User Requirements Document (URD) - Common

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1

Alenia Spazio S.p.A.


I
NFORMATION
S
OCIETY
T
ECHNOLOGIES
(IST)

P
ROGRAMME








INTUITION

IST
-
NMP
-
1
-
507248
-
2


User Requirements Document (URD)
-

Common


Deliverable No.

D1.5_2

Cluster No.

CL1

Cluster Title

Integration Activities

Workpackage No.

WP1.5

Workpackage Title

User

Forum


User Needs

Authors (per company, if more than one
company provide it together)

Enrico Gaia, Valter Basso
-

Alenia Spazio S.p.A.

Iabel Bascones Valladolid


TECNATOM

Philippe Vacher


Dassault Aviation

Johan Blondelle


BARCO

Status (F: final; D:

draft; RD: revised draft):

Final

File Name:

INTUITION
-
ALS
-
D
-
WP1_5
-
R5
-
V
1
-
URDGen.doc

Project start date and duration

01 September 2004, 48 Months

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Alenia Spazio S.p.A.

List of abbreviations



Abbreviation/Term

Definition

3D

3 Dimensions (x,y,z)

nD

n Dimensional (x,y,z, tim
e, history, etc.)

ATV

Automated Transfer Vehicle

BRDF

Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function

CAD

Computer Aided Design

CBT

Computer
-
Based Training

C/D

Development Phase of a space project

CFD

Computational Fluids Dynamics

CL

Cluster

DMU

Di
gital Mock
-
Up

EAC

European Astronaut Center Cologne Germany

EAI

Engineering Automation Inc.

ECLS

Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem

EMC

Electro
-
Magnetic Compatibility

ESA

European Space Agency

EVA

Extra
-
Vehicular Activity

GCTC

Gagarin
Cosmonaut Center Russia

GSE

Ground Support Equipment (EGSE+MGSE+FGSE+TE)

GUI

Graphical User Interface

HFE

Human Factor Engineering

Hi
-
Fi

High Fidelity components

HMD

Head Mounted Display

IDP

Instructional Development Process

I/F

Interface

IGES

Init
ial Graphics Exchange Specification

IVA

Intra
-
Vehicular Activity

ISS

International Space Station

ITCB

International Training Control Board

JSC

Johnson Space Center in Houston Tx U.S.

LOD

Level Of Details

LSC

Large Size Cargoes

MCC

Mission Control Ce
nter

MPLM

Multi Purpose Logistic Module of the ISS

N2

Node 2

NBL

Neutral Buoyancy Facility

NASA

U.S. National Aeronautics Space Agency

OBT

On Board Training

ORU

Orbital Replaceable Unit

PCS

Portable Computer System

PDP

Product Delivery Process

RAM

Random Access Memory

SM

Strustural Model

SME

Subject Matter Experts

SKA

Skill Knowledge and Attitudes

S/S

Subsystem

SSTF

Space Station Training Facility

STEP

ISO 10303 is an International Standard for the computer
-
interpretable
representation and ex
change of product data

TBD

To be Defined

TBW

To be Written

TCS

Thermal Control Subsystem

ToR

Term of Reference

TSE

Test Support Equipment

URD

User Requirement Document

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Alenia Spazio S.p.A.

Abbreviation/Term

Definition

VTD

Volvo Technological Development

VE

Virtual Environment

VR

Virtual Reality

VRML

Virtual reality Markup Language

WG

Working Group

VIEW

Virtual and Interactive and Workplace


of 瑨攠fu瑵re

WP

Work Package

WS

WorkStation



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Table of contents


1.

Executive Summary

................................
.............................

6

2.

Introduction

................................
................................
..........

7

3.

Validation Scenarios

................................
............................

8

3.1.

General

................................
................................
...............................

8

3.2.

Design & Development support scenario


automotive

................

8

3.2.1.

Context of the Validation Scenario

................................
.............

8

3.2.2.

Objectives for scenario

................................
.............................

10

3.2.3.

Chronology of scenario

................................
.............................

11

3.2.4.

Description of the scenario

................................
.......................

11

3.2.5.

Users type

................................
................................
................

14

3.3.

Training & Design support scenario


space

...............................

15

3.3.1.

Co
ntext of the scenario

................................
.............................

15

3.3.2.

Chronology of scenarios

................................
...........................

16

3.3.3.

Dedicated Tools description

................................
.....................

19

3.3.4.

Description of the Scenarios

................................
.....................

19

3.3.5.

Users Type

................................
................................
...............

29

4.

Common Requirements

................................
.....................

30

4.1.

Definitions

................................
................................
........................

30

4.2.

Virtual Environment objects

................................
...........................

30

4.3.

VR System Cost consideration
s

................................
....................

31

4.4.

Requirements list

................................
................................
............

31

4.4.1.

General Requirements

................................
.............................

31

4.4.2.

A
dministrator Requirements

................................
.....................

32

4.4.3.

Architectural Requirements

................................
......................

32

4.4.4.

Functional Requirements

................................
..........................

33

4.4.5.

Immersive devices Requirements
................................
.............

37

4.4.6.

Interaction Requirements

................................
.........................

37

4.4.7.

Portability Require
ments

................................
..........................

38

4.4.8.

Output Requirements

................................
...............................

38

4.4.9.

Help Requirements

................................
................................
...

39

5.

References

................................
................................
..........

41

6.

ANNEXES

................................
................................
............

43

6.1.

Training vs. VR Utilisation Theoretical Considerations

...............

43

6.1.1.

Annex n. 1.1: HFE Training vs VR analysis

..............................

43

6.1.2.

Annex n.1.2: A Cognitive Taxonomy and Learning Theory

......

46

6.1.3.

Annex n. 1.3: Teaching Versus Performing the Task

...............

49

6.1.4.

Annex n. 1.4: VR Interaction Levels Identification

....................

51

6.1.5.

Annex n. 1.5: Computer Simulation versus VR

........................

52

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List of Figures


Figure 1

VOLVO
-

User and controls in the vehicle

................................
.............

11

Figure 2

VOLVO


Displays to the users

................................
..............................

12

Figure 3

VOLVO
-

User and controls in the vehicle

................................
.............

12

Figure 4

VOLVO
-

User and controls in the vehicle

................................
.............

13

Figure 5

VOLVO


Reachability evaluation

................................
..........................

13

Fig
ure 6

VOLVO


interior/dashboard reflections

................................
................

14

Figure 7

VOLVO


interior/dashboard reflections

................................
................

14

Figure 8

Alenia


International Space Station

................................
........................

19

Figure 9

Alenia


ISS
/Standard Rack

................................
................................
.....

20

Figure 10

Alenia


ISS/Cupola

................................
................................
................

21

Figure 11

Alenia


ISS/Cupola Interior

................................
................................
...

22

Figure 12

Alenia


ISS/NODE

................................
................................
.................

24

Figure 13

Alenia



ISS/Crew member performing a task

................................
........

25

Figure 14

Alenia
-

ISS/ATV

................................
................................
....................

