Studies Excluded After Abstract Review

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Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback Features Impact Effectiveness on Care Quality

1

Appendix
B



Studies Included and Excluded from Meta
-
Analysis


Table of Contents

Studies Excluded After Abstract Review

................................
................................
................................
...................

1

Not about fe
edback as defined in this study

................................
................................
................................
.........

1

Patients, not clinicians, received feedback

................................
................................
................................
...........

22

Not RCT

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...

26

Only student participants

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................................
................................
................................
.......

27

Feedback unrelated to healthcare

................................
................................
................................
..........................

29

Feedback unrelated to performance

................................
................................
................................
.....................

30

No true control group

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

31

No feedback only condition

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

32

Feedbac
k is not the intervention

................................
................................
................................
...........................

33

Studies Excluded After Initial Screening

................................
................................
................................
..................

34

No feedback only condition

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

34

No control group

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....................

39

Insufficient information for calculating an effect size

................................
................................
.......................

42

Insufficie
nt subjects per study arm

................................
................................
................................
.......................

44

No measurable outcome

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

46

Articles Included in the Meta
-
Analysis

................................
................................
................................
.....................

47


Studies Excluded After Abstract Review


Not about feedback as defined in this study

1.

Anti
-
HIV agents. Darunavir shows its strength. TreatmentUpdate 2007 Jul;19(5):2
-
4.

2.

Implementing CBT for traumatized children and adolescents after september 11: lessons
le
arned from the Child and Adolescent Trauma Treatments and Services (CATS) Project. J
Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2007 Oct;36(4):581
-
92.

3.

Adibi I, Hasani N, Ashoorioun V, Sadrearhami S, Monajemi AR. Integrating physical
examination and trunk anatomy; a new co
urse for second year medical students. Med Teach
2007 Nov;29(9):975
-
7.

4.

Agabio R, Marras P, Gessa GL, Carpiniello B. Alcohol use disorders, and at
-
risk drinking in
patients affected by a mood disorder, in Cagliari, Italy: sensitivity and specificity of diff
erent
questionnaires. Alcohol Alcohol 2007 Nov;42(6):575
-
81.

5.

Agada FO, King
-
Im JU, Atkin SL, England RJA. Does thyroid subspecialization alter
practice and outcome? A completed 4
-
year audit loop. Clinical Otolaryngology: Official
Journal Of ENT
-
UK ; Offici
al Journal Of Netherlands Society For Oto
-
Rhino
-
Laryngology
& Cervico
-
Facial Surgery 2005 Feb;30(1):48
-
51.

6.

Ahlberg G, Enochsson L, Gallagher AG, Hedman L, Hogman C, McClusky DA, III, et al.
Proficiency
-
based virtual reality training significantly reduces t
he error rate for residents
during their first 10 laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Am J Surg 2007 Jun;193(6):797
-
804.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


2




7.

Al
-
Rawi WT, Jacobs R, Hassan BA, Sanderink G, Scarfe WC. Evaluation of web
-
based
instruction for anatomical interpretation in maxillofacial

cone beam computed tomography.
Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2007 Dec;36(8):459
-
64.

8.

Amsallem E, Kasparian C, Cucherat M, Chabaud S, Haugh M, Boissel JP, et al. Evaluation
of two evidence
-
based knowledge transfer interventions for physicians. A cluster
randomized

controlled factorial design trial: the CardioDAS Study. Fundam Clin Pharmacol
2007 Dec;21(6):631
-
41.

9.

Antommaria AH, Firth SD, Maloney CG. Evaluation of an innovative pediatric clerkship
structure using multiple outcome variables including career choice. J

Hosp Med 2007
Nov;2(6):401
-
8.

10.

Arean PA, Gum AM, Tang L, Unutzer J. Service use and outcomes among elderly persons
with low incomes being treated for depression. Psychiatr Serv 2007 Aug;58(8):1057
-
64.

11.

Arnold SR, Bush AJ. Decline in inappropriate antibiotic

use over a decade by pediatricians in
a Tennessee community. Ambulatory Pediatrics: The Official Journal Of The Ambulatory
Pediatric Association 2006 Jul;6(4):225
-
9.

12.

Ash D, Barrett A, Hinks A, Squire C. Re
-
audit of radiotherapy waiting times 2003. Clinica
l
Oncology (Royal College Of Radiologists (Great Britain)) 2004 Sep;16(6):387
-
94.

13.

Ashleigh RJ, Butterfield JS, Asquith J, Chalmers N, Murphy G. A cross
-
site vascular
radiology on
-
call service: the Manchester experience. Clinical Radiology 2005 Mar;60(3):38
9
-
93.

14.

Ataman OU, Barrett A, Davidson S, De Haas
-
Kock D, Dische S, Dubray B, et al. Audit of
effectiveness of routine follow
-
up clinics after radiotherapy for cancer: a report of the
REACT working group of ESTRO. Radiotherapy And Oncology: Journal Of The Eu
ropean
Society For Therapeutic Radiology And Oncology 2004 Nov;73(2):237
-
49.

15.

Aufenacker TJ, Bannenberg J, van Geldere D, Scheijde E, Juttmann JW, Gouma DJ, et al.
[Quality of a non
-
subsidised multicentre randomised trial in non
-
academic hospitals; an
audit
]. Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 2006 Jun 17;150(24):1337
-
41.

16.

Avlund K, Vass M, Kvist K, Hendriksen C, Keiding N. Educational intervention toward
preventive home visitors reduced functional decline in community
-
living older women. J
Clin Epidemio
l 2007 Sep;60(9):954
-
62.

17.

Bagg SD, Pombo AP, Hopman WM. Toward benchmarks for stroke rehabilitation in
Ontario, Canada. American Journal Of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation / Association Of
Academic Physiatrists 2006 Dec;85(12):971
-
6.

18.

Baker GR, Norton PG,

Flintoft V, Blais Régis, Brown A, Cox J, et al. The Canadian Adverse
Events Study: the incidence of adverse events among hospital patients in Canada. CMAJ:
Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal De L'association Medicale Canadienne 2004
May 25;170
(11):1678
-
86.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


3




19.

Banks EH, Chudnoff S, Karmin I, Wang C, Pardanani S. Does a surgical simulator improve
resident operative performance of laparoscopic tubal ligation? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007
Nov;197(5):541
-
5.

20.

Barnea A, Rassis A, Zaidel E. Effect of neurofeed
back on hemispheric word recognition.
Brain And Cognition 2005 Dec;59(3):314
-
21.

21.

Barreto FC, Barreto DV, Moyses RM, Neves KR, Canziani ME, Draibe SA, et al.
K/DOQI
-
recommended intact PTH levels do not prevent low
-
turnover bone disease in hemodialysis
patie
nts. Kidney Int 2008 Mar;73(6):771
-
7.

22.

Bauer D, Kopp V, Fischer MR. Answer changing in multiple choice assessment change that
answer when in doubt
--
and spread the word! BMC Med Educ 2007;7:28.

23.

Beach ML, Flood AB, Robinson CM, Cassells AN, Tobin JN, Greene M
A, et al. Can
language
-
concordant prevention care managers improve cancer screening rates? Cancer
Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007 Oct;16(10):2058
-
64.

24.

Beck C, Heacock P, Mercer SO, Doan R, O'Sullivan PS, Stevenson JG, et al. Sustaining a
best
-
care practice i
n a nursing home. Journal For Healthcare Quality: Official Publication Of
The National Association For Healthcare Quality 2005 Jul;27(4):5
-
16.

25.

Bellg AJ, Borrelli B, Resnick B, Hecht J, Minicucci DS, Ory M, et al. Enhancing treatment
fidelity in health beha
vior change studies: best practices and recommendations from the
NIH Behavior Change Consortium. Health Psychology: Official Journal Of The Division Of
Health Psychology, American Psychological Association 2004 Sep;23(5):443
-
51.

