Welcome to MECH 6251/485 Space Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems

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Welcome to MECH 6251/485

Space Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems

Instructor:
Dr. Hoi Dick Ng

Affiliation:
Mechanical and Industrial




Engineering, Concordia University

Room:
EV 004.229

Tel:
(514) 848
-
2424 ext 3177

E
-
mail:
hoing@mie.concordia.ca




Course website:

http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~hoing/Teaching2/MECH6251/mech6251.html

Apollo Saturn V

Objective

Make you becoming a “ROCKET SCIENTIST”!




Analyze

the performance of an ideal rocket engine.



Select
propellants and rocket propulsion systems based on mission
requirements
.



Perform

thermo
-
chemical calculations to determine the rocket chamber
temperature and chemical composition for any propellant combination.



Design

a liquid propellant rocket engine, a solid propellant rocket motor
and a hybrid rocket motor by considering different factors such as propellant
combination, burning rate laws, combustion chamber, injector, igniter, nozzle,
heat transfer and cooling characteristics


Welcome to MECH 6251/485

Space Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems

Main topics:



Introduction and classification of space propulsion systems



Rocket fundamentals



Ideal rocket design and optimization



Flight dynamics (orbital mechanics)



Chemical propellant rocket performance analysis



Solid, liquid and hybrid propellant rocket motors



Propellants and combustion



Advanced topics and trends in space propulsion system design


Objective

Make you becoming a “ROCKET SCIENTIST”!

Welcome to MECH 6251/485

Space Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems

This course is an application based course
which uses fundamental principles to design
space propulsion systems:




Newtonian dynamics



thermodynamics



Chemistry



fluid mechanics



heat transfer


Pre
-
requisite

Welcome to MECH 6251/485

Space Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems

*MECH 6111 Gas dynamics

G.P. Sutton and O. Biblarz, Rocket Propulsion
Elements, 7
th

or 8
th

edition, Wiley

Required text

Welcome to MECH 6251/485

Space Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems

Each week: Reading assignment of
different chapters

Midterm exam






20%

Research project






20%

Final exam







60%



Welcome to MECH 6251/485

Space Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems

Propulsion system: Present, and Future

Future:

Research on any advanced
space propulsion systems

Present:

study the fundamental and current
knowledge on space flight mechanics and
rocket propulsion systems

Atlas II/III

Research Project

Students will carry out a research project related to the space science and
space propulsion system. The purpose of the project is to provide students
with an opportunity to carry out an open
-
ended project work and to present it
in an acceptable form. The format of the project may consist of the following:


1. A theoretical study of an engineering problem/mission related to space propulsion.

2. A design and/or development project

3. A case study

4. An ordered and critical exposition of the literature on an appropriate topic in space
engineering.

5. Review of a “classical” journal paper


The final submission of the research project should be in the form of a technical
report. Teams must present a project proposal (max. 2 pages + 10 mins
presentation) in October (tentatively on Oct. 8, 2013).

Concordia University

Hypersonic Space plane Propulsion Platforms

Design of a Single Stage Hybrid Sounding Rocket

Gemini VIII
-

Updated Analysis and Recreation of Mission

Pre
-
design of the propulsion of a space elevator’s climber

Dual Propulsion System

A case study on Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)

Case study on challenger space shuttle

A voyage to the moon


Source: http://www.canis.uiuc.edu/

Concordia University

Quad Chart

Electric Propulsion System


An Innovative
Technology for Future Human Space Cruise

Space Fl
ight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems

(MEC
H 7221)

Farhana Anjum (ID 5343534),

Zayed Takdir

Mahmud (ID 9204350)

ME Dept.,

Concordia University, Montreal, QC


Interstellar space mission is not possible with current technologies due
to extremely high launched and mission travel cost


Design space craft issues: Less mass
means

less propellant


Mission ΔV is 2 or 3 times the propulsion’s exhaust velocity or
equivalently impulse I
sp
with current chemical propulsion technologies


Need new ground
-
breaking technologies: less propellant


high speed


Electric Propulsion is evolving as an innovative propulsion system for
interstellar space mission

Electric Propulsion



Rocket Equation



Cheating the assumption about rocket equation



All propellant being used is carried onboard the vehicle currently



Instead use: solar thermal energy, solar electric power systems, solar
sails, propellant mass from extra
-
terrestrial resources



Don’t need to carry everything with rocket from launched station earth



Collect energy, materials, etc. as on travel



Choose advanced rocket propulsion technologies based on their
impacts on the rocket equation: all seek to increase I
sp