26

Figure 15

Alenia


ISS/ATV Crew member activity

................................
...............

27

Figure 16

Alenia


ISS/ATV 2 Crew member activit
y

................................
............

28


List of Tables


None


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1.

Executive Summary


This document contains the common user requirements applicable to the VR/VE
utilisation within the domains reflected by the INTUITION Cluster 2 (CL2) Working
Groups (WGs).

The “U
RD


Common” is nominally prepared with the contribution of the overall
INTUITION Consortium open also to all external entities participating to the
INTUITION Forum or to the various INTUITION events, according to the procedure
described in the WP 1
-
5 ToR
(INTUITION
-
CL1
-
WP1.5
-
R4
-
V1
-
URDUFTToR.doc).
The first issue was prepared on the basis of the experience of the partners which
driven the results obtained from the VIEW Project (VIEW
-
of the Future
;

Contract N.
IST
-
2000
-
26089).

This document, once CL2 activit
ies start, will collect inputs coming from the
following INTUITION organised entities:

Forum participants,

Events participants,

Network Core Group members,

Advisory Board members, and most important

CL2 WGs members.

It is WP 1.5 partners’ task to collect r
equirements from these different sources, to
discuss them with the interested WG, and to organise and manage them as described
in the WP ToR.

This document contains also generalised schematic validation scenarios that are the
most representative ones that
were used to identify and collect the scenario specific
requirements. Presently only two of these scenarios are included
:

one for the generic
design & development application and the second one for the generic training
application; these scenarios are two
of those developed during VIEW Project by
partners now participating to INTUITION.
Only t
he common requirements across all
VR applications, associated with the two above mentioned scenarios, are included in
this document; the requirements present in this i
ssue are coming from VIEW Project.
In the next issues of this document it is envisaged that more validation scenarios and
as a consequence additional and/or modifications to the present common requirements
will be included.

In the annexes of this document
is foreseen to include materials or references to
publications
to
help the understanding of the validation scenarios. In the present issue
the material included is limited to the training scenario.


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2.

Introduction

Scope of this document is to collect commo
n requirements produced within the
various INTUITION networking initiatives in order to understand and provide for
research and utilisation of VR/VE. It is expected that these common requirements, in
principle generated by the users, will contribute to the

following:



Spread of VR/VE utilisation in Europe, i.e. help VR/VE stakeholder to
formulate their own needs as well as help developer
s

to address their industrial
objectives.



Identification of technical or technological shortcomings, i.e. supporting both
n
ew research initiatives and giv
ing

direction to technological developments.



Technological solutions trade
-
offs baseline.



Quality control reference.

Whenever collected the user needs,
they will
became
by following to the process
identified in the

WP 1
-
5 ToR

INTUITION accepted required VR/VE functionalities

to
be included in this document
. This User Requirements Document Common Part
(URD
-
C) is a living document and is considered an INTUITION consortium public
document.

The document is organised in three parts
:

1)

Chapter 3


Validation Scenarios; these are representative validation scenarios
from where the common requirements are derived.

2)

Chapter 4


Common Requirements; these are requirements extracted from
various scenarios developed by the INTUITION Working Gr
oups of which a
representative selection is included in chapter 3.

3)

Annexes


they contain any useful information to improve the understanding
of the Validation Scenarios.

The validation scenarios included
in present version

are
only
two
and
representative

for the generic design & development application and the second one for the generic
training application. They have been developed in VIEW Project and they have been
used in the same project to derive the common requirements presented
in this first
issue
of the document
.


The requirements have been defined according to the following rules:



Requirements have to be verifiable;



Words of ambiguous interpretation are avoided (e.g. better, in general, user
friendly, etc.);

Priorities have been assigned utilising

a pre
-
defined approach:



H

= high (the scenario is not possible without it)



M

= medium (the scenario may lose some key features)



L
= low (it is a nice to have)



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3.

Validation Scenarios

3.1.

General

The following are generalised schematic validation scenarios rep
resentative of the
common
requirements listed in the following chapter. These
reference validation
scenarios are included here to support the understanding of the generated
requirements. This also
presented in order
to stress the principle that requirement
s
cannot be produced without having in mind specific applications of the technology.
For each application the following information
is
identified:

Task Identification
: list of tasks included in the application

Why
: purpose of the application

Where
: locatio
n of the activity

When
: time of utilisation within the frame of the project or of the general event

How
: the way in which
it
is realised

Present Solution
: how it is performed before the utilisation of the VR/VE or of the
particular VR/VE technology under d
evelopment. This is also to be able to identify
advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technology.

In the following issues of the document it is expected that new reference
validation
scenarios coming from the various active INTUITION WGs will be inc
luded as well
as the existing one edited according to new finding coming from the same WGs.


3.2.

Design & Development support scenario


automotive

Source of this scenario and its various applications is the work performed in VIEW by
VOLVO.


3.2.1.

Context of the Val
idation Scenario

The Vehicle Interior Simulator Tool will be used for the following types of
evaluations:


Application 1: Physical ergonomics

Identification
:



The evaluation of sight angles inside and outside the vehicle cab/interior



The evaluation of sigh
t via the reflection of the rear view mirrors



The evaluation of reachability for the user in relation to the vehicle
cab/interior



The evaluation of driving position and driver comfort



The reflections of the interior/dashboard in the windshield, depending o
n eye
position

Why
: The purposes of these evaluations are to detect potential design and system
problems early in the product development processes of Volvo, preferably before hard
prototypes are built.

Where
: The evaluation takes place in Gothenburg, Swed
en at VTDs facilities,
possibly at other Volvo sights in Gothenburg.

When
: This type of evaluation would be most beneficial in early design phases of the
product development process.

How
: Volvo engineers perform the evaluations.

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Present

solution
: Simulati
on software like the Transom Jack ‘mannequin’ is used
along with objective test methods on physical mock
-
ups.


Application 2: Usability (cognitive ergonomics)

Identification
:



The interaction between user and controls/displays in the vehicle cab/interior
(p
ush buttons, slider, knob, instrumentation, lamps, diodes, displays, sounds,
force)



The utilisation of menu
-
structures in systems like navigation and
entertainment



The visual behaviour of the user should be recorded for later analysis

Why
: The purpose of t
hese evaluations is to detect potential design and system
problems early in the product development processes of Volvo, preferably before hard
prototypes are built and requirements are decided.

Where
: The evaluation takes place in Gothenburg, Sweden at VTD
s facilities,
possibly at other Volvo sights in Gothenburg. Of certain interest is a portable
tool/system for easy distribution and transportation to different Volvo
-
markets
throughout the world.

When
: This type of evaluation would be most beneficial in ea
rly design phases of the
product development process.

How
: The evaluations are performed by the supervision of one of Volvo’s
behavioural experts and involve a large number of test subjects representing typical
end
-
users. The test subjects have a distribut
ion in age, gender, product experience etc.
Objective and subjective data is collected. Video recordings are made for later
analysis. Measures being made often involve:



Time measurement of interaction in terms of triggered cues and signals to the
users inp
ut.



