563.12.1 Automated Identification

spotlessstareΑσφάλεια

29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

90 εμφανίσεις

563.12.1 Automated
Identification


Anh Nguyen


University of Illinois

Fall 2007

Agenda


Identification


Automated Identification


Applications


Technologies


Patient Identification


My research project

1. Identification



“The function of
identification

is to map a
known quantity
to an
unknown entity
so as to make it known. The known quantity is called
the identifier (or ID) and the unknown entity is what needs
identification...”


Wiki



No guarantee of provenance or
right

mapping.



Need and concern


Why Identification:


In many cases it is a required part of the workflow.


Build up profile (better shopping experience).


In security:


Authorization = Identification & Authentication + Assigning Privilege(s).

(
Identity Crisis: How Identification Is Overused and Misunderstood

-

Jim
Harper
-

debate at
Techliberation
)



Security concerns according to CIA model:

-
Confidentiality: Might not want outside parties to learn your ID
(SSN)

-
Integrity: of ID transferred.

-
Availability: the ID is ready when needed.


2. Automated Identification (AID)


The process is done automatically, less human interventions.


To save times, increase productivity


To operate in harsh environment where it is harmful for human



Either replace traditional identification procedure to provide more seamless
workflow, or bring new applications:


Commercial: Product identification, Supply chain & Logistics, E
-
Commerce.


Healthcare: Equipment tracking/ Patient Identification (later)


Transportation: E
-
Tickets


Others: Animal Tracking, Vehicle / People Identification





AID Applications
-

Domino


Microsoft touch screen computing & domino technology


http://www.news.com/1606
-
2
-
6186146.html

AID Technologies
-

Barcode


Printing ID in a way which is machine readable.
Information can be expressed via different symbologies.


History: developed in 1948, commercial use 1966,


not commercially successful until the 1980s.


Recent developments: 2D Barcode / stacked barcode,
Semacode.


Characteristics: cheap, short/long operating range, line of
sight, low data rate.


Current uses: Groceries


UPC, Books


ISBN, drugs


Barcode
,
Semacode
,
UPC
,
ISBN



Wikipedia

Magnetic Stripe Card



Storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron
-
based
magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material, as in video tape.


Sticking a piece of magnetic tape to a plastic card base.


Characteristics: cheap, higher data rate, near operating range,
inconvenient (operation + reliability), low coercivity card easily
damaged.


Highly standardized.


Current uses: ID cards (UID), Credit & Debit Cards, Subway and
Bus Card.

Smart Card


Adding processing power: any pocket
-
sized card with
embedded integrated circuits which can process
information.


Contact, contactless. Contactless and RFID.


Characteristics: has processing power, often come
with tamper resistant feature, short operating range
(ISO 14443


10cm, ISO 15693


50cm), more
expensive.


Current uses: Mobile phone SIM, ATM Cards,
contactless CC/DC, smart driver licenses.


RFID Vs Contactless Smart cards


An unending debate
-

Parul Oswal


2006

Biometrics


Uniquely recognizing humans based upon
one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral
traits. (but must be unique)


Characteristics: convenient / inconvenient,
not very reliable (collision, effect of aging),
usually more expensive.


Current uses: Personal laptops, digital IDs,
ePassport (US, Brazil, Germany).


Concerns: once compromised it is
compromised for life, danger to owner.




Biometrics:

Universality

Uniqueness

Face

H

L

Fingerprint

M

H

Hand geometry

M

M

Keystrokes

L

L

Hand veins

M

M

Iris

H

H

Retinal scan

H

H

Signature

L

L

Voice

M

L

Facial
thermograph

H

H

Odor

H

H

DNA

H

H

Gait

M

L

Ear recognition

M

M

Biometrics

-

Wikipedia

RFID


Using radio frequency to transfer identifier.


Characteristics: very flexible (HF/LF/UHF, active/passive,
implantable..), convenient, does not require line of sight.


Concerns: privacy, cancer (implantable tags).


Emerging market: DoD and Wal
-
Mart’s mandate, Prescription Drug
Marketing Act (PMDA)
-

pharmaceutical supply chain (pedigree
system by Dec 2006


FDA), China national ID card, Qatar National
Identification Project...