26.

Berner MM, Harter M, Kristo
n L, Lohmann M, Ruf D, Lorenz G, et al. Detection and
management of alcohol use disorders in German primary care influenced by non
-
clinical
factors. Alcohol Alcohol 2007 Jul;42(4):308
-
16.

27.

Bertakis KD, Azari R. Patient gender and physician practice style. J

Womens Health
(Larchmt ) 2007 Jul;16(6):859
-
68.

28.

Beyea JA, Wong E, Bromwich M, Weston WW, Fung K. Evaluation of a particle
repositioning maneuver Web
-
based teaching module. Laryngoscope 2008 Jan;118(1):175
-
80.

29.

Bidlingmaier C, Kurnik K, Holscher G, Kappler
M. Reconstituting factor concentrates:
Defining Evidence of Coaching Non
-
Experts (DEVICE) in haemophilia
--
a prospective
randomized feasibility study. Haemophilia 2007 Sep;13(5):470
-
2.

30.

Bingener J, Boyd T, Van SK, Jung I, Saha A, Winston J, et al. Randomized

double
-
blinded
trial investigating the impact of a curriculum focused on error recognition on laparoscopic
suturing training. Am J Surg 2008 Feb;195(2):179
-
82.

31.

Boyle J, McCartney E, Forbes J, O'Hare A. A randomised controlled trial and economic
evaluation

of direct versus indirect and individual versus group modes of speech and
language therapy for children with primary language impairment. Health Technol Assess
2007 Jul;11(25):iii
-
xii, 1.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


4




32.

Brazil K, Royle JA, Montemuro M, Blythe J, Church A. Moving to evid
ence
-
based practice
in long
-
term care: the role of a Best Practise Resource Centre in two long
-
term care settings.
Journal Of Gerontological Nursing 2004 Mar;30(3):14
-
9.

33.

Bridges
-
Webb C, Giles B, Speechly C, Zurynski Y, Hiramanek N. Patients with dementia
a
nd their carers. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007 Oct;1114:130
-
6.

34.

Brown H, Hofmeyr GJ, Nikodem VC, Smith H, Garner P. Promoting childbirth
companions in South Africa: a randomised pilot study. BMC Med 2007;5:7.

35.

Brown JM, Poston RS, Gammie JS, Cardarelli MG, Schwartz
K, Sikora JA, et al. Off
-
pump
versus on
-
pump coronary artery bypass grafting in consecutive patients: decision
-
making
algorithm and outcomes. The Annals Of Thoracic Surgery 2006 Feb;81(2):555.

36.

Brown TB, Saini D, Pepper T, Mirza M, Nandigam HK, Kaza N, et a
l. Instructions to "put
the phone down" do not improve the quality of bystander initiated dispatcher
-
assisted
cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 2008 Feb;76(2):249
-
55.

37.

Burger T, Fry D, Fusco R, Luschini M, Mayo JB, Ng V, et al.
Multihospital surv
eillance of
nosocomial methicillin
-
resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin
-
resistant enterococcus,
and Clostridium difficile: analysis of a 4
-
year data
-
sharing project, 1999
-
2002. American
Journal Of Infection Control 2006 Sep;34(7):458
-
64.

38.

Burton C, P
ennington L, Roddam H, Russell I, Russell D, Krawczyk K, et al. Assessing
adherence to the evidence base in the management of poststroke dysphagia. Clinical
Rehabilitation 2006 Jan;20(1):46
-
51.

39.

Butler NN, Wiet GJ. Reliability of the Welling scale (WS1) for

rating temporal bone
dissection performance. Laryngoscope 2007 Oct;117(10):1803
-
8.

40.

Burkhart PV, Rayens MK, Oakley MG, Abshire DA, Zhang M. Testing an intervention to
promote children's adherence to asthma self
-
management. J Nurs Scholarsh 2007;39(2):133
-
4
0.

41.

Butler V. Non
-
invasive ventilation (NIV). An audit across the North Central London
Critical Care Network (NCLCCN). Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: The Official Journal
Of The British Association Of Critical Care Nurses 2005 Aug 19;21(4):243
-
56.

42.

Butte
r J, Grant TH, Egan M, Kaye M, Wayne DB, Carrion
-
Carire V, et al. Does ultrasound
training boost Year 1 medical student competence and confidence when learning abdominal
examination? Med Educ 2007 Sep;41(9):843
-
8.

43.

Cadogan MP, Schnelle JF, Al
-
Sammarrai NR,
Yamamoto
-
Mitani N, Cabrera G, Osterweil D,
et al.
A standardized quality assessment system to evaluate pain detection and management
in the nursing home. Journal Of The American Medical Directors Association 2005
Jan;6(1):1
-
9.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


5




44.

Campbell DG, Felker BL, Liu C
F, Yano EM, Kirchner JE, Chan D, et al. Prevalence of
depression
-
PTSD comorbidity: implications for clinical practice guidelines and primary care
-
based interventions. J Gen Intern Med 2007 Jun;22(6):711
-
8.

45.

Cannick GF, Horowitz AM, Garr DR, Reed SG, Neville

BW, Day TA, et al. Oral cancer
prevention and early detection: using the PRECEDE
-
PROCEED framework to guide the
training of health professional students. J Cancer Educ 2007;22(4):250
-
3.

46.

Cannick GF, Horowitz AM, Garr DR, Reed SG, Neville BW, Day TA, et al.

Use of the
OSCE to evaluate brief communication skills training for dental students. J Dent Educ 2007
Sep;71(9):1203
-
9.

47.

Carcich GM, Rafti KR. Experienced registered nurses' satisfaction with using self
-
learning
modules versus traditional lecture/discussio
n to achieve competency goals during hospital
orientation. J Nurses Staff Dev 2007 Sep;23(5):214
-
20.

48.

Casper ES. The theory of planned behavior applied to continuing education for mental
health professionals. Psychiatr Serv 2007 Oct;58(10):1324
-
9.

49.

Chan H, I
noue S, Shimodera S, Fujita H, Fukuzawa K, Kii M, et al. Residential program for
long
-
term hospitalized persons with mental illness in Japan: Randomized controlled trial.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007 Oct;61(5):515
-
21.

50.

Chang WR, McLean IP. CUSUM: a tool fo
r early feedback about performance? BMC
Medical Research Methodology 2006 Mar 2;6:8.

51.

Chen YC, Chiang LC. Effectiveness of hand
-
washing teaching programs for families of
children in paediatric intensive care units. J Clin Nurs 2007 Jun;16(6):1173
-
9.

52.

Clancy
DE, Huang P, Okonofua E, Yeager D, Magruder KM. Group visits: promoting
adherence to diabetes guidelines. J Gen Intern Med 2007 May;22(5):620
-
4.

53.

Clevin L, Grantcharov TP. Does box model training improve surgical dexterity and
economy of movement during vir
tual reality laparoscopy? A randomised trial. Acta Obstet
Gynecol Scand 2008;87(1):99
-
103.

54.

Cohen AT, Tapson VF, Bergmann JF, Goldhaber SZ, Kakkar AK, Deslandes B, et al.
Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in the acute hospital care setting
(ENDORS
E study): a multinational cross
-
sectional study. Lancet 2008 Feb 2;371(9610):387
-
94.

55.

Cohen SN, Lanigan SW. Audit cycle of documentation in laser hair removal. Lasers In
Medical Science 2005 Sep 2;20(2):87
-
8.

56.

Costanza ME, Luckmann R, Stoddard AM, White MJ,
Stark JR, Avrunin JS, et al. Using
tailored telephone counseling to accelerate the adoption of colorectal cancer screening.
Cancer Detect Prev 2007;31(3):191
-
8.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


6




57.