Performance measures such as number of “errors”, time to collision



User subjective comments through semi structured interviews.



User subjective comments through commenting.

o

Checklists for HMI

o

Evaluation of subjective factors / questionnaires and Cognit
ive
Workload

o

Standardised driver performance tests

o

Physiological measures of workload and stress

o

Generally applicable methods and techniques, e.g. Secondary task
performance, Questionnaires, Thinking aloud

Present

solution
:
Desktop simulations are being u
sed for the subject to interact
through either mouse or touch panel. (tools: VAPS, Rapid Plus, Java, State Mate,
Macromedia Director). No real standard is developed regarding interaction metaphors,
which causes some problems. Physical mock
-
ups are also use
d but those are often too
time consuming to construct and therefore used seldom.


Application 3: Interior design
-

customer evaluation

Identification:


Subjective ratings of vehicle cabs/interiors in terms of materials, roominess

Attitudes towards design s
olutions

Why:

The purpose of these evaluations are to make sure that Volvo product
companies are designing product acceptable and suitable for certain user groups.

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Where:

Usually the evaluations could be performed at a Volvo site, but of certain
interest i
s a portable tool/system for easy distribution and transportation to different
Volvo
-
markets throughout the world where the customers reside.

When:
This type of evaluation would be most beneficial in early phases of the
product development process, even be
fore actual product development begins, ie in
concept and product planning.

How:

The respondents look at and experience the interior designs, making comments,
following questions from questionnaires specially made for this purpose. The
evaluations are perf
ormed by the supervision of one of the VTD’s behavioural experts
and involve a large number of test subjects representing typical end
-
users. The test
subjects have a distribution in age, gender, product experience etc. Objective and
subjective data is coll
ected. Video recordings are made for later analysis.

Present Solution:

The present process is based on presentation of physical mock
-
ups
at customer clinics set up at various markets.


Application 4: Interior design review


engineering and management

Iden
tification:


At particular milestones during a project decisions will be made before
moving into the next phase, the application will be used by a group of
stylists, automotive architects, and people from commercial and marketing
departments

Why:

To revie
w new concepts of vehicles’ interiors

Where:

The evaluation/review should take place at on of Volvos product companies
design studios.

When:
This type of evaluation would be most beneficial in early phases of the
product development process.

How:

The proje
ct leader presents different solutions to the group including stylists,
engineers, managers.

Present Solution:

The present process is based on presentation of physical mock
-
ups,
computer renderings and scale models.


3.2.2.

Objectives for scenario

Application 1:
Physical ergonomics

The objective is
to detect potential design problems already in the digital drawings
(CAD); by using packaging analysis for the human in the vehicle we ensure a
comfortable vehicle design. In the VE the engineer herself/himself be part
of the
vehicle design and experience the potential problems “as in real life”.


Application 2: Usability (cognitive ergonomics)

The objective is to design and test HMI
-
concepts in early stages of product
development. Usability of controls and displays coul
d be evaluated, and the
understanding of menu structures and vehicle systems could be checked.


Application 3: Interior design
-

customer evaluation

The objective is to bring in end
-
users early in the design process, making early
selections of different de
sign concepts. With the VE as test
-
bed for these studies, a lot
of variants and combinations could be evaluated without having to build physical
mock
-
ups and transporting them across the world.


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Application 4: Interior design review


engineering and manag
ement

The objective is to evaluate new ways for managers to take decision in the advanced
phases of a project. Today, the team meets around physical prototypes to evaluate
different solutions and orient the project in one or two directions to be deepened.
But
due to the time needed for the realisation of a prototype and to the induced cost, a
much reduced number of solutions can be presented during the project review. By the
usage of VR application, we expect to present more alternatives, to be able to
comb
ine elements from different alternatives in real time in the VR environment. The
challenges of this scenario concern technical issues (visualisation, interaction…) but
also human factors: designers and managers are accustomed to take decision on
physical o
bjects, a lot of training and information will be necessary to change habits
and authorise this new way of working.


3.2.3.

Chronology of scenario

The applications are mostly taking place in certain stages of the Product Development
Process, however, there is a
potential to make these evaluations even before the
product development starts, to save lead time and costs. Market intelligence, product
planning and concept generations are earlier stages to take into consideration.


Figure 1

VOLVO
-

User and controls in the vehi
cle


3.2.4.

Description of the scenario

The test cases listed here refer to one or more of the above applications.

Case
1: The interaction between user and controls in the vehicle cab/interior (push
buttons, slider, knob…)

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Case
2: The display of information from

various systems to the user (instrumentation,
lamps, diodes, displays, sounds, force, surface material)



Figure 2

VOLVO


Displays to the users


Case
3: Time measurement of interaction in terms of triggered cues and signals to the
users input


Figure 3

VOLVO
-

User and c
ontrols in the vehicle

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Case
4: The evaluation of sight angles inside and outside the vehicle cab/interior


Figure 4

VOLVO
-

User and controls in the vehicle


Case
5: The evaluation of sight via the reflection of the rear view mirrors


Case
6: The evaluation of rea
chability for the user in relation to the vehicle
cab/interior



Figure 5

VOLVO


Reachability evaluation


Case
7: The reflections of the interior/dashboard in the windshield, depending on
outside lighting and material properties of the interior/cab.




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Figure 6

VOLVO


interior/dashboard reflections


Case
8: The vehicle with the user in it is integrated into a traffic environment,
navigation and propulsion, performance measures.



Figure 7

VOLVO


interior/dashboard reflections



3.2.5.

Users type

The identified users for the Vehicle I
nterior Simulator Tool will be:


Simulation programmer



inserts new data (interior geometry and possibly
kinematics ), programs the scenario, events and object behaviour that will take
place during the evaluation, defines what data should be collected


Test

leaders



instruct the test subjects and perform the evaluation, take care of
collected data


Test subjects



will be immersed into the simulation and perform different tasks
according to protocols specified by the Test leader

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3.3.

Training & Design support sc
enario


space

Source of this scenario and its various applications is the work performed in VIEW
Project
by Alenia Spazio.

3.3.1.

Context of the scenario

The Context of the Scenario description can be considered common (apart
from
some
differences, highlighted
when necessary) to all the Alenia scenarios proposed in this
document.


Identification:

The scenarios proposed by Alenia (that will be described in detail in
the following) are:

MPLM Preparation for Cargo Operations

Cupola Window Removal/Replacement

Node 2

Heat Exchanger Replacement

ATV Cabin Cargo Items Handling

CRV Deorbit and Parafoil Deployment Operations

The VIEW is intended to be utilized for the Training of the International Space
Station Crew Members in the framework of their Advanced/Increment Trai
ning.


Why:

The purpose of this training is to provide the necessary knowledge and
comprehension of the task and to maintain the proficiency on the skill acquired on the
real (or hi.fi.) hardware. This apply to all the scenarios proposed a part of:

Cupola,

for which
the hi
-
fi mock
-
up utilization for training

is considered not
applicable, both for cost reasons and for constraints related to the activity that
is strictly related to the 0 g environment.

