Unit 15 Genetic Engineering.pdf - GCSE Science Powerpoint Lessons

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is a collection of 38 units or tools
totalling over 1150
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Each unit covers a wide range of different delivery and learning styles, offering an
exciting way to involve your pupils during lessons or revision sessions. All styles o
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e classroom via an inter
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during individual study via a PC or school network.
Unit 19: The Transitional Metals
Unit 18: Metals and their Properties
Unit 17: The Alkali Metals
Unit 16: The Periodic Table and its Elements
Unit 15: Genetic Engineering
Unit 14: Evolution and Human Impact
Unit 13: Inheritance and Selection
Unit 12: Mitosis and Meiosis
Unit 11: Flow of Energy and Elements through the Environment
Unit 10: Water Transport in Plants
Unit 9: Photosynthesis in Green Plants
Unit 8: Drugs and Bad Body Maintenance
Unit 7: Hormones and the Endocrine System
Unit 6: Human Homeostasis
Unit 5: Nervous System and the Senses
Unit 4: The Respiratory System
Unit 3: Healthy Body and Immunity
Unit 2: The Circulatory System
Unit 1: The Digestive System
Unit 38: Cells, Tissue, Organs and Organs systems
Unit 37: Natural Forces
Unit 36: Sound and Hearing
Unit 35: The Alkaline Earth Metals
Unit 34: The Earth and Plate Tectonics
Unit 33: Earth and Space
Unit 32: Newton's Forces and the Effects of Forces
Unit 31: Radioactivity
Unit 30: Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Unit 29: Electricity
Unit 28: Generating Electricity and its Domestic Use
Unit 27: Energy
Unit 26: Rates of Reaction
Unit 25: The Noble Gases, their Properties and Uses
Unit 24: The Halogens, their Uses and Compounds
Unit 23: Ionic and Covalent Compounds
Unit 22: Elements, Molecules and Compounds
Unit 21: Rock Cycle
Unit 20: Crude Oil and its Products
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Unit 15

Genetic Engineering
Unit 15: Genetic Engineering
Unit 15: Genetic Engineering
Scie
nce Interactive LTD Co
pyright 2005
Understand:
Keywords:
1.
The purpose of the human genome project and
its importance in health
and medical research.
2.
That modern crops like rice, wheat or corn have
changed from their original ‘wild types’ due to
selective breeding.
3.
That artificial selection and selective breeding
has been employed by farmers to ‘improve’
animal livestock and crops.
4.
That high tech breeding methods like in-vitro
fertilisation can
lead to more efficient ways to
‘improve’ animal and plant characteristics.
5.
That genetic engineering can be used
to
change one single trait or character
istic in an
animal or plan
t species.
6.
An
example of genetic engineering: The flavour
savour tomato.
7.
That genetic engineering has been used to
produce human insulin taken by diabetics.
8.
Some of the ethical issues surrounding the
cloning of humans and animals.
Gene, Genome, Therapy, DNA, Trait,
Characteristic, Selective, Breeding, Species,
Fertilisation, In-vitro, Genetic, Engineering,
Cloning, Fingerprinting & Human genome.
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The human genome project
The human genome project
one
one
The
Human Genome Project
has an aim to ‘sequence’ or
order
the three billion base pairs
found in the Human g_________, with the
ultimate goal of identifying all of the 31,000
genes
and
their functions, found in Human chromosomes. Over 1000
scientists, from 50
countries worldwide are currently unravelling the code of life
. Genes that cause inherited
diseases like c__________ fibrosis or those that increase the risk of contracting
diseases
like cancer, once identified could be treated with new designer drugs. How many
chromosomes do human cells normally contain ?
The human genome project:
Designer babies
Drug treatments
DNA banks
Scientists will
use
information found in
our genes to treat