Coopmans VC, Biddle C. CRNA performance using a handheld, computerized, decision
-
making aid dur
ing critical events in a simulated environment: a methodologic inquiry. AANA
J 2008 Feb;76(1):29
-
35.

58.

Cousins DH, Sabatier B, Begue D, Schmitt C, Hoppe
-
Tichy T. Medication errors in
intravenous drug preparation and administration: a multicentre audit in the

UK, Germany
and France. Quality & Safety In Health Care 2005 Jun;14(3):190
-
5.

59.

Cox H, Puffer S, Morton V, Cooper C, Hodson J, Masud T, et al. Educating nursing home
staff on fracture prevention: a cluster randomised trial. Age Ageing 2008 Mar;37(2):167
-
72.

60.

Crofts JF, Bartlett C, Ellis D, Hunt LP, Fox R, Draycott TJ. Management of shoulder
dystocia: skill retention 6 and 12 months after training. Obstet Gynecol 2007
Nov;110(5):1069
-
74.

61.

Cullum S, Tucker S, Todd C, Brayne C. Effectiveness of liaison psychiatri
c nursing in older
medical inpatients with depression: a randomised controlled trial. Age Ageing 2007
Jul;36(4):436
-
42.

62.

Daeppen JB, Bertholet N, Gmel G, Gaume J. Communication during brief intervention,
intention to change, and outcome. Subst Abus 2007;28(
3):43
-
51.

63.

Daeppen JB, Gaume J, Bady P, Yersin B, Calmes JM, Givel JC, et al. Brief alcohol
intervention and alcohol assessment do not influence alcohol use in injured patients treated
in the emergency department: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Add
iction 2007
Aug;102(8):1224
-
33.

64.

Davenport A. Audit of the effect of dialysate sodium concentration on inter
-
dialytic weight
gains and blood pressure control in chronic haemodialysis patients. Nephron Clinical
Practice 2006 Jul 12;104(3):c120
-
c125.

65.

Davis J,

Chryssafidou E, Zamora J, Davies D, Khan K, Coomarasamy A. Computer
-
based
teaching is as good as face to face lecture
-
based teaching of evidence based medicine: a
randomised controlled trial. BMC Med Educ 2007;7:23.

66.

Dias JJ, Braybrooke J. Dupuytren's cont
racture: an audit of the outcomes of surgery. Journal
Of Hand Surgery (Edinburgh, Lothian) 2006 Oct 11;31(5):514
-
21.

67.

Diez P, Hoskin PJ, Aird EG. Treatment planning and delivery of involved field radiotherapy
in advanced Hodgkin's disease: results from a qu
estionnaire
-
based audit for the UK Stanford
V regimen vs ABVD clinical trial quality assurance programme (ISRCTN 64141244). Br J
Radiol 2007 Oct;80(958):816
-
21.

68.

Doran DM, Harrison MB, Laschinger HS, Hirdes JP, Rukholm E, Sidani S, et al. Nursing
-
sensitive
outcomes data collection in acute care and long
-
term
-
care settings. Nursing
Research 2006 Mar;55(2 Suppl):S75
-
S81.

69.

Drummond J, Mayan M, Schnirer L, So S. The comparative costs and effects of four models
to augment services for low
-
income families. Can J Nu
rs Res 2007 Sep;39(3):183
-
5.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


7




70.

Duggan PM, Palmer E, Devitt P. Electronic voting to encourage interactive lectures: a
randomised trial. BMC Med Educ 2007;7:25.

71.

Duijm LE, Groenewoud JH, Fracheboud J, de Koning HJ. Additional double reading of
screening mammogr
ams by radiologic technologists: impact on screening performance
parameters. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007 Aug 1;99(15):1162
-
70.

72.

Duke GJ. Metropolitan audit of appropriate referrals refused admission to intensive care.
Anaesthesia And Intensive Care 2004 Oct;32(
5):702
-
6.

73.

Dunn NJ, Rehm LP, Schillaci J, Souchek J, Mehta P, Ashton CM, et al. A randomized trial
of self
-
management and psychoeducational group therapies for comorbid chronic
posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive disorder. J Trauma Stress 2007 Jun;
20(3):221
-
37.

74.

Ebbert JO, Carr AB, Patten CA, Morris RA, Schroeder DR. Tobacco use quitline enrollment
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-
601.

75.

Eckardt AJ, Swales C, Bhattacharya K, Wassef WY, Phelan NP, Zubair S, et

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105.

76.

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Contribution to solve the problem of the n
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--
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-
92.

77.

Ell K, Unutzer J, Aranda M, Gibbs NE, Lee PJ, Xie B. Managing depression in home health
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78.

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31.

79.

Eon Y, Le Douy JY, Lamer B, Battini J, Bretagne JF. Quality and completeness of
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40.

80.

Farrell MJ, Rose L. Use of mobile handheld computers in clinical nursing education. J Nurs
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81.

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-
randomized controlled trial of an educational quality improvement intervention in rural and
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27.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


8




82.

Gerna G, Baldanti F, Torsellini M, Minoli L, Vigano M, Oggionnis T, et al. Evaluation of
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72.

83.

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Goicoechea M, Vidal A, Capparelli E, Rigby A, Kemper C, Diamond C, et al. A computer
-
based system to aid in the interpretation of plasma concentrations of antiretrovirals for
therapeutic drug monitoring. Antivir Ther 2007;12(1):55
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62.

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Gordon JS
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86.

Gorgels WJ, Oude Voshaar RC, Mol AJ, van de Lisdonk EH, Mulder J, va
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Consequences of a benzodiazepine discontinuation programme in family practice on
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10.

87.

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54.

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blind, controlled study. Psychother Psychosom 2007;76(6):332
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8

89.

Gupta T, Mandot A, Desai D, Abraham P, Joshi A, Shah S. Comparison of two sche
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9.

90.

Haist SA, Wilson JF, Lineberry MJ, Griffith CH. A randomized controlled trial using
insinuated standardized patients to assess residents' dom
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-
hour workshop. Teach Learn Med 2007;19(4):336
-
42.

91.

Haj
-
Ali R, Walker MP, Petrie CS, Steven J. Educational necessities to compensate for faculty
shortage. J Dent Educ 2007 Apr;71(4):511
-
5.

92.

Hassan T, Nute SJ. An audit of
referral practice for patients with impacted palatal canines
and the impact of referral guidelines. Br Dent J 2006 May 13;200(9):493
-
6.

93.

Hepner KA, Rowe M, Rost K, Hickey SC, Sherbourne CD, Ford DE, et al. The effect of
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94.

Hiom S, Roberts D, Hawksbee M, Burfield R, Francis M, Walker K, et al. Benchmarking the
current dispensing rate of Welsh hospital pharmacies. Journal Of Clinical Pharmacy And
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-
62.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


9




95.

Hirabayashi Y, Seo N. Tracheal intubation by non
-
anaesthetist physicians using the Airway
Scope. Emerg Med J 2007 Aug;24(8):572
-
3.

96.

Hollander JE, Pines JM. The emergency department crowding paradox: the longer you stay,
the less care you get.

Ann Emerg Med 2007 Nov;50(5):497
-
9.

97.

Holroyd BR, Bullard MJ, Latoszek K, Gordon D, Allen S, Tam S, et al. Impact of a triage
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Wilkin TJ, Mallam KM, Metcalf BS
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with the child, not his environment: evidence for an 'activitystat' in young children
(EarlyBird 16). International Journal Of Obesity (2005) 2006 Jul;30(7):1050
-
5.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


26




44.

Winzenberg T, Oldenburg B, Frend
in S, De Wit L, Riley M, Jones G. The effect on behavior
and bone mineral density of individualized bone mineral density feedback and educational
interventions in premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial [NCT00273260].
BMC Public Health 2006 Jan
23;6:12.

45.

