S- biological fluids

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24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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S
ecret fluids”
-

biological fluids

overview, modelling, problems

Anna Kucaba
-
Piętal

Rzeszów University of Technology,

Poland



School of Engineering, University of Liverpool
Liverpool

L69 3GH,
UK
,
May 13th 2013

1

Overview of biological fluids, contents,
modelling
, problem formulation


Fundamental



biofluid



rheology


Blood



rheological parameters of blood



factors which effect on blood viscosity



diaseses


Synovial
fluid



rheological parameters of s.f



factors which effect on s. f. viscosity



diaseses


Plasma and lymph as Newtonian fluid


Conclusion

Contents

2

Questions:

What
influences the change of rheological properties

of biological fluids and what are the consequences
?


Why
is it important to predict rheological

parameters of biofluid
?


Answers:

Due

to the
formulation

bioflow

equations


To
maintain

nonbiological

fluids

that

has

rheological
properties comparble to real
biofluid


To
use it in diagnostics of clinical disorders

Aim of Lectures

3

4


Total amount of fluid in the human body is approximately 70% of body
weight


Body fluid has been divided into two compartments




Intracellular fluid (ICF)


Inside the cells


55% of total body water


Extracellular fluid


Outside the cells


45% of total body water


Body fluids

5

Extracellular

fluid

includes
:



Interstitial

fluid


»
Present

between

the

cells


»
Approximately

80
%

of

ECF


Plasma


»
Present

in

blood


»
Approximately

20
%

of

ECF


Also

includes


»
Lymph






»
synovial

fluid




»
aqueous

humor



»
cerebrospinal

fluid

»

vitreous

body


»

endolymph


»

perilymph


»

pleural,

pericardial

and

peritoneal


fluids



Body fluid
c
ompartments

6

Body
fluid compartments

7

Body fluid compartments

8


Plasma

membrane



Separates

ICF

from

surrounding

interstitial

fluid


Blood

vessel

wall



Separate

interstitial

fluid

from

plasma

Barriers separate ICF, interstitial fluid and plasma

9

Organic substances



Glucose



Amino acids



Fatty acids




Hormones



Enzymes

Inorganic substances


Sodium


Potassium


Calcium


Magnesium


Chloride


Phophate


Sulphate


Composition of body fluids

10


Most abundant
cation

-

Na+,


muscle contraction


Impulse transmission


fluid and electrolyte balance



Most abundant anion
-

Cl
-



Regulates osmotic pressure


Forms
HCl

in gastric acid



Most

abundant

cation

-

K
+


Resting

membrane

potential


Action

potentials



Maintains

intracellular

volume


Regulation

of

pH




Anion are proteins and
phosphates (HPO
4
2
-
)


Na
+ /K+ pumps play major role in keeping K+ high

inside
cells and Na+ high outside cell

Difference

11


In

health

the

volume

and

composition

of

various

body

fluid

compartments

are

maintained

within

physiological

limits

even

in

face

of

wide

variations

in

intake

of

water

and

solutes

.


Control of body fluid volume (Homeostasis)

12


Amniotic fluid


Aqueous
humour

and vitreous
humour


Bile


Blood


Breast milk


Cerebrospinal fluid


Cerumen

(earwax)


Chyle


Chyme


Endolymph

and perilymph


Feces
-

see diarrhea


Female ejaculate


Gastric acid


Gastric juice


Lymph




Mucus (including nasal drainage and phlegm)


Pericardial fluid


Peritoneal fluid


Pleural fluid


Pus


Rheum


Saliva


Sebum (skin oil)


Semen


Sputum


Sweat


Synovial fluid


Tears


Vaginal secretion


Vomit


Urine

Body fluids

13


Lymph


Milk


Cerebrospinal fluid


Amniotic fluid


Aqueous humor


Sweat


Tears

Specialized fluids of the body

14

Microscopic

level


Transport
Mechanisms


Membrane

Transport


Intracellular

membrane

transport


ICF
-
ECF

Exchange


ISF
-
Plasma

Exchange


Capillary

Pressures

Macroscopic

level


Blood Flow CFD simulation



synovial

fluid


Transport problems

15


Wstawie
pozniej

Navier
-
Stokes equations

16


The

viscosity

and
elasticity

determine

the

pressure

required

to
produce

bioflows
.



Viscosity

is

an
assessment

of
the

rate

of energy
dissipation




Elasticity

is

an
assessment

of
the

elastic

storage

of energy



How

is

relations

between

shear

stress

and
deformation
?

