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1


Spring

201
3


PSC 3192



Political Violence

Prof. Evgeny Finkel,
efinkel@gwu.edu



Lecture Office Hours

T
hur
sday,
11
:10
AM
-
1PM




Wed. 2
-
3PM
; Thu.
2:30
-
3:30PM





Monroe 252


Monroe 419


Course Descri
ption

Millions of people around the globe are confronted with violence on a daily basis. This can
include violence such as civil wars, ethnic riots, suicide bombings, famines, and genocide. While
these types of violent phenomena are ancient, only in recent

decades have scholars devoted
serious study and attention to analyzing political violence in its various forms. The goal of this
seminar

is to introduce students to this thriving field of study, to present key academic works on
various aspects and forms of violence, to discuss the similarities and differences between various
forms of political violence, and to analyze the theoretical and m
ethodological approaches to
studying violence. We will end by discussing the impact of violence on the societies and people
that have experienced it and the ways to prevent and manage future violent conflicts.


Learning Objectives and Outcomes

As a result

of completing this course, students will be able to
:



Un
derstand
the main theories that explain the emergence and the unfolding of various
types of violence as well as the key concepts of the field
;



To write short response paper
s

that
critically evaluat
e

t
he

field’s

main theories and
arguments



To be able to translate academic knowledge into writing for broader audiences



To write an independently researched academic paper



Requirements and Class Policies


2


The class is a seminar. This means that the students
are expected to attend the lectures and to
read all the required materials.
The class is structured around weekly meetings, in which the
instructor and the students critically evaluate and discuss the readings. Hence, students’ active
participation in the
discussions is required and class participation is a substantial part of the final
grade.

This is a writing
-
oriented class and the students will be required to conduct various
research and writing assignments
that culminate
in the end
-
of
-
class final resear
ch paper. In
addition, the students will be required to submit
three

short response papers, and

to

create a
Wikipedia page on a topic,
concept, or personality
related to their final paper.


Response Papers

During the semester the students will be required to submit
four

response papers. The exact dates
of the papers will be determined during the first lecture. The goal of
each

response paper is to
critically evaluate the readings

that have been

assigned for
the coming lecture and raise points
and questions for the classroom discussion. In addition, the students who wrote the
week’s
response papers will serve as “discussion leaders” and will
present
a short summary of their
paper
at

the beginning of the lectur
e. The response papers sh
ould

be sent to the class e
-
mail list
no later than
Wednesday

at
noon

(EST)
. The response papers will be graded and the feedback
will help you to proceed with your final research paper.


Wikipedia Page

To disseminate public
knowled
ge about various aspects of political violence
and to help students
to translate academic knowledge into writing for broader, non
-
academic audiences, the students
will be required to create a
new

Wikipedia page on a concept, personality, or idea, re
lated to
their final
research
paper.
Additions to or amendments of the existing Wikipedia entries will not
be allowed.
The topic for the Wikipedia page
must
be approved by the instructor
;
topic proposals
should be sent to me by

Friday, March 1, 6pm
. The st
udents are strongly encouraged to
consult
me before
choosing a topic or during the research for and writing of the entry. The Wikipedia
page
outline (2
-
3 pages) which includes the central argument and the internal division of the
article with at least
two

sentences devoted to each section, is due by Friday, March 29, 6PM. The
Wikipedia page
should
b
e well researched, well written, and properly formatted. The webpage

3


should be ready by
Friday, April 19,
6pm
and will be evaluated on that day. The length of t
he
entry will depend on the topic and will be determined by the instructor and the student
.



Research Paper

The research paper provides you with the opportunity to pursue any
analytical, theoretical, or
historical
question about
political violence

that

in
terest
s you
. A good paper both informs and
persuades; to do this it must be logically organized, clearly argued,
well researched
,

and well
documented. Avoid writing a paper that merely restates the
readings
. You are expected to do
some original thinking, r
esearch, and analysis in this paper. There are several excellent guides on
the web that I encourage you to consult
on how to

go about writing an analytical research paper.
Some good sites include:



How to Research a Political Science Paper, by Peter Liberma
n:
http://qcpages.qc.edu/Political_Science/researching.html



Writing Political Science Papers: Some Useful Guidelines, by Peter Liberman,:
http://qcpages.qc.edu/Political_Science/tips.html



Reading, Writing, and Researching for History: A Guide for College Students, by Patrick
Rael:
http://www.bowdoin.edu/writing
-
guides/



Writing a Research Paper, by Sarah Hamid:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/hypertext/ResearchW/index.html



An accurate summa
ry of some things
not

to do, which (unfortunately) students commonly
do, can be found at
Advice on How to Write a Bad Paper.