Wise JB, Posner AE, Walker GL. Verbal messages strengthen bench press efficacy. Journal
Of Strength And Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
2004 Feb;18(1):26
-
9.

46.

Yip SLM, Ng GYF. Biofeedback supplementation to physi
otherapy exercise programme for
rehabilitation of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot study. Clinical
Rehabilitation 2006 Dec;20(12):1050
-
7.

Not RCT

1.

Using performance feedback to change provider behavior. Performance Improvement
Adv
isor 2006 May;10(5):58.

2.

Chate RAC, White S, Hale LRO, Howat AP, Bottomley J, Barnet
-
Lamb J, et al. The impact
of clinical audit on antibiotic prescribing in general dental practice. Br Dent J 2006 Nov
25;201(10):635
-
41.

3.

Cheater FM, Hearnshaw H, Baker R, Ke
ane M. Can a facilitated programme promote
effective multidisciplinary audit in secondary care teams? An exploratory trial. International
Journal Of Nursing Studies 2005 Sep;42(7):779
-
91.

4.

Clay AS, Que L, Petrusa ER, Sebastian M, Govert J. Debriefing in the

intensive care unit: a
feedback tool to facilitate bedside teaching. Critical Care Medicine 2007 Mar;35(3):738
-
54.

5.

Edwards N, Danseco E, Heslin K, Ploeg J, Santos J, Stansfield M, et al. Development and
testing of tools to assess physical restraint use. W
orldviews On Evidence
-
Based Nursing /
Sigma Theta Tau International, Honor Society Of Nursing 2006;3(2):73
-
85.

6.

Elwyn G, Owen D, Roberts L, Wareham K, Duane P, Allison M, et al. Influencing referral
practice using feedback of adherence to NICE guidelines: a

quality improvement report for
dyspepsia. Quality & Safety In Health Care 2007 Feb;16(1):67
-
70.

7.

Forjuoh SN, Reis MD, Couchman GR, Symm B, Mason S, O'Banon R. Physician response
to written feedback on a medication discrepancy found with their elderly ambul
atory
patients. Journal Of The American Geriatrics Society 2005 Dec;53(12):2173
-
7.

8.

Garbett R, Hardy S, Manley K, Titchen A, McCormack B. Developing a qualitative approach
to 360
-
degree feedback to aid understanding and development of clinical expertise. Jo
urnal
Of Nursing Management 2007 Apr;15(3):342
-
7.

9.

Kasatpibal N, Jamulitrat S, Chongsuvivatwong V, Nørgaard M, Sørensen HT. Impact of
surgeon
-
specific feedback on surgical site infection rates in Thailand. The Journal Of
Hospital Infection 2006 Jun 24;63(2)
:148
-
55.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


27




10.

Lee TW, Chan SC, Chua WT, Harbinder K, Khoo YL, Ow Yeang YL, et al. Audit of
diabetes mellitus in general practice. The Medical Journal Of Malaysia 2004 Aug;59(3):317
-
22.

11.

McMullan RE. An audit of 'early debond' cases in the national outcomes audit

of patients
treated with upper and lower fixed appliances by Consultant Orthodontists in the UK.
Journal Of Orthodontics 2005 Dec;32(4):257.

12.

Nicolson S, Pirotta M, Chondros P. Shared maternity care: all care
--
not enough
responsibility? An audit of patient

care communications pre
-

and post
-

a multi
-
faceted
intervention. The Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2005
Dec;45(6):509
-
13.

13.

Parra E, Ramos R, Betriú A, Paniagua J, Belart M, Martí
n F, et al.
[Hemodialysis prospective
multice
nt
ric quality study]. Nefrología: Publicación Oficial De La Sociedad Españ
ola
Nefrologia 2006;26(6):688
-
94.

14.

Rask KJ, Schuessler LD, Naylor DV. A statewide voluntary patient safety initiative: the
Georgia experiene. Joint Commission Journal On Quality And Pat
ient Safety / Joint
Commission Resources 2006 Oct;32(10):564
-
72.

15.

Weightman R, Walton R, Bury J. Audit of bloodborne virus prevention activity with drug
users seen in primary care. Communicable Disease And Public Health / PHLS 2004
Dec;7(4):301
-
5.

16.

Wolthuis
EK, Korevaar JC, Spronk P, Kuiper MA, Dzoljic M, Vroom MB, et al. Feedback
and education improve physician compliance in use of lung
-
protective mechanical
ventilation. Intensive Care Medicine 2005 Apr 25;31(4):540
-
6.

17.

Yeung N, Cohen JD, Botvinick MM. The ne
ural basis of error detection: conflict monitoring
and the error
-
related negativity. Psychological Review 2004 Oct;111(4):931
-
59.

Only student participants

1.

Ali J, Adam RU, Sammy I, Ali E, Williams JI. The simulated Trauma Patient Teaching
Module
--
does it i
mprove student performance? J Trauma 2007 Jun;62(6):1416
-
20.

2.

Boehler ML, Rogers DA, Schwind CJ, Mayforth R, Quin J, Williams RG, et al. An
investigation of medical student reactions to feedback: a randomised controlled trial. Medical
Education 2006 Aug;40(
8):746
-
9.

3.

Chernoff RA, Davison GC. An evaluation of a brief HIV/AIDS prevention intervention for
college students using normative feedback and goal setting. AIDS Education And
Prevention: Official Publication Of The International Society For AIDS Education

2005
Apr;17(2):91
-
104.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


28




4.

Congedo M, Lubar JF, Joffe D. Low
-
resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback.
IEEE Transactions On Neural Systems And Rehabilitation Engineering: A Publication Of
The IEEE Engineering In Medicine And Biology Society 2004 De
c;12(4):387
-
97.

5.

Descarreaux M, Dugas C, Lalanne K, Vincelette M, Normand MC. Learning spinal
manipulation: the importance of augmented feedback relating to various kinetic parameters.
The Spine Journal: Official Journal Of The North American Spine Society
2006 Mar
30;6(2):138
-
45.

6.

Gofton W, Dubrowski A, Tabloie F, Backstein D. The effect of computer navigation on
trainee learning of surgical skills. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2007 Dec;89(12):2819
-
27.

7.

Juárez P, Walters ST, Daugherty M, Radi C. A randomized trial of

motivational interviewing
and feedback with heavy drinking college students. Journal Of Drug Education
2006;36(3):233
-
46.

8.

Larimer ME, Lee CM, Kilmer JR, Fabiano PM, Stark CB, Geisner IM, et al. Personalized
mailed feedback for college drinking prevention:

a randomized clinical trial. Journal Of
Consulting And Clinical Psychology 2007 Apr;75(2):285
-
93.

9.

Lipkus IM, Prokhorov AV. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms
feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking
-
related health r
isks, worries and
desire to quit. Addictive Behaviors 2007 Mar 7;32(3):516
-
32.

10.

Levitsky DA, Garay J, Nausbaum M, Neighbors L, Dellavalle DM. Monitoring weight daily
blocks the freshman weight gain: a model for combating the epidemic of obesity.
Internation
al Journal Of Obesity (2005) 2006 Jun;30(6):1003
-
10.

11.

Lewis MA, Neighbors C. Optimizing personalized normative feedback: the use of gender
-
specific referents. Journal Of Studies On Alcohol And Drugs 2007 Mar;68(2):228
-
37.

12.

Madan AK, Frantzides CT. Substituti
ng virtual reality trainers for inanimate box trainers
does not decrease laparoscopic skills acquisition. JSLS 2007 Jan;11(1):87
-
9.

13.

Murphy JG, Benson TA, Vuchinich RE, Deskins MM, Eakin D, Flood AM, et al. A
comparison of personalized feedback for college
student drinkers delivered with and without
a motivational interview. Journal Of Studies On Alcohol 2004 Mar;65(2):200
-
3.

