Project Concept Note:

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Project Concept Note:

Animal

Breeding and Reproduction
Technology
Platform



Table of Contents

1

Introduction
................................
................................
................................
..........................

3

2

Key Development issues and Rationale for TIA involvement
................................
.....................

5

3

Proposed Project Development Objective(s)

................................
................................
...........

7

4

Preliminary Project Description

................................
................................
..............................

9

5

Potential Risk and Mitigation

................................
................................
...............................

10





1

Introduction

The SA commercial
livestock industry is highly sophisticated and implements appropriate
technologies to ensure good value

for the South African consumer. However the industry is no
longer able to keep up w
ith local demand and

meat imports have been steadily inc
reasing over time.
Graph

1

reflects all meat imports

between 2001 and 2011,

of which 80% is poultry.


Graph 2 below
shows that

SA is also unable to meet the demand for beef.


Graph 1: Total meat imports into South Africa between 2001 and 2011 (from Trade Map 2012)



Graph 2
: Beef Production vs Beef Consumption in SA between 2000
a
nd 2010 (from
:


A Profile of
the
SA
Beef Market Value Chain 2012




DAFF)


0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
500000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Year

Meat imports into SA (tons)

Currently the
livestock sector contributes about 40% of the total

value of agricultural output

in SA
.
The data might suggest that livestock

production in the cou
ntry is quite stable,
and imports make up

for

any shortfalls. It is

however

worthwhile

considering some

fact
ors
on the

strategic

potential of
this sector.



It is estimated that almost 80% of the country is considered semi
-
arid with inadequate or
unreliable rainfall to sustain crop production. The South African climate and vast grassland
resources are highly sui
ted to livestock production, thus as

a

country we are not effectively
utilising an important competitive advantage.



About 40% of the national
cattle
herd is owned by small
-
scale rural farmers, yet only 10% of
this is reflected in the annual commercial off
-
take. This would suggest that there is huge
potential to improve farming and market systems for small
-
scale
livestock
farmers and
thereby facilitate socio
-
economic development.



South African indigenous farm animal breeds have not been adequately conserve
d and risk
extinction in some cases. Certain breeds like the boer goat have been used in breeding
improvement schemes internationally but are not sufficiently utilised in SA.



South African livestock improvement schemes have been running since 1917 and hav
e
established an excellent database of phenotypic data. However phenotypic data has not
been augmented
with genotypic information to update the estimated breeding value
system
. The livestock industry therefore has not yet benefitted from increased rates o
f herd
improvement that can be achieved from the recent advancements of molecular genetic
technologies. In this case we are not adequately leveraging a competitive advantage that
the country has strategically invested in over a long period.



SA has a comp
etitive advantage in Africa having adapted breeds to prevailing African
conditions and pests. As
countries in Africa invest in
the
development of their agricultural
sectors
, SA can play a strategic role in s
upplying the African market with
appropriate gene
tic
material and technologies.



South Africa has the potential to grow the livestock industry significantly and could
ultimately become a net exporter of high quality

genetic resources,
meat, animal products
and value
-
added animal products.


The purpose of
this document is to discuss the establishment of an Animal Breeding and
Reproduction
Technology
Platform that will provide an institutional framework to facilitate
achievement of various objectives
to

assist the livestock industry as a whole. The initial p
hase will be
to conduct a feasibility study and engage stakeholders on current resources, gaps and priorities for
the industry. This document provides a situational analysis, suggests a process to be followed and
estimates the costs that would be involved
. It is hoped that this will be approved for
implementation by TIA EXCO.




2

K
ey Development issues and Rationale for TIA involvement

There are various initiatives underway to support the livestock industry. These include market
infrastructure, trade suppo
rt, veld improvement strategies etc.
Solid genetic

and breeding capability
is the foundation of a st
r
ong livestock industry. Thus, t
he area that TIA will have greatest
opportunity to make a meaningful contribution would be in facilitating the establishmen
t of a
Breed
ing and Reproduction
Technology
Platform.
This would be an institutional structure that

would prioritize research

based on industry needs
, leverage funding for research and ensure
technology transfer.
The discussion below illustrates the
current strategies and initiatives underway.