Advanced
Propulsion technology


to

emphasize on I
sp

Main Principle of Electric Propulsion System


Source of Energy: Electric Power


Nuclear, Solar Radiation, Batteries


Energize propellant to give much higher I
sp

than chemical reaction


Reduce propellant mass for a given
ΔV change


increase M
0
/M
b

ratio



Solar electric propulsion systems consist of: (a) Power system (solar or
nuclear), (b) Power Conditioning, (c) Thruster, (d) Propellant storage, and
(e) Feed subsystem



No energy limit: large energy from external solar or nuclear electric
system


I
sp

can be order of Magnitude than chemical system


It is power limited deliverable external energy rate
∞ Power sys. Mass


Limiting thrust to vehicle mass


low T/W vehicles


larger thrust


Operable from hours to years


ultimately buildup larger total impulse


Provide significant mass savings


higher I
sp



Trip time benefits: complicated interplay


T/W and local gravity field


Heliocentric space


medium T/W compare to solar gravitation


Much higher terminal velocity


reduce trip time


Use less propellant mass


high
ΔV


short trip time trajectory


Suitable for outer planet for long run time for future human space cruise


Thrusters: (1) Electrothermal,



(2) Electrostatic, and (3) Electromagnetic

Challenges and Opportunities


Power: From the Sunlight or nuclear reactor


Solar photon


electricity by
solar cells


low efficiency; Nuclear: Thermal energy


electricity by static or
dynamic thermal2electric power conversion


high efficiency

A Journey Into Space

Book your ticket now!

Technology



Air launched from mother ship at 15 km altitude and 215 km/h



Single hybrid rocket motor (liquid N2O, HTPB rubber solid fuel)



Unpowered landing. Glides back



Feathering: provides high stability and drag to decelerate vehicle



No heat shield or ceramic tiles for re
-
entry


Impacts



Currently

Russian

Space

Agency

leading

the

field




Virgin

Galactic

is

1
st

world

spaceline
.

Privately

funded

spaceship




Space

vehicle

that

makes

a

suborbital

flight

(
120

km

altitude)



Total

flight

time

in

space

of

6

mins
.

3

passengers

on

board




Medical

exam

and

Training

needed

for

participants


Human

interest

in

space,

uniqueness

of

experience,

status

symbol


Advantages:


-
Advances in technology
-

Source of funding for R&D


Disadvantages:


-

High cost
-

Safety issues/accidents
-
Probable health effects



Company:
Space Journeys Inc.


Contact: Ai sha Manderson & Redha Khezzar, Desi gn Engi neers Emai l:
r_khezzar@sji.com


Phone: (514) 622 33 67

Conclusions


Challenges:



Marketing space tourism to the general public



Medical limitations for non
-
professionals



Larger spaceship, longer flight times and achieving higher altitudes for
orbital flight


Project Estimates
:



Trip cost/passenger: $200,000



Development cost: $30 million



Estimated development time: 3 years


Future of space tourism:



Lunar travel for 1 week trip. Space hotels

Jun 10
th

2008

Spaceship

Thru
st

73.5
kN

Total M

3600
kg

Mach

3

Isp

250
sec

Payload

400 kg

Bell nozzle

A/At

25

Burn
t

80 sec

Mass
flow rate

30 kg/s

Po

24
bar

2008

Engineering R&D

2009

Manufacturing

2010

Testing

2011

Main Flights

How to do well in this intensive course?



Review your basic engineering subjects


(e.g. newtonian mechanics, thermodynamics,

fluid mechanics, gasdynamics, heat transfer)




Study class lectures, read the textbook/literature




Read literature and develop an interest in the subject.




Do the homework





Discuss and collaborate with your colleagues

Concordia University

Most important, ENJOY this course

Introduction and classification of
space propulsion systems




Types of propulsion systems



Historical perspective



Classification of different rockets types


Objectives

Reading:


The road to space by Gruntman


Sutton and Biblarz Chapter 1

What is propulsion

Dictionary definition:

The action or process of propelling, changing the
motion of a body.


Example: A monkey sits on a “space” wagon, and throws bananas out the
back of the wagon. The act of throwing the bananas in one direction causes
the wagon to be propelled in the opposite direction.



“For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.”







-

Isaac Newton, 1687

Propulsion mechanism:

A reaction force is imparted to a device by the
momentum of ejected matter

Newton’s third laws of motion

Rocket vs. Air
-
breathing jet propulsion



A rocket is a device that produces thrust by
ejecting matter (propellant mass) that are carried
or stored on board.



Terrestrial system



Use the surrounding medium as the “working
fluid” and chemical energy addition to generate
thrust (propulsion).



Air breathing device: only the fuel is carried on
board. The majority of the thrust in an air
-
breathing engine is generated by the ambient air,



Differ in the working fluid/matter

Jet propulsion engine: (
MECH 6171
)

Rocket propulsion system: (
this course
)

Lockheed Martin

Historical perspective

Reading: The Road to Space


The first thousand years by Mike
Gruntman, University of Southern California, LA, California.