14.

Neighbors C, Larimer ME, Lewis MA. Targeting misperceptions of descriptive drinking
norms: efficacy of a computer
-
delivered personaliz
ed normative feedback intervention.
Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology 2004 Jun;72(3):434
-
47.

15.

Neighbors C, Lewis MA, Bergstrom RL, Larimer ME. Being controlled by normative
influences: self
-
determination as a moderator of a normative feedback al
cohol intervention.
Health Psychology: Official Journal Of The Division Of Health Psychology, American
Psychological Association 2006 Sep;25(5):571
-
9.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


29




16.

Neal DJ, Carey KB. Developing discrepancy within self
-
regulation theory: use of
personalized normative fe
edback and personal strivings with heavy
-
drinking college
students. Addictive Behaviors 2004 Feb;29(2):281
-
97.

17.

Walters ST, Vader AM, Harris TR. A controlled trial of web
-
based feedback for heavy
drinking college students. Prevention Science: The Official J
ournal Of The Society For
Prevention Research 2007 Mar 29;8(1):83
-
8.

18.

White HR, Morgan TJ, Pugh LA, Celinska K, Labouvie EW, Pandina RJ. Evaluating two
brief substance
-
use interventions for mandated college students. Journal Of Studies On
Alcohol 2006 Mar;6
7(2):309
-
17.

19.

Wierinck E, Puttemans V, Swinnen S, van Steenberghe D. Effect of augmented visual
feedback from a virtual reality simulation system on manual dexterity training. European
Journal Of Dental Education: Official Journal Of The Association For Den
tal Education In
Europe 2005 Feb;9(1):10
-
6.

20.

Wierinck E, Puttemans V, van Steenberghe D. Effect of tutorial input in addition to
augmented feedback on manual dexterity training and its retention. European Journal Of
Dental Education: Official Journal Of The

Association For Dental Education In Europe
2006 Feb;10(1):24
-
31.

Feedback unrelated to healthcare

1.

Butcher Z, Fairclough S, Stratton G, Richardson D. The effect of feedback and information
on children's pedometer step counts at school. Pediatr Exerc Sci 20
07 Feb;19(1):29
-
38

2.

Cave J, Washer P, Sampson P, Griffin M, Noble L. Explicitly linking teaching and
assessment of communication skills. Med Teach 2007 May;29(4):317
-
22.

3.

Chiviacowsky S, Wulf G. Feedback after good trials enhances learning. Res Q Exerc Sport

2007 Mar;78(2):40
-
7.

4.

Chen S, English T, Peng K. Self
-
verification and contextualized self
-
views. Personality And
Social Psychology Bulletin 2006 Jul;32(7):930
-
42.

5.

Eklöf M, Hagberg M. Are simple feedback interventions involving workplace data associated
wi
th better working environment and health? A cluster randomized controlled study among
Swedish VDU workers. Applied Ergonomics 2006 Mar 27;37(2):201
-
10.

6.

Goodman JS, Wood RE. Feedback specificity, learning opportunities, and learning. The
Journal Of Applied
Psychology 2004 Oct;89(5):809
-
21.

7.

Goodman JS, Wood RE, Hendrickx M. Feedback specificity, exploration, and learning. The
Journal Of Applied Psychology 2004 Apr;89(2):248
-
62.

8.

Krigolson O, Van Gyn G, Tremblay L, Heath M. Is there "feedback" during visual ima
gery?
Evidence from a specificity of practice paradigm. Canadian Journal Of Experimental
Psychology = Revue Canadienne De Psychologie Expérimentale 2006 Mar;60(1):24
-
32.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


30




9.

LaBrie JW, Hummer JF, Neighbors C, Pedersen ER. Live interactive group
-
specific
normat
ive feedback reduces misperceptions and drinking in college students: a randomized
cluster trial. Psychol Addict Behav 2008 Mar;22(1):141
-
8.

10.

Larimer ME, Lee CM, Kilmer JR, Fabiano PM, Stark CB, Geisner IM, et al. Personalized
mailed feedback for college dr
inking prevention: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin
Psychol 2007 Apr;75(2):285
-
93.

11.

Madan AK, Frantzides CT. Substituting virtual reality trainers for inanimate box trainers
does not decrease laparoscopic skills acquisition. JSLS 2007 Jan;11(1):8
7
-
9.

12.

Semmler C, Brewer N, Wells GL. Effects of postidentification feedback on eyewitness
identification and nonidentification confidence. The Journal Of Applied Psychology 2004
Apr;89(2):334
-
46.

13.

Silvera DH, Neilands T. Interpreting the uninterpretable: The

effect of self
-
esteem on the
interpretation of meaningless feedback. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology 2004
Feb;45(1):61
-
6.

14.

te Velde AF, van der Kamp J, Barela JA, Savelsbergh GJP.
Visual timing and adaptive
behavior in a road
-
crossing simulation study.
Accident; Analysis And Prevention 2005 May
15;37(3):399
-
406.

15.

White HR, Mun EY, Morgan TJ. Do brief personalized feedback interventions work for
mandated students or is it just getting caught that works? Psychol Addict Behav 2008
Mar;22(1):107
-
16.

16.

White HR,

Mun EY, Pugh L, Morgan TJ. Long
-
term effects of brief substance use
interventions for mandated college students: sleeper effects of an in
-
person personal
feedback intervention. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007 Aug;31(8):1380
-
91.

17.

Yeung N, Holroyd CB, Cohen JD. ER
P correlates of feedback and reward processing in the
presence and absence of response choice. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N Y : 1991) 2005
May 18;15(5):535
-
44.

Feedback unrelated to performance

1.

Backstein D, Agnidis Z, Regehr G, Reznick R. The effectivenes
s of video feedback in the
acquisition of orthopedic technical skills. American Journal Of Surgery 2004 Mar;187(3):427
-
32.

2.

Eklöf M, Hagberg M, Toomingas A, Tornqvist EW. Feedback of workplace data to
individual workers, workgroups or supervisors as a way t
o stimulate working environment
activity: a cluster randomized controlled study. International Archives Of Occupational And
Environmental Health 2004 Oct 28;77(7):505
-
14.

3.

Fletcher KE, Stern DT, White C, Gruppen LD, Oh MS, Cimmino VM. The physical
examinati
on of patients with abdominal pain: the long
-
term effect of adding standardized

Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


31




patients and small
-
group feedback to a lecture presentation. Teaching And Learning In
Medicine 2004;16(2):171
-
4.

4.

Fu CHY, Vythelingum GN, Brammer MJ, Williams SCR, Amaro E, Jr.,

Andrew CM, et al.
An fMRI study of verbal self
-
monitoring: neural correlates of auditory verbal feedback.
Cerebral Cortex (New York, N Y : 1991) 2006 Jul 29;16(7):969
-
77.

5.

Mahmood T, Darzi A. The learning curve for a colonoscopy simulator in the absence of

any
feedback: no feedback, no learning. Surgical Endoscopy 2004 Aug 23;18(8):1224
-
30.

6.

Van Sickle KR, Gallagher AG, Smith CD. The effect of escalating feedback on the
acquisition of psychomotor skills for laparoscopy. Surgical Endoscopy 2007 Feb 2;21(2):22
0
-
4.

7.

Wierinck E, Puttemans V, van Steenberghe D. Effect of reducing frequency of augmented
feedback on manual dexterity training and its retention. Journal Of Dentistry 2006 Oct
18;34(9):641
-
7.

8.

Williams W, Purdy SC, Murray N, Dillon H, Lepage E, Challinor
K, et al. Does the
presentation of audiometric test data have a positive effect on the perceptions of workplace
noise and noise exposure avoidance? Noise & Health 2004 Jul;6(24):75
-
84.

No true control group

1.