Paper proposals (about one page) which include the
topic, the argument, and at least five releva
nt
sources are due by Friday, February 15, 6PM
; the paper outline and summary (two to three
pages
)

are due by
Friday, March 22, 6PM
. Remember, by that time you should also be in an
advanced stage of research and

writing for the Wikipedia entry.
The paper drafts will be
reviewed by your peers and discussed in class. The draft paper is due by Monday, April 8, 12PM

The
final
paper should be
18
-
20 pages, double space
d
,
Times New Roman

12

font
(not including
bibliogr
aphy)
, with one
-
inch margins
.
The final papers are due by Friday,
May

3, 12PM
.
Late
submission of papers will be penalized

by a half of a letter grade for every day of the delay
.

The
paper topic should be approved by the instructor.
The students are
strongly encouraged to discuss

4


their ideas and progress with the instructor, and I do expect to meet every student at least twice
during the class. If you are unable to come to my office hours, I will be happy to schedule a
meeting at a different time.


Gr
ading Criteria

Response Papers
:
10
%

Wikipedia Page: 25%

Research Paper
:
45
%

Participation: 20%


Academic Conduct

I personally support the GW Code of Academic Integrity. It states: “Academic dishonesty is
defined as cheating of any kind, including misrepres
enting one's own work, taking credit for the
work of others without crediting them and without appropriate authorization, and the fabrication
of information.” For the remainder of the code, see:
http:/
/www.gwu.edu/~ntegrity/code.html


Special Needs and Support outside the Classroom

Any student who may need an accommodation based on the potential impact of a disability
should contact the Disability Support Services office at 202
-
994
-
8250 in the Marvin Center,
Suite 242, to establish eligibility and to coordinate reasonable accommodati
ons. For additional
information please refer to:
http://gwired.gwu.edu/dss/


The University Counseling Center (UCC,
202
-
994
-
5300
) offers 24/7 assistance and referral to
address

students'

personal, social, career,
and study skills

problems. Services for students
include:



C
risis and emergency mental health consultations



C
onfidential assessment, counseling services (individual and small group), and referrals




5


Course Outline

and Schedule


Lecture 1.
01
.
17
: Course Over
view and Description


Lecture 2.

0
1
.
2
4.

Studying Violence: Perspectives and Concepts



Vittorio Bufacchi, "Two Concepts of Violence,"
Political Studies Review

3:2 (2005), pp.
193
-
204.



Stathis Kalyvas, “The Ontology of Political Violence,”
Perspectives on
Politics
, 2003,
1(3), pp. 475
-
494.



Kimberly Marten, “Warlordism in Comparative Perspective,”
International Security
,
31:3 (Winter 2006
-
2007), 41
-
73.



James
Ron, “Varying Methods of State Violence,”
International Organization
, 51(2),
1997, pp.
275
-
300



Peter
Turchin, “Dynamics of political instability in the United States, 1780

2010,”
Journal of Piece Research
, 49(4), 2012, pp. 577
-
591


Lecture 3. 01.31.
Ethnic Conflict



Barry Posen, “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict,”
Survival
, 1993, 35(1), pp. 27
-
47.



Charles King, “The Benefits of Ethnic War: Understanding Eurasia's Unrecognized
States,”
World Politics
, 2001, 53(4), pp. 524
-
552.



V.P. Gagnon, “Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict: The Case of Serbia,”
International Security
, 19(3), 1994
-
95, pp.

130
-
166.



James Fearon and David Laitin, “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War,”
American
Political Science Review
, 2003, 97(1), pp. 75
-
90.