CRV, for which it is necessary to add an external input c
oming from a
simulation that is necessary to give information related to the spacecraft
attitude during deorbit phase and parachutes opening during re
-
entry.


Where:

Generally the event takes place in the Johnson Spaceflight Center (JSC) in
Houston Tx at t
he Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) with the possibility of
having distributed participants as the Instructor at the Partner’s Site (e.g. Alenia
Turin). The only difference is related to ATV that will be trained at the European
Astronaut Center (EAC)

located in Cologne (Germany) and at the Gagarin Cosmonaut
Center (GCTC) in Russia for the part concerning the hatch operations (the ATV hatch
is a Russian common item since ATV will be docked to the Russian Space Station
Segment).


When:

This type of trai
ning is delivered during the Increment Specific Training phase
that occurs in the last year before launch of the relevant Increment/Expedition. It has
to be taken into account that during the last 6 months the time available for the Crew
to travel is very
limited, so the utilization of a VR tool can be very helpful for
proficiency and refreshment purposes. Moreover, in case the tool could be installed
on
-
orbit, the VR training could be done by the Station Crew (that remains on Station
for long periods, 4/5
months) to refresh their skills just before performing the activity,
reducing the necessity of ground support (from the MCC Flight Controllers team) and
speeding the operations with significant costs saving.


How:

The session is driven by an Instructor acc
ording to the Demonstration
-
Performance methodology which foresees some repetitions of the procedure step by
Deliverable N.
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the Instructor and then a guide performance by the Trainee. Failures and disturbances
may be injected according to the relevant load/script where r
equired. The more
efficient VR tool can be selected for each specific scenario.


Present solution:

Presently such tasks are trained by means of classroom lessons
using traditional multimedia presentation to an audience of 5
-
6 students followed by
part
-
task

trainer classes with 1
-
3 students. In the future the utilization of VR tools (see
also ANNEX 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5) will help in optimizing the whole process.

3.3.2.

Chronology of scenarios

The Training lessons are developed by the ALENIA certified Instructors, fol
lowing
the Instructional Development Process (IDP) model. The IDP process, based on an
industry standard, provides a proven methodology for the analysis, design, and
development of training materials.


The IDP model establishes five phases in the training
development:

1.

Analysis


Identify training requirements

2.

Design


Develop objectives, Identify lessons, Develop lesson plans

3.

Development

Develop training materials, conduct small groups tryouts

4.

Implementation

Conduct and support training activities

5.

Evaluation

Conduct internal/external evaluation


ANALYSIS

In order to develop the initial IDP phase the following steps have been included:

-

analysis of the operational requirements with the definition of the job
performance requirements (using proficiency levels) for

all target personnel.

-

comparison of job requirements with the proficiency level of the target
population.

-

development of preliminary training aids and courseware requirements.

-

development of preliminary training requirements support.

The output of this ac
tivity is the Training Requirement Document.


DESIGN

The second step of the IDP includes:

-

development of specific training objective (in accordance with the overall one),
review and acceptance of NASA established performance measure/standards,
review and

acceptance of NASA established instructional methods and media
selection, specifications of lessons flows and sequences.

-

design of required training hardware and software facilities, if not already
available from other destinations, to accommodate stude
nt populations and
types of instructional methods and media selected.

-

design of methods for implementation of required training support.

-

definition of specific performance rating instruments and written test items in
accordance with the NASA establishe
d one.


The necessary information as input to the design of a training program follow from
the use of the task analysis methodology and the development of the
Skills,
Knowledge and Attitudes (SKA’s)

necessary to perform the task. With this type of
input th
e trainer has information regarding what task must be performed and what
knowledge, skills and attitudes are necessary to perform the task.

Deliverable N.
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Skill

refers to the capability to perform job operations with ease and precision. The
specification of a skill usua
lly implies a performance standard that is usually required
for effective job operations.


Knowledge

is defined as the foundation upon which abilities and skills are built.
Knowledge refers to an organized body of data and information which, if applied,
ma
kes the job performance possible. It should be underlined that the possession of
knowledge does not insure that it will be used.


Attitude

usually refers to cognitive capabilities necessary to perform a job function.
Attitudes require the application of so
me basic knowledge.


The determination of the SKA’s required for successful job performance provide
direct input to the training program, in order to determine the content of the
instructional material. This information also provides input for the establis
hment of
measures of training success, in fact at the end of the training programme it is
important to evaluate the training success achieved in teaching the SKA’s necessary
to adequately perform the job.


The key input for the Training analysis is the Tra
ining NASA documentation. The
operational analysis data will be compiled and processed, then analysed to assign
specific knowledge and skills that the personnel must possess to operate the ALENIA
systems.
Changes in the design or in the Operations Procedur
es and feedback are
continually incorporated.


The output of this activity will be the Training Catalogue.


DEVELOPMENT

The third IDP development phase activities include:

-

construction, validation, verification and integration of required training aids
a
nd courseware.

construction, validation, verification and integration of training support parts.

development of dedicated lesson plans, presentations, hand
-
outs


Training material preparation

The Training material is prepared by the ALENIA certified Instru
ctors, utilizing both
ALENIA and NASA technical documentation, design reports and procedures,
discussing the technical matters with the ALENIA Engineering Team, in order to
clarify as much as possible the technical material.


The training material will be
composed of:



Classroom lessons, each lesson composed of a lesson plan, a presentation and an
hand
-
out to be given to the trainees. Drawings, photos and eventually videos are
utilized as much as possible.



Demonstration/Performance lessons, dedicated to prac
tice skills considered
necessary during the mission.



CBT/OBT lessons.



Simulations, utilizing the Training facilities.

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Approval process:

Internal Dry Runs are foreseen before each training session, to give Instructors and
SME (Subject Matter Experts) the o
pportunity to try the lesson presentation, to obtain
feedback from the audience, that is selected between the Alenia Engineering team and
NASA experts, and to modify if necessary the lesson presentation and hand
-
out.


IMPLEMENTATION

The training implementa
tion activities include:

Crew Training and related performance reporting, evaluations and
certifications.

Flight Controllers Training

Ground Operators Training


The Training lessons will be delivered by the ALENIA certified Instructors with the
support of
the ALENIA Engineering Team members as SME, in order to insure the
maximum availability of information for the trainees.


Training Sessions will be videotaped for archiving and evaluation purposes.


EVALUATION

Training evaluation of the ALENIA courseware w
ill be conducted to assure that
instructional content, process and testing is adequate to produce qualified personnel.
This evaluation will include review and analysis of training materials,
student/instructor feedback and observation of students’ performa
nces. Subsequently,
areas needing revision will be identified and corrected. The ALENIA subject matter
experts will assist in the training validation by reviewing the developed materials for
technical accuracy. Updating and improvement to the training aids

and courseware
provided is foreseen as necessary.