Abella BS, Edelson DP, Kim S, Retzer E, Myklebust

H, Barry AM, et al. CPR quality
improvement during in
-
hospital cardiac arrest using a real
-
time audiovisual feedback system.
Resuscitation 2007 Apr 26;73(1):54
-
61.

2.

Beck CA, Richard H, Tu JV, Pilote L. Administrative Data Feedback for Effective Cardiac
Tre
atment: AFFECT, a cluster randomized trial. JAMA: The Journal Of The American
Medical Association 2005 Jul 20;294(3):309
-
17.

3.

Herrin J, Cangialose CB, Nicewander D, Ballard DJ. Cost and effects of performance
feedback and nurse case management for medicare
beneficiaries with diabetes: a randomized
controlled trial. Dis Manag 2007 Dec;10(6):328
-
36.

4.

Madrid
ejos
-
Mora R, mado
-
Guirado E, Pérez
-
Rodrí
guez MT.
Effectiveness of the
combination of feedback and educational recommendations for improving drug prescription

in general practice. Medical Care 2004 Jul;42(7):643
-
8.

5.

McClellan WM, Hodgin E, Pastan S, McAdams L, Soucie M. A randomized evaluation of
two health care quality improvement program (HCQIP) interventions to improve the
adequacy of hemodialysis care of ESR
D patients: feedback alone versus intensive
intervention. Journal Of The American Society Of Nephrology: JASN 2004 Mar;15(3):754
-
60.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


32




6.

Monti PM, Barnett NP, Colby SM, Gwaltney CJ, Spirito A, Rohsenow DJ, et al.
Motivational interviewing versus feedback only
in emergency care for young adult problem
drinking. Addiction 2007 Aug;102(8):1234
-
43.

7.

Naughton C, Feely J, Bennett K. A clustered randomized trial of the effects of feedback
using academic detailing compared to postal bulletin on prescribing of preventati
ve
cardiovascular therapy. Fam Pract 2007 Oct;24(5):475
-
80.

8.

Pit SW, Byles JE, Henry DA, Holt L, Hansen V, Bowman DA. A Quality Use of Medicines
program for general practitioners and older people: a cluster randomised controlled trial.
Med J Aust 2007 Jul 2
;187(1):23
-
30.

9.

Wadland WC, Holtrop JS, Weismantel D, Pathak PK, Fadel H, Powell J. Practice
-
based
referrals to a tobacco cessation quit line: assessing the impact of comparative feedback vs
general reminders. Annals Of Family Medicine 2007 Mar;5(2):135
-
42.

No feedback only condition

1.

Bunting PS, Van Walraven C. Effect of a controlled feedback intervention on laboratory test
ordering by community physicians. Clinical Chemistry 2004 Feb 18;50(2):321
-
6.

2.

Chossis I, Lane C, Gache P, Michaud PA, Pecoud A, Rollnick

S, et al. Effect of training on
primary care residents' performance in brief alcohol intervention: a randomized controlled
trial. J Gen Intern Med 2007 Aug;22(8):1144
-
9.

3.

Colon
-
Emeric CS, Lyles KW, House P, Levine DA, Schenck AP, Allison J, et al.
Randomiz
ed trial to improve fracture prevention in nursing home residents. Am J Med 2007
Oct;120(10):886
-
92.

4.

Foster JM, Hoskins G, Smith B, Lee AJ, Price D, Pinnock H. Practice development plans to
improve the primary care management of acute asthma: randomised co
ntrolled trial. BMC
Fam Pract 2007;8:23.

5.

Houston TK, Wall T, Allison JJ, Palonen K, Willett LL, Keife CI, et al. Implementing
achievable benchmarks in preventive health: a controlled trial in residency education.
Academic Medicine: Journal Of The Associati
on Of American Medical Colleges 2006
Jul;81(7):608
-
16.

6.

Johnston CC, Gagnon A, Rennick J, Rosmus C, Patenaude H, Ellis J, et al. One
-
on
-
one
coaching to improve pain assessment and management practices of pediatric nurses. J
Pediatr Nurs 2007 Dec;22(6):467
-
7
8.

7.

Lafata JE, Gunter MJ, Hsu J, Kaatz S, Krajenta R, Platt R, et al.
Academic detailing to
improve laboratory testing among outpatient medication users. Med Care 2007
Oct;45(10):966
-
72.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


33




8.

Pit SW, Byles JE, Henry DA, Holt L, Hansen V, Bowman DA. A Quality Use

of Medicines
program for general practitioners and older people: a cluster randomised controlled trial.
Med J Aust 2007 Jul 2;187(1):23
-
30.

9.

Shuval K, Berkovits E, Netzer D, Hekselman I, Linn S, Brezis M, et al. Evaluating the
impact of an evidence
-
based m
edicine educational intervention on primary care doctors'
attitudes, knowledge and clinical behaviour: a controlled trial and before and after study. J
Eval Clin Pract 2007 Aug;13(4):581
-
98.

10.

Simunovic M, Goldsmith C, Thabane L, McLeod R, Denardi F, Whelan
TJ, et al. The
Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC) trial: study protocol of a cluster randomized
controlled trial in surgery. BMC Surg 2008;8:4.

11.

Stewart M, Brown JB, Hammerton J, Donner A, Gavin A, Holliday RL, et al. Improving
communication between

doctors and breast cancer patients. Ann Fam Med 2007
Sep;5(5):387
-
94.

12.

Thomas KG, Thomas MR, Stroebel RJ, McDonald FS, Hanson GJ, Naessens JM, et al. Use
of a registry
-
generated audit, feedback, and patient reminder intervention in an internal
medicine res
ident clinic
--
a randomized trial. J Gen Intern Med 2007 Dec;22(12):1740
-
4.

13.

Wolthuis EK, Kesecioglu J, Hassink LH, Determann RM, Korevaar JC, Schultz MJ.
Adoption of lower tidal volume ventilation improves with feedback and education. Respir
Care 2007 Dec;5
2(12):1761
-
6.

Feedback is not the intervention

1.

Okiishi JC, Lambert MJ, Eggett D, Nielsen L, Dayton DD, Vermeersch DA. An analysis of
therapist treatment effects: toward providing feedback to individual therapists on their
clients' psychotherapy outcome. Jo
urnal Of Clinical Psychology 2006 Sep;62(9):1157
-
72.

2.

Schneider A, Wensing M, Biessecker K, Quinzler R, Kaufmann
-
Kolle P, Szecsenyi J. Impact
of quality circles for improvement of asthma care: results of a randomized controlled trial. J
Eval Clin Pract 2008

Apr;14(2):185
-
90.

No abstract

1.

Martin WE, Miller SC, Welch LC, Burrill J. Improving access to hospice: the Physician
Feedback and Reminders to Improve Access to Hospice (PFRIAH) study. Med Health R I
2007 Dec;90(12):388
-
90.

Qualitative data only

1.

Hartmann C
W, Sciamanna CN, Blanch DC, Mui S, Lawless H, Manocchia M, et al. A
website to improve asthma care by suggesting patient questions for physicians: qualitative
analysis of user experiences. J Med Internet Res 2007;9(1):e3.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


34




Studies Excluded After Initial Scr
eening

No feedback only condition

1.

Anderson FA, Jr., Wheeler HB, Goldberg RJ, Hosmer DW, Forcier A, Patwardhan NA.
Changing clinical practice. Prospective study of the impact of continuing medical education
and quality assurance programs on use of prophylax
is for venous thromboembolism.
Archives of Internal Medicine 154(6):669
-
77, 1994 Mar 28.

2.

Bahrami M, Deery C, Clarkson JE, Pitts NB, Johnston M, Ricketts I, et al. Effectiveness of
strategies to disseminate and implement clinical guidelines for the manageme
nt of impacted
and unerupted third molars in primary dental care, a cluster randomised controlled trial. Br
Dent J 2004 Dec 11;197(11):691
-
6.