Earliest Rockets



China or India (related to the discovery of black or “gun” powder)

Who was the first?

The past …



Konstantin Tsiolkovsky



Hermann Oberth



Robert Goddard

The “Three Amigos” of spaceflight theory



Independent and parallel development of Rocket theory



Founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics


Polish

American

German physicist

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

1857
-

1935


Deaf Russian School Teacher
-

fascinated with space flight, started
by writing Science Fiction Novels


Discovered that practical space flight depended on liquid fuel
rockets in the 1890’s


Famous for development of “Rocket Equation” in 1897


Calculated escape velocity, minimum orbital velocity, benefit of
equatorial launch, and benefit of multi
-
stage rockets


Excellent theory, Not well published, not as important as he could
have been


Robert H. Goddard

1882
-

1945


Also a loner, developed rocket theory in
1909
-
1910


an experimenter, actually building and
testing liquid fuel rockets (first flight in
1926)


In a report to his sponsors (Smithsonian
Institute) in 1920, he described a rocket trip
to the moon. This subjected him to ridicule
since the common belief was still that a
rocket needed air to push against


Goddard ended with 214 patents covering
details of rocket design

Robert Goddard

with his original

rocket system

Hermann Oberth

1894
-

1989


His 1923 book: Die Rakete zu den Planetenraumen (The Rocket
into Planetary Space) covered the entire spectrum of manned and
unmanned rocket flight.



Because it was published and widely read, he had more influence
on the growth of rocket concepts then either of the others. His book
spawned several rocket societies in Germany, significantly the
German Rocket society, out of which the German army recruited
Werner Von Braun in 1932 and started the project which produced
the
V2 bomb or rocket
.

The V2 (Vergeltung


Vengeance)


Challenge was to deliver a one ton warhead


Final design: 2300 lb warhead, 47 ft long,
5.4 ft diameter, 28,229 lb takeoff weight.
59,500 lb thrust for 68 seconds.


6400 weapon launches


The Americans got Von Braun and 117
other scientists, and about 100 rockets.
The Soviets got the facilities and about the
same number of rockets.


60 plus V2’s were launched in the late 40’s
in US. All were sub
-
orbital, highest altitude
was 244 miles

V
-
2 Rocket

First Operational System

Rocket applications


Both the Soviets and the US built sub
-
orbital rockets
in the late 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s



Sounding (research) rockets

-

instrument
-
carrying device to take
measurements and perform scientific
experiments during its sub
-
orbital flight




Spacecraft (satellite) Launchers




Intercontinental ballistic missiles

with
the increasing capabilities in accuracy,
range and payload (warhead) weight




Manned space flight

(space vehicle for
specific missions)

First satellite launchers

USA


Explorer I
-

Jupiter C rocket



75000 lbs thrust


20 lbs to LEO

Russia (Soviet Union)


Sputnik
-

SS
-
6/R7

-

217,000 lbs thrust

-

2900 lbs to LEO

R7 Semiorka Rocket

Manned space flight


Yuri Gagarin, April 12, 1961 …


• Modified R
-
7 Launcher

• Liftoff Thrust: 870,000 lbf

• Payload to LEO: 10,000 lbm

The first human in space and the first to orbit the Earth


Manned space flight

• Alan Shepard, Mercury 3 … May 5, 1961

Redstone rocket (
Freedom 7 spacecraft )


• Liftoff Thrust: 80,000 lbf

• Payload to LEO : 0

• USA is still Way behind

• John Glenn, Mercury 6 … Feb. 20, 1962


Launch vehicle, Atlas
-
D

• Liftoff Thrust: 360,000 lbf

• Payload to LEO : 3100 lbm

• USA starting to catch up

Manned space flight

• Gemini 3
-

Titan II

• First Flight March 23 1965

• Liftoff Thrust: 430,000 lbf

• Payload to LEO : 7000 lbm


Still behind R
-
7

• Apollo Saturn 1
-
B

• First Flight October 11, 1968

• Liftoff Thrust: 1.64 M lbf

• Payload to LEO : 41,000 lbm

• Third most powerful rocket ever flown

Manned space flight

• Apollo Saturn V

• First Flight December 21, 1968
(manned orbit of the moon)

• Liftoff Thrust: 7.7 M lbf

• Payload to LEO : 260,000 lbm

• Lunar payload capable

• most powerful rocket ever flown

Other nations followed

(
Modern launchers
)


The first thousand years of roketry brought us spectacular
successes, and we reached the comsmos. The next 1000 years
will be more exciting
”.
-

Gruntman


-

space station


-

Mission to Mars


-

toward the outer space

Chinese

European

Indian

Japanese