Rheological parameters, a constitutive equation

17

Body fluid percentages

18

Rheology

(of Liquids)

Physics

Chemistry

Mechanics

of

Continuum

Technology/

Engineering

Rheology as an interdisciplinary science

19

Viscosity
= F(S,T,p,s,t
, V
)


S
-

physico
-
chemical

properties

of
substances
,

T
-
temperature, p
-

pressure, s
-
velocity of shear,
t
-
time, V
-
voltage


Viscosity

20

21

NEWTONIAN

FLUID

NON
-
NEWTONIAN

FLUID

F

y

u(y)

t 
f
(g)

.

Models

21


Blood is a concentrated suspension of
Red Blood Cells; outside the range of
dilute suspension



Particles
change their shape
in
response to the fluid forces



The
nature of RBC membrane and its
deformation
stress/strain
is much
less established



RBC
tends to form agregates known as
rouleaux

Blood

22

Constituents of Blood



%


Plasma proteins


3.2


4.4


Red blood cells


40


54


White blood cells


0.03
-

0.05


Water


42

58


Electrolytes


< 0.001


Organic nutrients


< 0.001


Organic wastes


< 0.001


Platelets


~ 0.1


Blood
-

components

23

TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES

RBCs

PLATELETS


Blood


formed elements

24

RANGE


Density (g/cm
3
)


1.050
-
1.064


Viscosity (cP)


2.18
-
3.59


pH


7.35
-
7.45


Factors

affecting

the

blood

rheology
:


a)

hematocrit

b)

deformation

and

agregation

of

red

blood

cells

c)

biochemical

properties

of

plasma

d)

temperature

e)

the

geometry

and

flow

parameters


Physical properties of blood

PROPERTY


25

Plasma

is the straw
-
colored liquid in which the
blood cells are suspended.

Composition of blood plasma:

Component

Percent

Water

~92

Proteins

6

8

Salts

0.8

Lipids

0.6

Glucose (blood sugar)

0.1

Plasma

26


Water : 90%


Solids: 10%


organic constituents: proteins, lipids,
carbohydrates , hormones, enzymes,

Ketone bodies , and other organic compounds.

Inorganic compounds: Na, K
Ca,Cl,and

CO2.


Plasma

27

Comparison of Newtonian plasma and blood viscosity

28


Clear and colorless fluid


96% water and 4% solids


Solids




Proteins


2
-
6% of solids


albumin, globulin, fibrinogen,
prothrombin
, clotting factors, antibodies,
enzymes


Lipids


5
-
15%


Chylomicrons


Lipoproteins


Carbohydrates


Glucose mainly


NPN


Urea and
creatinine


Electrolytes


Sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonates

Lymph

29


Return protein from tissue spaces into blood


Redistribution of fluid


Removal of bacteria, toxins and other foreign bodies from
tissues


Maintain structural and functional integrity of tissue


Route for intestinal fat absorption


Transport lymphocytes

Functions of lymph

30


What is it? It i
s a fluid that resembles plasma but with a
much lower concentration of suspended proteins



Functions?


Transports hormones, nutrients, and waste products
from peripheral tissues to the general circulation


Returns fluid and solute from peripheral tissues to the
blood


Maintains blood volume and eliminates local variations
in the composition of the interstitial fluid

Lymphatic fluid

31

Newtonian fluid: constant
viscosity at all shear rates
at a constant pressure and
temperature. Relationship
between shear stress and
shear rate is linear.


Newtonian behavior

32

Synovial fluid

33

Contents

value

Dry matter

0,13

3ⰵ

䑥nsit(

o
C)

1,0081

1ⰰ15



7ⰲ

7ⰴ

viscosit

(20
o
C)

water
, g/kg

960

988

haluronicacid

(䡁
)

2
-


The content of dry matter

g/kg

12



Albu浩nsⰠ
globulins g/l

Phospholipids
,
glycoprotein's


10,7

21,3

10,2

0,5

Mucyns, g/l

0,68

1,35

Glucoses, g/l

jak w surowicy
krwi

Urynial Acid,
mg/l

73,4

Synovial fluid

34


Minimise

the friction between during bones
movement or weight bearing


Provides nutrition for cartilage.


0.15
-
3.5ml

Functions

35





Sodium
Hyaluronate
,
Hyaluronan


Made up of repeating
glucuronic

acid and N
-
acetylglucosamine

subunits


High molecular weight: 0.2 to 10 million Dalton


Major component of synovial fluid


Exhibits viscoelastic properties


Main

Factors

affecting

the

rheological

properties
:

a)

Hyaluronic

Acid

concentation

c)

Molecular

weigh

of

Hyaluronic

Acid

d)

Temperature



Synovial fluid

36


Pathophysiological significance of biofluid rheology



Develop an understanding of how the micro
-

and nano
-
structure of blood influences its rheology



Explore to use of rheological parameters in diagnostics
and menagement of clinical disorders and inoptimisation
of blood processing



Explore new methods of measurement suited for clinical
application



Maintain new type apparatus for such measurements

Perspectives

37

Thank you

38