TRAINING MANAGEMENT

Each IDP phase gives an input to the next one, while being controlled via a feed
-
back
loop approach. The ALENIA Training Function is in charge of co
-
ordinating each
IDP phase, and mana
ging their relationships in the overall training program.


ALENIA training management includes the following functions:



planning
; development of a Training Plans



scheduling
; development and revision of training schedules as well as training
aids and course
ware development schedules.



records
-
keeping
; establishment and maintenance of training records in the
ALENIA Training Data Base.



certification
; support in definition of certification criteria.



configuration management
; perform configuration control for tra
ining aids and
courseware development. The Training material will be maintained under
Configuration Control and all the changes to the ALENIA design or Operations
procedures will be reflected on the ALENIA training course.


TRAINING DATA BASE

A Training Da
ta Base will be developed in order to record all the data relevant to the
ALENIA Trainees. Moreover the Training Catalogue, describing the lessons content,
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will be part of the Data Base.


The training records keeping is performed in order to provide ALENIA

and NASA an
electronic detailed training report that will contain each training session occurred, the
lessons performed, the trainees attendance, the training objectives accomplished and
the training curriculum item completed during the training.

3.3.3.

Dedicat
ed Tools description

Training facilities and media used during the Advanced Training phase may include,
but are not limited to, training manuals, video, Computer
-
Based Training (CBT), On
Board Training (OBT), classrooms, and Part
-
Task Trainers (PTTs). Some

training in
mockups or full
-
task simulators may also occur.


As far as the Training development is concerned, dedicated classroom lessons and
selected OBT/CBT lessons are produced.
The tools utilized in such Training material
preparation are:



Microsoft Wo
rd for the Lesson Plans preparation



Microsoft Powerpoint for the Presentations preparation



Authorware and specific multimedia tools for the OBT development, as defined
by the “OBT Media Requirement Document” established by the ITCB.



Jack, an ergonomics and

human factors product that is used to improve the
ergonomics of product designs and workplace tasks. Jack enables users to position
biomechanically accurate digital humans of various sizes in virtual environments,
assign them tasks and analyze their perfo
rmance.

3.3.4.

Description of the Scenarios

Application 1: MPLM Preparation for Cargo Operations

The Multi Purpose Logistic Module is main Cargo Carrier for the International Space
Station see next figure.



Figure 8

Alenia


International Space

Station


The nominal way of uploading and downloading material is by means of Standard
Racks see next figure in a pressurised environment.

Deliverable N.
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Figure 9

Alenia


ISS/Standard Rack


These Racks interface with the structure of the Spacecraft utilising three types of
Me
chanisms to be operated by the Crew.

This lesson will show (Knowledge) each mechanism identifying the steps to be
performed (Skill) in their location as handling and engagement/disengagement.


The mechanisms to be dealt with are the following:

1.

Pivot Pins:
Their scope is to allow the tilting on
-
orbit of the whole Rack for its
removal from MPLM and transport to the Station and for its reinstallation inside
MPLM for the return to Earth.

2.

Braces Retention Devices: Their scope is to hold in place the Braces durin
g
Launch/re
-
entry when no rack is installed in that location

3.

Braces Alignment Devices: Their scope is easing the insertion of the brace’s
terminal into the relevant Rack’s slot. This operation is the most critical as far as
accessibility and spatial local
isation of elements are concerned.


Objectives for scenario

The training objectives to be reached in this scenario are:

1.

Terminal Objective: Train the Crew in performing the manual activities related to
on
-
orbit MPLM Rack removal/installation.

2.

Performance O
bjectives:

Pivot Pins on
-
orbit installation/removal

Knee braces retention devices release/fixation

Knee braces alignment devices regulation, depending on the type of rack to be
installed (American or Japanese)


The training flow actually foresees:

1.

A classr
oom lesson that describes the activities to be performed by the Crew in
order to correctly remove/install on
-
orbit the racks contained in MPLM.

2.

Dedicated Demonstration/Performance lessons performed on the MPLM Mock
-
up
at the Space Station Training Facility
, at Johnson Space Centre, to practically train
the Crew on each manual activity that initially will be performed by an instructor
and then will be performed by the Crew, under instructor guidance.


The VR tool to be applied to this specific scenario will
allow to create a VR
environment that virtually reproduce the MPLM internal, I/F’s to be operated (pivot
Deliverable N.
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pins and knee braces retention and alignment devices) and two different Rack types,
the American one and the Japanese one. This will increase the train
ing opportunities
at each partner training site, reducing costs and saving Crew time.


Scope of the tool will also be to give the Crew members the opportunity to
train/refresh the skills gained during the demonstration/performance lessons also
during the l
ast 6 months before the mission, when the Crew is not allowed to move
from the country from which the launch will be done (USA or Russia).

Application 2: Cupola Window Removal/Replacement

With its 7 windows (6 trapezoidal side windows and one circular top

windows),
Cupola is the only module of the ISS with large windows with 360 degrees field of
view.



Figure 10

Alenia


ISS/Cupola


The Cupola will be a pressurised work
-
site for crewmembers mainly used as an
operation centre for controlling the ISS external Roboti
cs arm when performing Extra
Vehicular Activity (EVA) work, but also for observations of the earth and other
celestial objects.


The window removal is necessary in case any impact breaks either the scratch or the
debris pane and damages the pressure panes.

The window removal/ replacement task is probably the most demanding in terms of
duration, precision required and preparation activities and, as a two hands tasks, it
Deliverable N.
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requires the support of a long duration Crew restraint (cupola has its own dedicated
rest
raint).

After the installation of a external pressure cover (to be installed with a dedicated
EVA session), the window removal task is accomplished in IVA (Intra Vehicular
Activity). A set of several close out panels, are installed all around each window.




Figure 11

Alenia


ISS/Cupola Interior


They need to be removed as first thing in order to gain access to the I/Fs. A tool
operates the bolts. Once all the bolts are undone, the window assembly is extracted by
pulling it. Since the four QD of the each side wind
ow are located behind the upper
handrails the pulling movement needs to be combined a rotation in such a way that the
connectors are got free. This step of the procedure is very critical due to reduced
clearance.


The installation of the new window is obt
ained with an inverse procedure. The shape
of the window itself acts as alignment device for the side window, whereas for the top
window a pinhole alignment system is implemented.


Objectives for scenario

The training objectives to be reached in this scena
rio are:

1.

Terminal Objective: Train the Crew in performing the manual activities related to
on
-
orbit Cupola window removal/installation.

2.

Performance Objectives:

Deliverable N.
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External pressure cover installation/removal (EVA activity)

Close
-
out panels removal/installatio
n (IVA activity)

Window assy removal/installation


The training flow actually foresees:

1.

A classroom lesson that describes the activities to be performed by the Crew in
order to correctly remove/install on
-
orbit the Cupola window.

2.

Dedicated Demonstration/Pe
rformance lessons performed utilizing the Cupola
Mock
-
up at the Space Station Training Facility, at Johnson Space Centre, to
practically train the Crew on each manual activity that initially will be performed
by an instructor and then will be performed by
the Crew, under instructor
guidance.