3.

Baker R, Fraser RC, Stone M, Lambert P, Stevenson K, Shiels C. Randomised controlled
trial of the impact of guidel
ines, prioritized review criteria and feedback on implementation
of recommendations for angina and asthma.[see comment][comment]. British Journal of
General Practice 53(489):284
-
91, 2003 Apr.

4.

Belcher DW. Implementing preventive services. Success and failur
e in an outpatient trial.
Archives Of Internal Medicine 1990 Dec;150(12):2533
-
41.

5.

Brady WJ, Hissa DC, McConnell M, Wones RG. Should physicians perform their own
quality assurance audits? Journal Of General Internal Medicine: Official Journal Of The
Society

For Research And Education In Primary Care Internal Medicine 1988 Nov;3(6):560
-
5.

6.

Brown LF, Keily PA, Spencer AJ. Evaluation of a continuing education intervention
"Periodontics in General Practice". Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 1994
Dec;22(6
):441
-
7.

7.

Buffington J, Bell KM, LaForce FM. A target
-
based model for increasing influenza
immunizations in private practice. Genesee Hospital Medical Staff. Journal Of General
Internal Medicine: Official Journal Of The Society For Research And Education In

Primary
Care Internal Medicine 1991 May;6(3):204
-
9.

8.

Buntinx F, Knottnerus JA, Crebolder HF, Essed GG. Reactions of doctors to various forms
of feedback designed to improve the sampling quality of cervical smears. Quality Assurance
In Health Care: The Offi
cial Journal Of The International Society For Quality Assurance In
Health Care / ISQA 1992 Jun;4(2):161
-
6.

9.

Buntinx F, Knottnerus JA, Crebolder HF, Seegers T, Essed GG, Schouten H. Does
feedback improve the quality of cervical smears? A randomized controlle
d trial. The British
Journal Of General Practice: The Journal Of The Royal College Of General Practitioners
1993 May;43(370):194
-
8.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


35




10.

Chassin MR, McCue SM. A randomized trial of medical quality assurance. Improving
physicians' use of pelvimetry. JAMA: The Jo
urnal Of The American Medical Association
1986 Aug 22;256(8):1012
-
6.

11.

Curtis JR, Olivieri J, Allison JJ, Gaffo A, Juarez L, Kovac SH, et al. A group randomized trial
to improve safe use of nonsteroidal anti
-
inflammatory drugs. Am J Manag Care 2005
Sep;11(9)
:537
-
43.

12.

De Almeida Neto AC, Kavanagh DJ, Boakes RA.
A pharmacy based protocol and training
program for non
-
prescription analgesics. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy
2000 Feb 9;17(3):183
-
92.

13.

Ferguson TB, Jr., Peterson ED, Coombs LP, Eiken MC,
Carey ML, Grover FL, et al. Use of
continuous quality improvement to increase use of process measures in patients undergoing
coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003 Jul
2;290(1):49
-
56.

14.

Finkelstein JA, Davis RL, Dowell

SF, Metlay JP, Soumerai SB, Rifas
-
Shiman SL, et al.
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500.

28.

Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC, Barlow WE, Sugg NK, Maiuro RD, et al.
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2000 Nov;
19(4):253
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63.

29.

Veninga CC, Lagerlov P, Wahlstrom R, Muskova M, Denig P, Berkhof J, et al. Evaluating an
educational intervention to improve the treatment of asthma in four European countries.
Drug Education Project Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999 Oct;
160(4):1254
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62.

Insufficient subjects per study arm

1.

Anderson FA, Jr., Wheeler HB, Goldberg RJ, Hosmer DW, Forcier A, Patwardhan NA.
Changing clinical practice. Prospective study of the impact of continuing medical education
and quality assurance programs o
n use of prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism.
Archives of Internal Medicine 154(6):669
-
77, 1994 Mar 28.

2.

Baker R, Farooqi A, Tait C, Walsh S. Randomised controlled trial of reminders to enhance
the impact of audit in general practice on management of pat
ients who use benzodiazepines.
Quality In Health Care: QHC 1997 Mar;6(1):14
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8.

3.

Balas EA, Boren SA, Hicks LL, Chonko AM, Stephenson K. Effect of linking practice data
to published evidence. A randomized controlled trial of clinical direct reports. Med Care
1998 Jan;36(1):79
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87.

4.

Boekeloo BO, Becker DM, Levine DM, Belitsos PC, Pearson TA. Strategies for increasing
house staff management of cholesterol with inpatients. American Journal Of Preventive
Medicine 1990;6(2 Suppl):51
-
9.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


45




5.

Cohen DI, Jones P, Littenberg B
, Neuhauser D. Does cost information availability reduce
physician test usage? A randomized clinical trial with unexpected findings. Medical Care
1982 Mar;20(3):286
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92.

6.

De Almeida Neto AC, Kavanagh DJ, Boakes RA.
A pharmacy based protocol and training
prog
ram for non
-
prescription analgesics. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy
2000 Feb 9;17(3):183
-
92.

7.

Dickinson JC, Warshaw GA, Gehlbach SH, Bobula JA, Muhlbaier LH, Parkerson GR, Jr.
Improving hypertension control: impact of computer feedback and ph
ysician education.
Medical Care 1981 Aug;19(8):843
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54.

8.

Everett GD, deBlois CS, Chang PF, Holets T. Effect of cost education, cost audits, and
faculty chart review on the use of laboratory services. Archives Of Internal Medicine 1983
May;143(5):942
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4.

9.

Gama
R, Nightingale PG, Broughton PM, Peters M, Bradby GV, Berg J, et al. Feedback of
laboratory usage and cost data to clinicians: does it alter requesting behaviour? Annals Of
Clinical Biochemistry 1991 Mar;28 ( Pt 2):143
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9.

10.

Hendryx MS, Fieselmann JF, Bock MJ
, Wakefield DS, Helms CM, Bentler SE. Outreach
education to improve quality of rural ICU care. Results of a randomized trial. Am J Respir
Crit Care Med 1998 Aug;158(2):418
-
23.

11.

Howe A. Detecting psychological distress: can general practitioners improve thei
r own
performance? The British Journal Of General Practice: The Journal Of The Royal College
Of General Practitioners 1996 Jul;46(408):407
-
10.

12.

Kafuko JM. Rational drug use in rural health units of Uganda: Effect of national standard
treatment guidelines on

rational drug use. 1999.

13.

Katz DA, Muehlenbruch DR, Brown RL, Fiore MC, Baker TB. Effectiveness of
implementing the agency for healthcare research and quality smoking cessation clinical
practice guideline: a randomized, controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst

2004 Apr 21;96(8):594
-
603.

14.

Lobach DF. Electronically distributed, computer
-
generated, individualized feedback
enhances the use of a computerized practice guideline. Proceedings: A Conference Of The
American Medical Informatics Association / AMIA Annual Fa
ll Symposium AMIA Fall
Symposium 1996;493
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7.

15.

Lomas J. Making clinical policy explicit. Legislative policy making and lessons for developing
practice guidelines. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 1993;9(1):11
-
25.

16.

Lundborg CS, Wahlstrom R, Oke T, Tomson G, Di
wan VK. Influencing prescribing for
urinary tract infection and asthma in primary care in Sweden: a randomized controlled trial
of an interactive educational intervention. J Clin Epidemiol 1999 Aug;52(8):801
-
12.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


46




17.

Martin AR, Wolf MA, Thibodeau LA, Dzau V, Br
aunwald E. A trial of two strategies to
modify the test
-
ordering behavior of medical residents. N Engl J Med 1980 Dec
4;303(23):1330
-
6.

18.

Mayefsky JH, Foye HR. Use of a chart audit: teaching well child care to paediatric house
officers. Med Educ 1993 Mar;27(
2):170
-
4.

