw

The ziggurat is an
example of load
-
bearing construction.

Mortise and Tenon

The Greek Orders


Doric Corinthian

Ionic

Pediment

The Romans revolutionized the use of the arch, which allowed them to make
structures much larger then at all possible by the construction of post
-
and
-
lintel.


The arch is constructed by using wedge
-
shaped stones called voussoirs which
are cut into semicircular form and then is stabilized by the keystone which is
the stone at the very top. This exerts equal pressure on every stone.


There are two types of arch construction: barrel and groined vaults.

~Barrel is a continuous row of arches one behind the other.

~Groined vaults are two barrel vaults meeting at right angles.

Domes take the shape of
hemispheres, sometimes defined as a
continuous arch rotated 360 degrees
on its axis.



Romanesque and Gothic
Architecture


Key Terms:

Springing

Crossing

Transepts

Apse

Pointed Arch

Flying Buttresses

Gothic Style Construction: Arches, Nave,
Buttress Diagrams

Notre
-
Dame, Paris

Cast

iron, Frame, Steel
-
and
-
Reinforced
-
Concrete

A rigid, strong construction
material made by adding
carbon to iron.

Wood
-
frame is a true skeleton
-
and
-
skin building method,
commonly used in domestic
architecture to the present.

Truss is a triangular
framework that, because of its
rigidity, can span much wider
areas than a single wooden
beam.

Richardson: skeletal iron
framework to support interior
structure, but thick walls carry
their own weight

Sullivan: fireproof steel
skeletal frame suggested by
wood
-
frame construction,
therefore freeing the all of
load
-
bearing

Wright: used the cantilever
construction which was the
use of a horizontal form
supported on one end and
jutting out into space on the
other

Steel
-
and
-
Reinforced Construction Continued

The International Style was founded by Le Corbusier. It is a
20
th

century style of architecture and design marked by its
austere geometric simplicity.

Builders who used this type of construction included
Henry Hobson Richardson, Louis H. Sullivan, Frank
Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Jeanneret, Ludvig Mies
van der Rohe, and Philip Johnson.

Frank Lloyd Wright also used the cantilever method
which was the use of a horizontal form supported on one
end and jutting out into space on the other; this was
possible because of the steel
-
and
-
reinforced
-
concrete
construction techniques.