The Department of Agricultu
re, F
isheries and Forestry (DAFF)

The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF)
published the

Liv
estock Development
Strategy in 2007. The Strateg
y noted “Research and
Development
” as a key factor in creating an
enabling environment for the industry.
It further noted “
Biological efficiency of livestock” as a key
element.
S
trategic interventions
for that element would concentrate on:



Research and Development on sustainab
le s
ystems for livestock production



R
eproductive eff
iciency, growth and development



Genetic improvement
and enhanced genetic variation



Improved efficiency, animal nutrition



DNA technology and services



Technologies for diag
nostics, services and research



Integrated livestock and crop systems (especially in communal and resource poor farming
areas, e.g. Kwa
-
Zulu Natal
, Limpopo, North West

and Eastern Cape), animal health and t
he
management of animal waste

Consortium for Genomics in the Livestock Sector

In F
ebruary 2012 key stakeholders from government, academia and industry met to consider
“Genomics in the livestock sector”
. The participants established an important foundation

towards
creating a consortium with objectives to:



Improve the livestock industry
in South Africa through the use of genomic selection to
improve the breeding of the animals.



Establish the ability and capability of the South African sector to utilise this technology.



Develop both national and international collabo
ration in the field of
genomics


The consortium also agreed a high level 5
-
step process for implementing genomic selection



Phenotypic
data

Genotypic
data

Products/

services

Analyse and
validate

Educate and
extend

Exploit


The National Scheme for Performance Recording

Currently selection of breeding lines is based on phenotypic selection and the calculation of
Estimated Br
eeding Values

(EBV’s)
. These values are based on the performance of progeny across
certain traits.
Performance testing is recognised as a very effective tool for increasing economic
returns of livestock production. However it is
dependent on the time it t
akes for each generation to
go through reproductive and productive cycles

and therefore improvements tend to be seen after
significant time investment as demonstrated in Graph 3.





Graph 3: Guerns
ey


Genetic trends for milk, butterfat and protein yields

The Agricultural Research Council
(ARC)



Irene has been collating these records since 1917 in the
case of dairy cows, and in later years for beef cattle (since 1959), pigs (since 1955) and sheep (
since
1965). This database provides the foundation for the National Scheme for Performance Recordin
g
for South Africa.

Most modern breeding programmes augment phenotypic selection

together

with genetic selection

to calculate Genomic Estimated Breeding Val
ues (GEBV). The GEBV
helps to speed up the selec
tion
of genetically superior breeding lines
. Instead of waiting a mi
nimum of 4 years

Artificial Insemination
companies can use the best DNA test
ed as sires of sons
as soon as they reach

sexual maturity (about

1 year).

This is considerable time saving in herd improvement and

the

benefits of this method have
been reported in the Australian, French and American Dairy Cattle Industries.

The ARC Molecular Genetics Platform

Estimated Breeding Values

The ARC has established a molecular genetics platform at their facility in Onderstepoort. The facility
has been fully equipped to enable sophisticated molecular genetics research.
The facility is to be
used by ARC, academic and industry based researchers
.
The availability of the

equipment and
expertise makes the
operational activities of conducting the necessary research achievable in a
relatively short space of time.

TIA

The livestock industry needs to have access to resources that would enable the effec
tive usage of
genetic selection techniques to improve key traits in SA farm animals. However this is a costly and
complex activity that needs animal science, molecular biology and computational

biology

skills to
effectively utilise research information.
A
ppropriate technology transfer mechanisms will then need
to be deployed and the benefits recovered.
TIA through it
s

deep and extensive engagement in the
biotechnology sector is ide
ally positioned to facilitate this.


TIA will be able to draw the various st
akeholders together to focus objectives, leverage funding to
ensure greater investment and promote effective management of the consortium towards
technology development and commercialisation. TIA is also an objective facilitator because it
is
not
di
rectly

involved in the industry,
and agriculture is only one of its multiple areas of investment. TIA
would be able to bring together both public and private sector investors and ensure technology
diffusion to both public and private sector beneficiaries.