3.

EVA training in the NASA Neutral Buoyancy Facility (NBL) located at Houston
(TX).


As already highlighted, this activity is difficult to train in the Cupola mock
-
up, due to
the high fidelity requested and to the impact
related to the 0 g. activities that cannot be
adequately reproduced on ground. This task is in fact really precise and complicate
and requests to be performed in an adequate environment. For example it will be
impossible to utilize parabolic flights due to

the short duration of the parables that
create a 0 g environment (20 seconds) and the task complexity. Moreover the NBL
facility will be utilized for EVA training but it is not used for IVA activities.


In this case the VR tool could be the right solution

for this training problem, giving
the opportunity to better simulate the environment and the related constraints and will
significantly increase the training opportunities at each partner training site, reducing
costs and saving Crew time.


As in the prev
ious scenario, the tool will also:



Give the Crew members the opportunity to train/refresh the skills gained during
the demonstration/performance lessons also during the last 6 months before the
mission, when the Crew is not allowed to move from the country

from which the
launch will be done (USA or Russia).



In case of on
-
orbit installation of the tool, the VR training could be done by the
Station Crew to refresh their skills just before performing the activity, reducing
the necessity of ground support (fro
m the MCC Flight Controllers team) and
speeding the operations with significant costs saving.


Application 3: Node 2 Heat Exchanger Replacement

Node2 is the module that provides for the connection to 5 adjacent modules and to the
Shuttle when docked to the

Station. The Node hosts equipment supporting the
different Subsystems as Avionics, Thermal, and ECLS.


Deliverable N.
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Figure 12

Alenia


ISS/NODE


The majority of these items are designed as On
-
Orbit Replaceable Units. But
maintenance tasks are characterised by limited accessib
ility and complex steps
sequence. In case of failure of the ECLS Heat Exchanger, the Crew has to be trained
perform a task including:



Preparation of the worksite



Tilting of the whole S/S Rack



Disconnection of lines on the Rack back



ORU fasteners actuation
(undoing/doing) utilising tools



Installation of handles



Stowage of lines in dedicated locations



Handling of the failed/replacement unit



Cleaning of worksite


Objectives for scenario

The training objectives to be reached in this scenario are:

1.

Terminal Objec
tive: Train the Crew in performing the manual activities related to
on
-
orbit Node 2 Heat Exchanger replacement.

2.

Performance Objectives:



Disconnection of lines on the Rack back



ORU fasteners actuation (undoing/doing) utilising dedicated tools



Stowage of lin
es in dedicated locations



Handling of the failed/replacement unit

Some activities, common with other procedures, will not be considered as
performance objectives specific of this scenario, as:



Worksite preparation/cleaning at the end of the activity



S/S Ra
ck Tilting



Handles installation/removal


The training flow actually foresees:

1.

A classroom lesson that describes the activities to be performed by the Crew in
order to correctly replace on
-
orbit the Node 2 Heat Exchanger

2.

Dedicated Demonstration/Performance
lessons performed utilizing the Node 2
Mock
-
up at the Space Station Training Facility, at Johnson Space Centre, to
practically train the Crew on each manual activity that initially will be performed
Deliverable N.
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by an instructor and then will be performed by the Crew,
under instructor
guidance.


The most important issue in this training scenario is the accessibility of the I/F’s
behind the Rack from the Crew members, that need to perform the whole activity in a
uncomfortable position. In fact the task will be performed
by one astronaut in front of
the rack that will be charged to extract the Heat Exchanger while another astronaut
from the backside of the rack will extract the pipes. This increases the utility of
utilizing a VR tool that could give a better feeling of the

difficulties the Crew
members will encounter performing the task.



Figure 13

Alenia


ISS/Crew member performing a task


As already said, the utilization of a VR tool will also:



Give the Crew members the opportunity to train/refresh the skills gained during
the d
emonstration/performance lessons also during the last 6 months before the
Deliverable N.
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mission, when the Crew is not allowed to move from the country from which the
launch will be done (USA or Russia).



In case of on
-
orbit installation of the tool, the VR training coul
d be done by the
Station Crew to refresh their skills just before performing the activity, reducing
the necessity of ground support (from the MCC Flight Controllers team) and
speeding the operations with significant costs saving.


Application 4: ATV Cabin
Cargo Items Handling

The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is aimed to contribute to the logistic
servicing of the International Space Station (ISS), Russian segment side. It delivers
dry cargoes, water, gases and propellants, it contributes to the ISS orbi
t control,
retrieval of ISS wastes, solid and liquid, and disposal in a controlled destructive
atmospheric re
-
entry.



Figure 14

Alenia
-

ISS/ATV


ATV accommodates 2 types of cargo items: Small Size and Large Size Cargoes. The
Large Size Cargoes (LSC) are mainly ac
commodated in the ATV cabin and attached
on the Rack Adapter Plate located in front of the ATV rack structure.


Deliverable N.
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Figure 15

Alenia


ISS/ATV Crew member activity


The purpose of the lesson is to show how (Knowledge) the LSC are attached to ATV
secondary structure id
entifying the steps to be performed to remove LSC from ATV
location, handle inside ATV, transport through ATV and SM hatch and stow in the
ISS.

The equipment involved in the task is:

1.

Rack Adapter Plate: the scope is to provide the interface attachment poin
ts for the
cargoes located in the cabin and to contribute to the rack structure stiffness at
launch.

2.

Large Cargo: i.e. Orlan (Russian) Space Suit in its container


Deliverable N.
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Figure 16

Alenia


ISS/ATV 2 Crew member activity

Objectives for scenario

The training objectives to

be reached in this scenario are:

1.

Terminal Objective: Train the Crew in performing the manual activities related to
the LSC removal from ATV location, handle inside ATV, and transport through
ATV and SM hatch and stow in the ISS.

2.

Performance Objectives:

LS
C removal from ATV location

LSC handle inside ATV

LSC transport through ATV and SM hatch

As in the previous case, some activities, considered common with other procedures,
will not be considered as performance objectives specific of this scenario, as the L
SC
stowage in the ISS.


The training flow actually foresees:

1.

A classroom lesson that describes how (Knowledge) the LSC are attached to ATV
secondary structure identifying the steps to be performed to remove LSC from
ATV location, handle inside ATV, transpo
rt through ATV and SM hatch and stow
in the ISS.

2.

Dedicated Demonstration/Performance lessons performed utilizing the ATV
Mock
-
up located at the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) at Cologne (Germany)
Deliverable N.
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and/or at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Centre (GCTC) at Star City
(Russia). During
these lessons the Crew will have the opportunity to practice on each manual
activity that initially will be performed by an instructor and then will be performed
by the Crew, under instructor guidance.


The VR tool in this case, a part the

obvious advantage in simulation the work
environment at zero gravity, could be really cost saving, limiting the necessity to have
several ATV mock
-
up and simulators located at EAC and GCTC and insuring at the
same time the real feeling of the activity per
formance.