Lars
-
Erik
Cederman et al., “Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnonationalist Civil War: A
Global Comparison
,”
American P
olitical Science Review
, 105(3), 2011, pp. 478
-
495


Lecture 4
.

02.07.
Riots and Pogroms



Donald Horowitz,
The Deadly Ethnic Riot

(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of
California Press, 2001), pp. 1
-
42.


6




Steven Wilkinson, “Riots,”
Annual Review of
Political Science
, 2009, 12, pp. 329
-
343.



Ashutosh Varshney, “Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond,”
World
Politics
, 2001, 53(3), pp. 362
-
398.



Steven Wilkinson,
Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India
,
(New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2004), ch. 1



Jeffrey Kopstein and Jason Wittenberg, “Deadly Communities: Local Political Milieus
and the Persecution of Jews in Occupied Poland,”
Comparative Political Studies
, 2011,
44(2), pp. 259
-
283.


Lecture 5. 02.14.
Resist
ance, and Rebellion



Ted Gurr,
Why Men Rebel
, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970), ch. 2.



James Scott, The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast
Asia, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976), ch. 7.



Roger Gould, “Mu
ltiple Networks and Mobilization in the Paris Commune, 1871,”
American Sociological Review
, 1991, 56(6), pp. 716
-
729.



Jack Goldstone

and Bret Useem, “
Prison Riots as Microrevolutions: An Extension of
State

Centered Theories of Revolution,


American Journal

of Sociology
, 104(4), 1999,
pp. 985
-
1029
.



Sarah Parkinson, “
Organizing Rebellion: Rethinking High
-
Risk Mobilization and Social

Networks in War,”
unpublished paper
, will be distributed in hard copy.



**PAPER PROPOSALS ARE DUE BY THE END OF THE WEEK**


Lecture 6. 02.21
.

Terrorism



Alan Krueger and Jitka Maleckova, “Education, Poverty, and Terrorism: Is There a
Causal Connection?,”
Journal of Economic Perspectives
, 2003, 17(4), pp. 119

44.



Andrew Kydd and Barbara Walter, “The Strategies of Terrorism,”
Inte
rnational Security
,
2006, 31(1), pp. 49
-
80.



Robert Pape, “The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism,”
American Political Science
Review
, 2003, 97(3), pp. 1
-
19.


7




Max Abrahms, “Why Terrorism Does Not Work,”
International Security
, 2006, 31(2),
pp. 42
-
78.



Claude Berrebi and Esteban Klor, “Are Voters Sensitive to Terrorism? Direct Evidence
from the Israeli Electorate,”
American Political Science Review
, 2008, 102(3), pp. 279
-
301.


Lecture 7. 02.28.
Civil War 1




Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, “Greed and Grie
vance in Civil War,” World Bank, 2001



Mary Kaldor,
New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era
(Stanford:
Standford University Press, 2001), pp. 13
-
30, 69
-
89.



Stathis Kalyvas, “‘New’ and ‘Old’ Civil Wars: A Valid Distinction?”
World Politics
, 54

2001, 54, pp. 99
-
118.



Michael
Ross, “What Do We Know about Natural Resources and Civil War?”
Journal of
Pease Research
, 2004, 41(3), pp. 337
-
356.



Stathis Kalyvas,
The Logic of Violence in Civil War
, (New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2006), pp. 1
-
15,

146
-
209, 330
-
363.


**
WIKIPEDIA PAGE TOPICS ARE DUE BY THE END OF THE WEEK
**


Lecture 8. 03.07.

Civil War 2



Stathis Kalyvas, “Ethnic Defection in Civil War,”
Comparative Political Studies
, 2008,
41(8), pp. 1043
-
1068.



Jason Lyall, Are Co
-
Ethnics More Effective Counter
-
Insurgents? Evidence from the
Second Chechen War,”
American Political Science Review
, 2010, 104(1), pp. 1
-
20.



Elisabeth Wood, “Armed Groups and Sexual Violence: When is Wartime Rape Rare?”
Politics and So
ciety
, 2009, 37(1), pp. 131
-
162.



Elisabeth Wood,
Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador
, (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2003), ch. 1.