19.

Norton PG, Dempsey LJ. Self
-
audit: its effect on quality of care. J Fam Pract 1985
Oct;21(4):289
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91.

20.

Palmer RH, Louis TA, Hsu LN, Peterson HF, Rothrock JK, Strain R, et al. A randomized
controlled trial of quality assurance in sixteen ambulatory
care practices. Med Care 1985
Jun;23(6):751
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70.

21.

Reid RA, Lantz KH. Physician profiles in training the graduate internist. J Med Educ 1977
Apr;52(4):301
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7.

22.

Sauaia A, Ralston D, Schluter WW, Marciniak TA, Havranek EP, Dunn TR. Influencing care
in acute myoca
rdial infarction: a randomized trial comparing 2 types of intervention. Am J
Med Qual 2000 Sep;15(5):197
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206.

23.

Sinclair C, Frankel M. The effect of quality assurance activities on the quality of mental
health services. QRB Quality Review Bulletin 1982 Jul;8
(7):7
-
15.

24.

Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC, Barlow WE, Sugg NK, Maiuro RD, et al.
Identification and management of domestic violence: a randomized trial. Am J Prev Med
2000 Nov;19(4):253
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63.

25.

Winickoff RN, Coltin KL, Morgan MM, Buxbaum RC, Barnett GO. Im
proving physician
performance through peer comparison feedback. Med Care 1984 Jun;22(6):527
-
34.

26.

Wones RG. Failure of low
-
cost audits with feedback to reduce laboratory test utilization.
Med Care 1987 Jan;25(1):78
-
82.

No measurable outcome

1.

Lomas J. Making c
linical policy explicit. Legislative policy making and lessons for developing
practice guidelines. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 1993;9(1):11
-
25.

2.

Sauaia A, Ralston D, Schluter WW, Marciniak TA, Havranek EP, Dunn TR. Influencing care
in acute myocardial
infarction: a randomized trial comparing 2 types of intervention. Am J
Med Qual 2000 Sep;15(5):197
-
206.

3.

Simon GE, VonKorff M, Rutter C, Wagner E. Randomised trial of monitoring, feedback,
and management of care by telephone to improve treatment of depressi
on in primary care.
BMJ 2000 Feb 26;320(7234):550
-
4.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


47




4.

Sondergaard J, Andersen M, Stovring H, Kragstrup J. Mailed prescriber feedback in addition
to a clinical guideline has no impact: a randomised, controlled trial. Scand J Prim Health
Care 2003 Mar;21(1):4
7
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51.

5.

Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC, Barlow WE, Sugg NK, Maiuro RD, et al.
Identification and management of domestic violence: a randomized trial. Am J Prev Med
2000 Nov;19(4):253
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63.

Articles Included in the Meta
-
Analysis

1.

Anderson JF, McEwan KL, Hru
dey WP. Effectiveness of notification and group education
in modifying prescribing of regulated analgesics. CMAJ 1996 Jan 1;154(1):31
-
9.

2.

Bentz CJ, Bayley KB, Bonin KE, Fleming L, Hollis JF, Hunt JS, et al. Provider feedback to
improve 5A's tobacco cessatio
n in primary care: a cluster randomized clinical trial. Nicotine
& Tobacco Research: Official Journal Of The Society For Research On Nicotine And
Tobacco 2007 Mar;9(3):341
-
9.

3.

Berman MF, Simon AE. The effect of a drug and supply cost feedback system on the
use of
intraoperative resources by anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg 1998 Mar;86(3):510
-
5.

4.

Bonevski B, Sanson
-
Fisher RW, Campbell E, Carruthers A, Reid AL, Ireland M.
Randomized controlled trial of a computer strategy to increase general practitioner
prevent
ive care. Prev Med 1999 Dec;29(6 Pt 1):478
-
86.

5.

Eccles M, Steen N, Grimshaw J, Thomas L, McNamee P, Soutter J, et al. Effect of audit and
feedback, and reminder messages on primary
-
care radiology referrals: a randomised trial.
Lancet 2001 May 5;357(9266):14
06
-
9.

6.

Everett GD, deBlois CS, Chang PF, Holets T. Effect of cost education, cost audits, and
faculty chart review on the use of laboratory services. Archives Of Internal Medicine 1983
May;143(5):942
-
4.

7.

Fihn SD, McDonell MB, Diehr P, Anderson SM, Bradley KA
, Au DH, et al. Effects of
sustained audit/feedback on self
-
reported health status of primary care patients. The
American Journal Of Medicine 2004 Feb 15;116(4):241
-
8.

8.

Heller RF, D'Este C, Lim LL, O'Connell RL, Powell H. Randomised controlled trial to
chan
ge the hospital management of unstable angina. The Medical Journal Of Australia 2001
Mar 5;174(5):217
-
21.

9.

Hershey CO, Porter DK, Breslau D, Cohen DI. Influence of simple computerized feedback
on prescription charges in an ambulatory clinic. A randomized cl
inical trial. Med Care 1986
Jun;24(6):472
-
81.

10.

Kogan JR, Reynolds EE, Shea JA.
Effectiveness of report cards based on chart audits of
residents' adherence to practice guidelines on practice performance: a randomized controlled
trial. Teach Learn Med 2003;15
(1):25
-
30.


Meta
-
Analysis: Audit & Feedback


48




11.

Lomas J, Enkin M, Anderson GM, Hannah WJ, Vayda E, Singer J. Opinion leaders vs audit
and feedback to implement practice guidelines. Delivery after previous cesarean section.
JAMA 1991 May 1;265(17):2202
-
7.

12.

Mainous AG, III, Hueston WJ, Love MM,
Evans ME, Finger R. An evaluation of statewide
strategies to reduce antibiotic overuse. Fam Med 2000 Jan;32(1):22
-
9.

13.

Marton KI, Tul V, Sox HC, Jr. Modifying test
-
ordering behavior in the outpatient medical
clinic. A controlled trial of two educational inte
rventions. Arch Intern Med 1985
May;145(5):816
-
21.

14.

Meyer TJ, Van KD, Marsh S, Prochazka AV. Reduction of polypharmacy by feedback to
clinicians. J Gen Intern Med 1991 Mar;6(2):133
-
6.

15.

Raasch BA, Hays R, Buettner PG. An educational intervention to improve di
agnosis and
management of suspicious skin lesions. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2000;20(1):39
-
51.

16.

Robling MR, Houston HL, Kinnersley P, Hourihan MD, Cohen DR, Hale J, et al. General
practitioners' use of magnetic resonance imaging: an open randomized trial co
mparing
telephone and written requests and an open randomized controlled trial of different methods
of local guideline dissemination. Clin Radiol 2002 May;57(5):402
-
7.

17.

Schectman JM, Kanwal NK, Schroth WS, Elinsky EG. The effect of an education and
feedback

intervention on group
-
model and network
-
model health maintenance organization
physician prescribing behavior. Med Care 1995 Feb;33(2):139
-
44.

18.

Socolar RR, Raines B, Chen
-
Mok M, Runyan DK, Green C, Paterno S. Intervention to
improve physician documentation
and knowledge of child sexual abuse: a randomized,
controlled trial. Pediatrics 1998 May;101(5):817
-
24.

19.

Sommers LS, Sholtz R, Shepherd RM, Starkweather DB. Physician involvement in quality
assurance. Med Care 1984 Dec;22(12):1115
-
38.

20.

Wahlstrom R, Kounnavon
g S, Sisounthone B, Phanyanouvong A, Southammavong T,
Eriksson B, et al. Effectiveness of feedback for improving case management of malaria,
diarrhoea and pneumonia
--
a randomized controlled trial at provincial hospitals in Lao PDR.
Trop Med Int Health 2003

Oct;8(10):901
-
9.