3.3.5.

Users Type

The identified Users for the VR Training Tool will be:


1.

Instructors
, coming from the different partners sites, charged to develop the
training material and to delivery the training session to the assigned Crew
Members. There are sever
al types of training instructors:

Courseware developer

Classroom instructors

Part
-
Task Trainer Instructors

Simulations Instructors


The last two categories are more involved in the utilization of the VR tool, also if all
types of training instructors parti
cipating in a training program need to be involved in
the VR scenario preparation. In fact they will define requirements and give
information to be used to correctly simulate the environment and the
equipment/operations to be performed with.


2.

Trainees
, tha
t can be divided in three major goups:

Crew members

to be trained to perform nominal, malfunctions and
contingency operations on a specific space system

Ground Operations Personnel

to be trained on ground operations activities
to be performed for the integ
ration, processing or maintenance of a specific
space system.

Flight Operations Personnel
, nominally Flight Controllers Team, to be
trained on nominal, malfunctions and contingency procedures, to correctly
command, control and monitor a specific space syst
em.


These three groups of trainees are now trained utilizing traditional tools (classroom
lessons, part
-
task trainer lessons, simulations, CBT, OBT, etc….). The VR tool could
be considered a significant improvement in the training methods media to be util
ized
as necessary to optimize the training results as already explained in the scenario
description.

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4.

Common Requirements

Based in the requirement list generated during the VIEW Program, a common
requirement list is collected below.

It is expected that add
ing new reference scenarios or editing of the existing ones
coming from the active INTUITION Working Groups will modify/expand this list.


Each requirement is listed and expressed in the following way:



sequential number (single reference);



requirement text
;



surrounded by square parenthesis the priority;


4.1.

Definitions

The following definitions are used in the requirements:




collision”
: a collision occurs when two 3D items or one 3D item and user/user
representation (through input device, e.g. wand/MIKE) are
so close that they
“touch each other”, i.e. when two surface
s

are at zero distance.



“VR System”
; VR System is a complete system starting from CAD modelling up
to a Virtual Environment, it contains physical engines, procedures (related to the
utilisation of

the system or to 3D scenarios), H/W and S/W (both software
platform and VR applications).



“virtual object”
: a virtual object may consist of geometry, properties (appearance,
sound, force feedback, etc.) and behaviours. A virtual object needs to have at le
ast
one of the previous characteristics.



“3D item”
: a 3D item is a geometrical
ly

described object with or without
properties (CAD modelling dependent) GUI is not considered a 3D Item.



“virtual world”
: a virtual world is what is visualised/perceived insid
e a virtual
environment.



“virtual environment”
: a virtual environment is the complete system (H/W &
S/W) platform needed to allow a user to feel immersed in a virtual world and to
have interactive utilisation of it.



“3D Scenario”
: a 3D Scenario is a subset

of the environment in which a specific
task can be performed by the user.


4.2.

Virtual Environment objects

An environment, in which the user is immersed, is composed by various
virtual
objects

of which some may be 3D items. 3D Items can be: 3D CAD (CATIA V4 a
nd
V5 Dassault Systèmes, PTC in source format or in JT
-

EAI Format) models and/or
(CAD independent) 3D CAD data exchange format files (e.g. STEP, VRML1/2,
IGES, VDAFS or others) and/or ALIAS|WAVEFRONT, AUTOSTUDIO, MAYA,
ICEMSURF, OpenGL Performer compatib
le format. They shall represent the System
under analysis (with up to 20 Gbyte of data) and its constituents (Subsystems,
Assembly’s, Equipment’s e.g. up to CATIA DITTO level).

A “Virtual Object” can have parametric Functions (parametric related to user
in
teraction e.g. static, dynamic, grasping, ungrasping, etc.) Constraints and Relations.


Deliverable N.
D1.5_2

Dissemination Level
-

PU

Contract N. IST
-
NMP
-
1
-
5
07248
-
2


10/12/2004

31

Alenia Spazio S.p.A.

4.3.

VR System Cost considerations

Cost of the HW equipment & SW embedded in a VR System shall be evaluated with
the aim of minimising them. Thus COTS, SW re
-
utilisation, fr
eeware, runtime,
portability on new graphics board, O.S., etc. shall be considered before developing
new H/W & S/W items. This cost minimisation exercise shall clearly be compatible
with the system’s required driving performance.


4.4.

Requirements list

A VR Sy
stem should fulfil diverse requirements, which can be gathered as:



General



Administrator



Architectural



Functional



Immersive Devices



Interaction



Portability



Output



Help

4.4.1.

General Requirements

1.

A VR System should allow importing, modifying and saving a
virtual
world

(e.g.
ground, flight, vehicle interior, street, showroom, tractor, green field, engine in
machine tools).

[H]


2.

A VR System shall include techniques or procedure
s

able to standardise the
conversion from CAD files into VR usable
virtual objects
.

[H]


3.

A VR System should allow selecting, copy/paste and deleting a
virtual object
.

[H]


4.

A VR System shall allow handling of large scenes (e.g. the interior of the car with
all the details and textures attached) in real time (i.e. according to the possible
spee
d of displacement of the observer eyes: performance required is 16 frames per
second or more).

[H]


5.

A VR System shall allow managing
virtual object

behaviours using different
settable gravity values.

[M]


6.

A VR System shall allow creating and selecting, cop
y/paste, modifying, deleting
and saving non nominal behaviours e.g. failures relative to a selected
virtual
object
.

[H]


Deliverable N.
D1.5_2

Dissemination Level
-

PU

Contract N. IST
-
NMP
-
1
-
5
07248
-
2


10/12/2004

32

Alenia Spazio S.p.A.

7.

A VR System shall allow to assign to
virtual object

already defined function and
constraints.

[H]


8.

A VR System shall allow the import a
nd visualisation of external documents (e.g.
Word, Excel).

[M]

12.

A VR System shall operate in three modes: Authoring (opt. Record)


Use (opt.
Record)


Replay.

[H]


4.4.2.

Administrator Requirements

9.

A VR System shall provide a console which will allow the Adminis
trator to
manage
virtual objects
.

[H]


10.

A VR System shall provide a console which will allow the Administrator to define
and manage the Users access and relation with the
virtual objects

(interaction).

[H]


11.

A VR System shall allow the administrator to defin
e
virtual objects

behaviour.
The definition shall define both the type of
virtual objects

and the type of
behaviour (parameters
-

e.g. collision: volumetric/line tests).

[H]


4.4.3.

Architectural Requirements

13.

A VR System shall not prevent a user to operate the G
UI remotely from the
system physical location.

[M]


14.

A VR System shall have a client
-
server architecture to allow utilisation of the
client part in two or more different sites (e.g. different buildings) sharing the same
server services.

[H]


15.

A VR System sha
ll allow visualisation of the environment visualised to the user
via external passive screen(s) as a means of surveillance and control


“stealth
viewer”.

[H]


16.