Jeremy Weinstein,
Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence
, (New York:
Cambridge Un
iversity Press, 2006), pp. 1
-
60.




8


Lecture 9. 03.21.
Genocide and Mass Violence

1




Scott Straus, “Contested meanings and conflicting imperatives: a conceptual analysis of
genocide,”
Journal of Genocide Research
, 2001, 3(3), pp. 349
-
375.



Christian Gerlach, “Extremely violent societies: an alternative to the concept of
genocide,”
Journal of Genocide Research
, 2006, 8(4), pp. 455
-
471.



Manus Midlarsky, Origins of Political Extremism: Mass Violence in the Twentieth
Century and Beyond, (New Yor
k: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 25
-
54.



Michael Mann, “The Dark Side of Democracy,”
New Left Review

I/
235, May
-
June 1999,
pp. 18
-
45.



Scott Straus, “Retreating from the Brink: Theorizing Mass Violence and the Dynamics of
Restraint,”
Perspectives on

Politics
,

10

(2), 2012, pp. 343
-
362



Charles King, “Can There be a Political Science of the Holocaust,”
Perspectives on
Politics
, 10(2), June 2012, pp. 323
-
341


**PAPER OUTLINES ARE DUE BY THE END OF THE WEEK**


Lecture 10. 03.28
.
Genocide and Mass
Violence 2



Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the
Holocaust (New York: Knopf, 1996), pp. 1
-
24.



Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final
Solution in Poland (New York: Harper Coll
ins, 1998), pp. 159
-
189.



Stanley Milgram,
Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View
(New York: Harper and
Row, 1973), pp. 1
-
12.



Benjamin Valentino,
Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth
Century

(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 20
04), pp. 66
-
90.



Scott Straus, “Order in Disorder: A Micro
-
comparative Study of Genocidal Dynamics in
Rwanda,” in Stathis Kalyvas, Ian Shapiro and Tarek Masoud,
Order, Conflict and
Violence
, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 301
-
320.


**THE

WIKIPEDIA
OUTLINE IS DUE

BY THE END OF THE WEEK**



9


Lecture 11. 04.04.
War and Peace 1



Séverine

Autesserre
, “Hobbes and the Congo


Frames, Local Violence, and International
Intervention in the Congo,”
International Organization
, 2009, 63, pp. 249
-
280.



Page
Fortna
,
"Does Peacekeeping Keep Peace? International Intervention and the
Duration of Peace After Civil

War,"

International Studies
Quarterly, 2004,
48(2), pp.
269
-
92.



Peter
Andreas
,
"Symbiosis Between Peace Operations and Illicit Business in Bosnia,"
International Peacekeeping, 2009, 16(1), pp. 33
-
46.



Benjamin
Valentino, “The True Costs of Humanitarian In
tervention: The Hard Truth
About a Noble Notion,”
Foreign Affairs
, 90(6), 2011, pp. 60
-
73



Christopher Blattman,

“From Violence to Voting: War and Political Participation in
Uganda,”
American Political Science Review
, 2009, 103(2), pp. 231
-
247



**PAPER DRA
FTS ARE DUE BY MONDAY, 04.08, 12PM**


Lecture 12. 04.11. Peer Review of Paper Drafts.


Lecture 13. 04.18.
Peer Review of Paper Drafts.



**THE WIKIPEDIA PAGE IS DUE BY THE END OF THE WEEK**


Lecture 14. 04.25.
W
ar and Peace 2




Jennifer Lind, “Apologies in International Politics,”
Security Studies
, 2009, 18(3), pp.
517
-
556.



Nicholas
Sambanis, “
Partition as a Solution to Ethnic War: An Empirical Critique of the
Theoretical Literature
,”
World Politics
, 52(4), 2000, pp. 437
-
483.



Roy

Licklider, “
The Consequences of Negotiated Settlements in Civil Wars, 1945
-
1993
,”
American Political Science Review
, 89(3), 1995, pp. 681
-
690.



Steven Pinker,
The Better Angels of Our Nature
, New York: Viking 2011, pp. TBA



FINAL
RESEARCH PAPERS ARE DUE

F
RIDAY, MAY 3, 12PM