TIA,
as an organisation
,

is thus ideally suited
to facilitate the establishment of the Animal Breeding and Reproduction

Technology

Platform.

3

Proposed Project Development Objective(s)

The Agri
-
Biotech sector proposes that an intensive

feasibility study be cond
ucted. The investigators
will

consult all major stakeholders in the private sector, public sector, academia, and in relevant
community based structures.
An assessment of current resources and gaps in the livestock industry,
with respect to genetics, breed
ing and reproduction, will need to be done.
This study will ultimately
provide an assessment of the pressing issues facing the sector and suggest an institutional structure
and mechanisms to enable the achievement

of the objectives.

The Business Case for
the
establishment of the Animal Breeding and Reproduction

Technology

Platform will be derived from
the feasibility study and presented to EXCO.

The Animal Breeding and Reproduction
Technology
Platform, if successful will provide an
efficient
institutional

structure that will:

1)

Prioritize research in genetics and animal breeding towards industry needs
;

2)

Ensure long term
improvement and
sustainability of the SA livestock industry;

3)

Ensure effective transfer of technology from research environments to farmers,
processors
and retailers;

4)

Ensure capacity development, training and skills development programmes are in place to
provide for the needs scientific and technical needs of the industry;

5)

Provide a financial mechanism for both government and private sector to
contribute funding
and ensure that funds are used effectively to the benefit
of the SA producer and consumer;

6)

Have a structured impact analysis capability to ensure that achievements towards the set
objectives of the initiative are always monitored and rep
orted to key stakeholders who can
then actively direct necessary change.


The diagram below suggests that consumer demand for good quality and value will drive the
selection process of for research investment within the platform. The outputs of the
resear
ch will be targeted towards producers who will realise production improvements and
be able to deliver towards meeting consumer demand.




ARC BIOTECHNOLOGY

PLATFORM

BREEDING TECHNOLOGIES

Sci ence counci l s, Uni versi ti es, NGO’s

(molecular

techniques, marker assisted breeding)

REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

Sci ence counci l s, Uni ver
si ti es, NGO’s

(artificial insemination, embryo transfer, etc.)

PRODUCT
-
IVITY
FACTORS

NUTRITION

FACTORS

HEALTH


FACTORS

MEAT
PROCESSOR

DAIRY
INDUSTRY

FIBRE
PROCESSORS

HIDE

PROCESSORS

RETAILERS


Provide direction on market demands


Provide direc瑩on on new marke琠oppor瑵ni瑩es (local/foreign)

CONSUMERS

FARMER / PRODUCER


Provide direction on production challenges


Provide evalua瑩on on 瑥chnology
perfor浡nce


4

Preliminary Project Description




4.1 Feasibility Study

It is proposed that
The
A
nimal

Breeding and Reproduction Technology P
latform will be established
to provide academia, government and industry with access to a network of technologie
s and
expertise. This will assist with the strategic development of animal
production capability in South
Afria
, towards meeting expanding local and international market demand for good quality protein
source
s

and other animal products.

There is currentl
y limited investment in
biotechnology based
animal improvement in South Africa.
From a TIA perspective the Agri
-
Biotechnology investment portfolio is heavily skewed towards plant
product investments.

There is a need to assist the animal production sector
by enabling the use of biotechnology tools
such as ma
r
ker assisted breeding and genomic selection towards improving the genetic resource
base that farmers utilise.

In order to develop an optimal structure, function and operational framework w
e need to
unde
rstand the following aspects:

1)

What are the international models of best practice and what are
the lessons we can
learn
from them?

The EU platform hosted at INRA, France and the Australian Beef CRC have been
identified as some of the best models with effect
ive industry participation and leadership.

Feasibility Study
Q2 2012/13


Seek TIA EXCO approval to fund benchmarking,
industry consultation and feasibility study for the
Animal Breeding and Reproduction Platform

Business Case
Q4 2012/13


Present Business Case on the Animal Breeding and
Reproduction Platform to TIA for approval

Impl ementation
Q1 2013/14


The initial opertional activities of the Animal
Breeding and Reproduction Platform will commence

2)

What are the
current resources

available in SA that will assist this initiative?