A VR System shall not prevent to contemporaneous users to maintain voice
communication.

[M]


17.

VR
architecture shall be “open” in order to allow utilisation of external
application algorithms (e.g. Jack software).

[H]

Deliverable N.
D1.5_2

Dissemination Level
-

PU

Contract N. IST
-
NMP
-
1
-
5
07248
-
2


10/12/2004

33

Alenia Spazio S.p.A.


4.4.4.

Functional Requirements

18.

A VR System shall allow users to record the
3D scenario

till the last sub
-
task
performed.

[H]


19.

A VR System shal
l allow re
-
proposing/replaying the recorded
3D scenario

and
performed tasks to the current user (from different view points).

[H]


20.

3
-
D transformations shall be able to apply to
3D items
: rotate, scale, translate.

[H]


21.

A VR System shall allow 1:1 scaling o
f the
virtual objects
contained in the

virtual
world
. (In order to give the right geometrical visual cues from the simulation).

[H]


22.

The
3D items

size shall be scalable to simulate different user types. Used scale
shall be visible to the user (e.g. user sh
all be able to act as a child while entering a
tractor).

[M]


23.

A VR System shall allow to automatic import links (or branch) and the relevant
information between the
3D Items

managed by the VPM/PDM.

[H]


24.

A VR System shall provide techniques or procedure abl
e to handle
different levels
of details

of the
3D Items

used for the simulation.

[H]


25.

A VR System shall provide techniques or procedure able to render
different levels
of (geometrical) details

of the
3D Items

used for the simulation.

[H]


26.

A VR System shall

offer features that have become common in CAD utilisation:
interference management, measurements, cross
-
sections, kinematics, etc.

[H]


27.

A VR system shall support
possibility to switch from Imperial to Metric units
when working in the VR environment and me
asuring.


[H]


28.

A VR System shall be usable by inexperienced beginners after a few hours of
training.

[H]


29.

A VR System shall allow defining, applying logic and implement of previously
computed kinematics (e.g. data tables, avatar movements from Jack) to a
virtual
object
.

Deliverable N.
D1.5_2

Dissemination Level
-

PU

Contract N. IST
-
NMP
-
1
-
5
07248
-
2


10/12/2004

34

Alenia Spazio S.p.A.

[H]


30.

A VR System shall allow individual selection of a
3D Item

or a group of
3D Items
.

[H]


31.

A VR System shall allow applying to a
3D Item

or a group of
3D Items

predefined
textures (e.g. seat fabrics, door lining, etc.).

[H]


32.

A VR System s
hall allow switching between textures applied to a
3D Item

or a
group of
3D Items
.

[H]


33.

A VR System shall permit static shots or still images being taken of given a state
of the scene, of the user and/or avatar operations (e.g. JPEG, TIFF
)
.

[H]


34.

A VR Sys
tem shall allow the user to restart the activities from the point in which
the recorded scenario/task were interrupted.

[H]


35.

A VR System shall allow the user to operate in the same environment/scenario in
the mean time that a recorded avatar executes autom
atically the tasks.

[L]


36.

A VR System shall be able to allow frequent update of the imported 3D items in
order to match the current configuration of the System to be built.

[L]


37.

A VR system shall allow the user to activate and/or de
-
activate an avatar graph
ical
representation.

[M]


38.

A VR System shall allow the user to navigate inside the
virtual world

(i.e.
Exploring, Searching, Manoeuvring, Annotations) e.g. bookmark, fast
-
move to
bookmark, target, and move to target.

[H]


39.

A VR System delay time between user

action and its reaction should not exceed
70 milliseconds.

[H]


40.

A VR System shall be able to allow the user to work continuously for 45 minutes
without inducing negative physical and psychological effects.

[H]


41.

A VR System shall allow to the user the pos
sibility to utilise selectable tools
(according to a predefined tool list) to perform the task.

[H]

Deliverable N.
D1.5_2

Dissemination Level
-

PU

Contract N. IST
-
NMP
-
1
-
5
07248
-
2


10/12/2004

35

Alenia Spazio S.p.A.


42.

A VR System shall allow the user to select and execute the
virtual object

according to its functions and constraints, e.g.:

3.

Turn on and off switches

4.

Move
articulated
3D item

e.g. steering wheel, gear stick

5.

Connect/Disconnect fluidic and electric connectors

6.

Remove panels.

[H]


43.

A VR System shall allow the user to receive feedback on performed operations
(e.g. visual and audio [H] force, tactile, impact detect
ion [L]) from the scenario
related to the operations he performs.

[M]


44.

A VR System shall allow at least two users to interact simultaneously in one
3D
scenario
.

[M]


45.

A VR System shall allow each contemporary user to observe his personal view of
the
3D sce
nario
. Not necessarily on the same system.

[M]


46.

A VR System shall allow two users to operate simultaneously on the same
3D
item
.

[M]


47.

A VR System shall allow, when two or more users are required to perform a task,
to see (e.g. through an avatar representat
ion) the other users in action.

[M]


48.

A VR System shall allow to each user to see his/her hands moving, and at the
same tome give the perception of the feet and/or of the lower body position.

[H]


49.

A VR System shall allow to each user to move and manipulate
3D items

according
to their functions and constraints.

[H]


50.

A VR System shall allow fast positioning of a group of
virtual objects

(representing a vehicle or a spacecraft) in relation to previously computed
characteristic points.

[H]


51.

A VR System shall hav
e the capacity to switch between computed characteristic
points (e.g. the centres of different seats).

[H]


52.

A VR System shall allow rapid
virtual world

creation for various contexts
computed beforehand.

[H]

Deliverable N.
D1.5_2

Dissemination Level
-

PU

Contract N. IST
-
NMP
-
1
-
5
07248
-
2


10/12/2004

36

Alenia Spazio S.p.A.


53.

A VR System shall have the capacity to switch be
tween different
3D Scenarios

(e.g. right
-
hand drive and left
-
hand drive; various windshield assumptions).

[H]


54.

A VR System shall allow individual selection and manipulation of a
3D Item

or a
group of
3D Items

in six degrees of freedom.

[H]


55.

A VR System sh
all be able to toggle between various versions or design solutions
of the same
virtual object

or group of
virtual objects
.

[H]


56.

A VR System shall allow recovery of transformations in CAD System (e.g. load
back into CATIA application of the coordinates of t
he selected position where to
apply modifications or more precise verifications).

[H]


57.

A VR System shall allow creation of light spots.

[H]


58.

A VR System shall permit setting up of user hand movement tracers equipped
with position sensors.

[H]


59.

A VR Syst
em shall permit setting of markers at characteristic points.

[H]


60.

A VR System shall permit to recover data on traces and points from the tracking
system.

[H]


61.

A VR System shall permit to recover and visualise objects traces and position
points.

[H]


62.

A VR
System shall allow the definition and application of material visual
properties to system objects from a Material Palette.

[H]


63.

3D item

shall be able to be highlighted either from user interaction or scenario
event or test leader interaction.

[H]