Origins and Uses of

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Origins and Uses of
Petroleum


The wonderful world of crude oil!

What is a hydrocarbon?


The simplest type of
organic substance


Made only of
hydrogen

and
carbon
.


Examples of
hydrocarbons:
gasoline, kerosene,
natural gas, benzene,
wax, and plastics
such as polyethylene




www.chemistryland.com

What is Petroleum?


Some of the common
fuels we use are
derived from
petroleum
.


The word petroleum
means “
rock oil
.”


Petroleum is a
mixture of
hydrocarbons
.


www.soton.ac.uk



Petroleum forms from plankton…





These are diatoms, a type
of phytoplankton







These are examples of
zooplankton





http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Diatoms_through_the_microscope.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Diatoms_through_the_mi
croscope.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tomopteriskils.jpg

From Plankton to Petroleum …


The bodies of tiny plankton organisms are made
up of primarily three types of atoms:
carbon
,
hydrogen
, and
oxygen


Petroleum forms when partially decayed
plankton gets “cooked” and “smushed” under
layers of
mud, sand, and rock.


The high
temperatures

and
pressures

causes
the chemical rearrangement of the atoms and
oxygen

is released


forming the hydrocarbon
mixture of petroleum!



Here’s the way petroleum
forms…

www.globalization101.org

http://www.earthguide.ucsd.edu/fuels/oil.html

Crude oil from different places is
not exactly the same

Petroleum as it is collected from the
ground is called
crude oil
.


Crude oil can vary in …


Viscosity



how resistant it is to flowing


Color



can be yellow, red, green, brown,
black


Other elements

it contains (besides carbon,
hydrogen, and sulfur)





But crude oil typically has this
composition (in percentages):

sulfur, 1-2
nitrogen
,
<1
oxygen, <1
salts,<1
metals
,
<1
hydrogen, 14
carbon, 84
car bon
hydr ogen
sul f ur
met al s
sal t s
oxygen
ni t r ogen
Ancient uses of petroleum


To coat mummies


To pave streets


To waterproof reed boats


For heating and medicine!

http://www.plu.edu/~ryandp/RAX.html






































































































http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mummies

Magic cures!



Snake oil was a19th
-
century American product


It was a type of cure
-
all or
elixir

often sold in
traveling medicine shows.


Snake oil salesmen
would falsely claim that
the potions would cure
any ailments.


But of course, it didn’t
taste very good!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Snake
-
oil.png

An early method to refine
petroleum


the “tea kettle” still





This is similar to the
type of set
-
up used
in tea kettle refining.


The only product
produced by tea
kettle refining that
was actually used
was
kerosene
.


(But we know what
Uncle Jesse was
really making!)


http://www.dangerouslaboratories.org/moon1.html

Uses of kerosene

Kerosene was used to
light
lanterns
.


It replaced
whale oil

as
the primary lantern
oil.


It was the first
modern

use of petroleum.


Facts about “tea kettle: refining


By
1860

there were
15 refineries

in operation. Known
as
"tea kettle" stills


They consisted of a large
iron drum

and a
long tube

which acted as a condenser.


Capacity of these stills ranged from 1 to 100 barrels a
day. A
coal fire

heated the drum, and three fractions
were obtained during the distillation process.


The first component to boil off was the highly volatile
naphtha
. (There was not a use for naphtha so it was not
collected.) Next came the
kerosene
, or "lamp oil", and
lastly came the
heavy oils and tar
which were simply
left in the bottom of the drum.


These early refineries produced about
75% kerosene
,
which could be sold for high profits.

http://www.pafko.com/history/h_petro.html

Petroleum Saves the Whales!


Whaling
experienced a sharp decline

after
kerosene was used to light lanterns. This
helped most whale populations to recover.


http://www.atourhands.com/whaling.html

A harvested whale

Modern Uses of Petroleum…



Gasoline


Motor Oil


Waxes


Dyes


Plastics


Synthetic Fibers


for
example, polyester


http://www.incpen.org/pages/data//Plastics.gif

Petroleum Use Today


Approximately
90%

of
the crude oil
recovered today is
converted to a
fuel
!


5% is used to
produce
plastics
.


The remaining 5 % is
used to make
dyes,
inks, household
detergents, and
medicines
.

A Fossil Fuel?

Remember… Petroleum is called a fossil
fuel because it formed from the remains
of…


Previously living critters!