3)

What are the
current gaps

in implementing the initiative and how can they be resolved?

4)

Who are the major stakeholders, what are the
ir requirements, concerns and potential
commitments towards this initiative?

5)

What would the Platform’s objectives be? How would these objectives be set, prioritised

and reprioritised if necessary?

6)

How would the platform operationalize its work and achieve
its objectives?

What
mechanisms will be in place to develop effective strategies to enable industry to set the
research priorities such that it delivers research, technologies and products that are
demanded by the market?

7)

What are the existing structures,
programmes and initiatives that the Platform needs to be
linked with in order to integrate effectively into the
SA livestock production sector?

8)

How will the platform invest in technology transfer?

9)


Would it be possible to invest in some technologies that

a
lready exist

or are close to
market? In this way
technology transfer mechanisms

can be implemented, tested and
prepared to deliver m
edium and long term research and d
evelopment outputs through the
most effective mechanisms.

10)

What are the
impact measures

tha
t need to be monitored immediately, in the short
,
medium and long term to determine

if the Platform is indeed achieving its objectives?

In
order to answer these questions
it is proposed that a feasibility
study be commissioned. The study
will
in
volve
benchmarking, gap analysis,
stakeholder analysis and discussion of

the
institutional
options that can followed. The study will also make assessments on the funding that will be required
to operationali
s
e the platform and present co
-
financing options.
It wi
ll have to present both local
and international co
-
funders

and donor
s.
The study will also present the criteria for conducting
impact assessments on the effectiveness of the Platform once it has been implemented.

It is
proposed that TIA fund this feasibil
ity in full to the value of R1, 000, 000
. The budget is discussed in
Section 7 below.


4.2 Business Case

The feasibility study wil
l then guide the development of a Business Case.

The Business Case will
address the issues required by TIA to facilitate the establishment of a platform and follow the
required processes to achieve
this.

It is envisaged that the Business Case will be presented to EXCO
during Quarter 4 2012/13.

5

Potentia
l Risk and Mitigation



One of the most significant risks faced by the project is that there may be inadequate
buy
-
in
from the livestock production industry. If the strategic objectives of the Platform are not
carefully developed with full participation of i
ndustry and farmers

(the potential end users)
,
the
P
latform risks becoming an academic endeavour

as a result,

there would be limited
beneficial technology transfer opportunities. To prevent this from happening
,

the various
industry players will have to be
engaged at the outset and continued participation
throughout the feasibility and implementation pr
ocess will be sought.
Industry together with
other stakeholders will be consulted in the development of impact assessment measures
which will
be used to

monit
or the project and ensure that it does

indeed

achieve the
object
ives set by the stakeholders.
Furthermore, during the implementation phase industry
players will play an important role in prioritising and guiding research activities, thus
ensuring direct va
lue of the platform to industry.



Another risk that

presents during

the implementation
phase is, whether or not the platform
would be able to access adequate funding to run sustainably over a significant multi year
period to ensure that appropriate outcomes

are achieved. If adequate funding is not
available the output and ultimate impact of the Platform would be sorely compromised. This
will be mitigated by ensuring substantial industry buy
-
in and by seeking local and
international donor support. We will al
so involve the best scientists in the industry to lend
credibility that would attract the necessary sponsorship.



Small
-
scale farmers are often identified as the beneficiaries of various research and
development programmes, yet the consultation and technolo
gy tr
ansfer processes that are
implemented do not facilitate this. Thus the central beneficiaries are completely excluded
and technology adoption and diffusion is not achieved. The risk with the Animal Breeding
and Reproduction
Technology
platform is th
at small
-
scale farmers may not experience direct
benefit. By highlighting the small
-
scale farmer plight within the objectives of the platform,
engaging with organised groups and monitoring and evaluating research and technology
output regularly we will be

able to mitigate this risk.



The Platform would need to develop a position on intellectual property protection in the
livestock industry where no specific legal instruments exist in SA to protect genetic
improvements. There is potential that much will be
achieved within the Animal Breeding
and Reproduction Technology Platform but there would be limited protected IP output.



Preferred institutional and governance structures that the Platform should clearly reduce
financial, regulatory and other risks.