3. Patient Identification


Current practice


Use text/color wristband


Use barcode wristband (ex: University of Wisconsin
Hospital


2004)


Use RFID wristband (ex: Bangkok Hospital


2006,
Birmingham Heartlands Hospital
-

2007)


Need to Improve


Patient misidentification is identified as a root cause of many errors:
adverse drugs event, wrong invasive surgical operations...



Study by FDA shows that adverse drug events (ADEs) range from
2.4 percent to 6.5 percent per facility, with a mean rate of 4.3
percent


about 770,000 adverse events in the U.S. each year, $1.7
billion cost


Zebra white paper.



Joint Commission


JCAHO
-

listed “
improving patient identification
accuracy”
as the first of its National Patient Safety Goals introduced
in 2003, and this continues to be an accreditation requirement from
2004 to 2008.



WHO and JCAHO encourage the use of at least two identifiers.

(*3)


The Wrong Patient

-

Mark R. Chassin


2002,
Patient Identification

-

WHO Press
-

2007

Applications



Combine it with automated medication administration systems. U of
Wisconsin Hospital reduced medication administration error by 87%.



Blood Administration



Sample / Treatment Management (to prevent unnecessary
procedures)



Automated Billing



Patient tracking (babies, sleepwalker)


Technology Trade
-
off



Regulations (FDA, FCC compliance; EU Directive


CE
mark)


Reliability


Privacy concerns


Convenience.


Cost for hospital.


Cost for patient. (not a big issue)


(*4)

Barcode, Magnetic Stripe, Smart Card


Barcode:


Advantage: conform to regulation, proven reliability, cheap


Disadvantage: inconvenient, limited applications, low capacity,
not re
-
writable.



Magnetic Stripe


Advantage: conform to regulation, acceptable reliability, cheap,
higher capacity.


Disadvantage: inconvenient, limited applications, not easily re
-
writable



Smart card


Advantage: conform to regulation, high reliability, high capacity,
flexible (contact/contactless, rewritable/not), computation &
security features.


Disadvantage: more expensive, limited applications (range).


RFID, Biometrics


RFID


Advantage: higher capacity, more applications, convenient,
flexible (long/short range, re
-
writable/not, passive/active)


Disadvantage: regulation conformation, reliability (metal &
liquid), privacy concerns (more engineering researches),
more expensive.



Biometrics


Advantage: conform to regulation, convenient, no extra cost for
patient.


Disadvantage: limited applications, no extra information, most
expensive (for hospital), reliability improvement.

http://www.pdcorp.com/healthcare/case
-
study
-
chang
-
gung
-
hospital.html


My research


Working with Ayesha:


“To design, implement and verify a system that will enable clinicians to
gather, verify and store medical device reading in an automated fashion”

Ser
-
ver

Nurse

Medical Device

Patient

Nurse ID

Patient ID

reading

(Nurse ID, Patient ID, reading)

Nurse info, patient info, human readable reading (*)

Yes/ No

(*)

Yes/No

https://agora.cs.uiuc.edu/display/cs598cag/Automated+Medical+Data+Acquisition

Conclusion


Automated Identification is very useful.


RFID is an emerging technology.


Patient Identification need to be improved. And could be
done using AID.


Each AID technology has its own advantage and
disadvantage.


More researches to prove/improve reliability of RFID and
Biometrics, design so that RFID will conform with EMC
requirements.

References


Identity Crisis: How Identification Is Overused and Misunderstood

-

Jim Harper
-

2006


www.rfidjournal.com



www.rfidupdate.com


Patient Identification
-

Patient Safety Solutions
-

volume 1, solution 2, May 2007
-

WHO Press


Patient identification
-

a crucial aspect of patient safety
-

patient Safety First



The Wrong Patient

-

Mark R. Chassin, MD, MPP, MPH, and Elise C. Becher, MD, MA*
-

4 June
2002 | Volume 136 Issue 11 | 826
-
833


It's All in the Wrist: Improving Patient Safety with Bar Code Wristbands



Zebra


2006


A wearable device for a fully automated in
-
hospital staff and patient identification

-

M. Cavalleri, R.
Morstabilini, G. Reni


2004


Interoperability Issues regarding Patient Identification in Europe

-

C. Quantin et al
-

IEEE EMBS
-

2007