How is petroleum recovered from
underground?


1. A well is drilled on land
or under the ocean to
reach an oil deposit

2. If the oil deposit has
sufficient pressure, it
will flow to the surface
without having to pump
it out of the ground

3. If the oil is not under high
pressure, it must be
pumped to the surface


Sufficient pressure!

http://www.inkart.com/pages/industry/Oil_Well.htm

An offshore oil rig

spot.colorado.edu

www.offshore
-
technology.com





www.offshore
-
technology.com

http://www.oil
-
rig
-
jobs.com/

http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energy_fungames/energyant_trips/trip_offshore.html


Large scale marine or offshore drilling
involves lots of equipment (and uses lots of
energy!)

www.richard
-
seaman.com

Two examples of oil derricks


Derricks are structures that hold
pumps (or drills) used to harvest oil
and gas from beneath the ground.

http://www.freepower.co.uk/site
-
3.htm

Modern oil refining is done in many
steps.


In the process of
fractional
distillation, crude oil
is “taken apart” and separated into its main
components or fractions.


Each fraction is a complex mixture of chemical
compounds that have a similar
boiling

point.


Fractional distillation is carried out in large
towers

where crude oil is heated to
350

degrees
C (or 662 degrees F)


Oil refineries are large, industrial complexes


as seen in the next slide.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShellMartinez
-
refi.jpg

The Shell oil refinery at Martinez, California. The tapering
vertical elements are smokestacks to create draft for
heating units. Most of the complex vertical units are
fractionating towers. Others are flares.

Fractional distillation


Inside a
Fractioning Tower …



Crude oil is separated into
fractions by
fractional distillation
.


Vapors from the hot crude oil
rise up the tower, cool, and are
removed as they
condense

back to liquids.


The liquid fractions with the
highest

boiling points are
removed from the
lower

sections of the tower.


Fractions with the
lowest

boiling
points are removed from the
upper

part of the tower.


All of the fractions are routed to
other refining units for further
processing.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Crude_Oil_Distillation.png

The Complete Refining Process …


The complete refining process uses heat,
pressure, chemicals, and catalysts to
rearrange the structures of different
hydrocarbons.


Additional gasoline is produced by
catalytic
cracking

to break hydrocarbons
into
smaller

molecules.

Schematic flow diagram of a typical oil refinery

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_refinery

Lighter Hydrocarbons (The Gases)


are
collected from the top of the tower

Methane Butane Propane

The green spheres represent carbon atoms and the
silver one represent hydrogen atoms. The “sticks”
between them are really chemical bonds formed by
electrons moving back and forth between the atoms.

http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/library/hydrocarbons/



Liquid Hydrocarbons… are collected from
the middle of the tower.






Gasoline molecules
have from seven to 11
carbons in each chain.


Octane, shown here, is
one type of gasoline
molecule.


Other types are
heptane (7 carbons),
nonane (9 carbons),
and decane (10
carbons) per chain

Solid Hydrocarbons


Contain 20 carbons


Used as asphalt, tar, and plastics.

How much energy is in a gallon of

gasoline?



When you burn gasoline under ideal
conditions, with plenty of oxygen, you get
carbon dioxide (from the carbon atoms in
gasoline), water (from the hydrogen atoms)
and lots of heat.


If you took a 1,500
-
watt space heater and left
it on full blast for a full 24
-
hour day, that's
about how much heat is in a gallon of gas.


If it were possible for human beings to digest
gasoline, a gallon would contain about
31,000
food calories

--

the energy in a gallon
of gasoline is equivalent to the energy in
about 110 McDonalds hamburgers! (A gallon
of 1% milk contains about 1760 calories!)


Above information from Howstuffworks.com




110 McDonalds
hamburgers!

The energy in 1
gallon of gasoline is
equivalent to …

Our current major sources of
energy

Coal, 26%
Natural Gas,
22%
Petroleum,
38%
The remainder of our energy is supplied by nuclear
power, hydroelectricity, and alternative sources such as
wind, geothermal, hydrogen, and solar.

Should the USA drill in ANWR?


This is the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge.


The debate of whether to drill for petroleum in
ANWR is ongoing.


http://www.anwr.org/


www.ens
-
newswire
.com


Link to video clip “Gallon of Gas”


http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/seri
es/man
-
made/3621/Overview#tab
-
Overview