many diseases like
cancer and cystic
fibrosis.
Sequencing genes
Humans have 23 pairs
of chromosomes which
contain over 31,000
separate genes. Each
gene codes for a
separate characteristic.
Every human except
identical twins has a
unique and different
set of genes found in
chromosomes inherited
from both our parents.
Notes
Diagram
Code of life
Human genes
Targets and benefits
Word bank: genome cystic
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The human genome project
The human genome project
two
two
The more we understand about our own genetic programming, the better we will be able to
understand which g_______ codes for which characteristic, why some people are more prone to
contracting life threatening diseases like cancer and how some people may
benefit from
medication designed to interact with our genes. Scientists will also be able to offer gene therapy
for patients with inherited diseases like s_________ cell anaemia and cystic fibrosis. There is a
concern that misusing this information might lead to so-called designer babies. Insurance
companies or employers may also misuse this information for profit. How might these
companies misuse this information
?
Using the code of life:
Word bank: gene sickle
New drugs designed
for individuals and
based on their DNA
will improve survival
rates in patients with
diseases like cancer.
Designer drugs
Gene therapy offers
hope for humans born
with inherited diseases
like sickle
cell
anaemia and cystic
fibrosis.
Parents could begin to
screen and select their
children on the basis of
their DNA/genes. What
characteristics might be
chosen by parents ?
Will scientists use
informati
on on an
individuals’ DNA
ethically.
How could
you ensure that this
happens ?
Notes
Diagram
DNA banks
Designer babies
Inherited diseases
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Artificial selection
Artificial selection
one
one
animals
animals
Artificial selection in plants and animals has been used by farmers since modern
agriculture began. Farmers first used ‘wild varieties’ as a f______ source, then selected the
best individuals for breeding future generations of crops or livestock. The modern broiler
chicken lays around 250
eggs per year, whereas hens used by farmers at the beginning of
the 16th
century only laid about 20
eggs per year. Domestic pet varieties (cat and dog
species) are another example of a_________ selection in practice. Make a list of all the
different breeds of dogs and cats ?
Artificial selection in animals:
All animals and
plants used in
commercial farming
have been
subjected
to many centuries of
artificial selection.
Pork farming
The racing horse:
List the features that
have been selected
for by horse breeders
o
ver many, many
generations ?
Selection in domestic
pets like the cat has
led to many different,
even strange
varieties,
for example the
hairless cat.
Dairy cows are
selected for both the
quality and yield of
their milk. Beef cattle
are selected for the
quality of their beef.
Notes
Diagram
Dairy cow
Hairless cat
Horse racing
Word bank: food artificial
Artificial selection
Artificial selection
two
two plants
plants
Over many years, farmers have chosen which p______ have useful characteristics, whilst using
these individuals to generate future crops. These
useful characteristics will be passed on to the
next generation of young plants. Selecting plants and their characteristics in this way has led to
the very wide choice of f______ and vegetables that we see everyday on supermarket shelves.
The simple tomato, for example has many varieties including plum, beef, vine and salad.
Bananas are the biggest selling fruit in England,
with modern varieties having many of the
characteristics that the consumer expects. List these characteristics ?
Artificial selection in plants:
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Word bank: plants fruit
Corn produces, like
wheat and rice large
amounts of carbo-
hydrates and oils
which are important
for feeding humans.
Corn
Modern Bananas are
slow ripening, have a
consistent size, shape,
colour and taste and
have a very high sugar
content.
Rice is used by 1.5
billion people instead
of wheat. It, like wheat
produces high amounts
of carbohydrates for the
human food chain.
Wheat produces large
quantities of good
quality carbohydrates
which are then used in
the manufacture of
bread and pasta.
Notes
Diagram
Wheat
Rice
Bananas
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Artificial selection
Artificial selection
three
three
Many thousands of years ago,
wild varieties were first used by humans for food. These
were then grown by farmers to produce food for the ever expanding population. Using
artificial
selection, f_________ have produced new crop varieties with the best
characteristics for human consumption. In the table below list the characteristics that
make the modern varieties better for human consumption ?
Wild types to modern varieties:
Word bank: farmer
s
_______________ ?
_______________ ?
_______________ ?
_______________ ?
_______________ ?
_______________ ?
_______________ ?
_______________ ?
Characteristic
s
Strawberry
Modern
varieties
Wild
types
Banana
Corn (maize)
Sunflower (for oil)
Artificial selection
Artificial selection
four
four
New breeds of farm animals (beef cattle, pig and lamb) have been
produced by choosing
the animals with the best characteristics and then allowing those individuals to b_______.
Cattle are used to produce two main products; milk and beef. Milk is an extremely
important source of protein and fat. It is also used to manu
facture many products including
cheeses and yoghurt. Cattle also supplies b______ for the meat market. Modern consumers
now require lean, low fat beef for cooking and eating. Make a list of all the products that
contain beef ... List the characteristics in cattle that are chosen by farmers ?
Dairy cows and beef cattle:
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Word bank: breed beef
The quantity and the
quality of milk from
female cows will
determine a farmers
profit.
Milk quality
Beef now supplied to

supermarkets have
to
been tasty and low in
fat. Why is high fat meat
less popular ?
Beef
cattle are raised
and then slaughtered
for the meat market.
Female cows are
used
for milk production.
Bulls like the one
pictured above with
the best characteristics
are used to fertilise
many female cows.
Notes
Diagram
Choosing bulls
Characteristics
Beef quality
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High tech breeding
High tech breeding
Although artificial selection over many centuries has been used to produce a wide
range of plant and a_________ varieties, modern techniques are now used to make
breeding new varieties more efficient and
f______. There are currently three methods:
1: Plant tissue culture
2: Insemination
3: Embryo transplants
High tech breeding:
Word bank: animal faster
Harvested eggs and sperm are
fertilised in test tubes forming a
zygote.
This is then split many
times and implanted producing
many identical clones.
Embryo transplants
Collected sperm
from male
animals are injected into female
animals, allowing breeders
more control of the offspring's
characteristics.
Test tube cloned plants raises
plant crops in very controll
ed
conditions. This technique is
widely used and is called plant
tissue culture.
Notes
Diagram
Plant tissue culture
Insemination
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High tech breeding
High tech breeding
plant tissue culture
plant tissue culture
Tissue culture is used to produce high volumes of cloned pl
ants commonly sold for human
consumption by supermarkets. Small pieces taken from the parent plant are grown on a
nutrient rich jelly and treated with the plant h_________ called
auxin
to help their roots
develop. Using tissue culture, farmers
can produce large numbers of plants
containing the
same g______, from just one single plant. These clones will all have identical
characteristics. Make a list of the plants or crops that are produced using tissue culture ?
Tissue culture in plants:
Cloned plants have identical
characteristics allowing farmers and
supermarkets to ensure only the best
products reach the consumer. How does
this reduce choice for the cons
umer ?
Stage three
Tiny plant cuttings
coated with rooting
powder are grown on
nutrient rich jelly in

controlled conditions.
Plants with the
best
characterises are chosen
by farmers for cloning
new individuals by
plant tissue culture.
Notes
Diagram
Stage one
Stage two
Word bank: hormones genes
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High tech breeding
High tech breeding
Insemination
Insemination
Normal reproduction involves m_________ between a female and male animal of the same
species. This method can sometimes introduce unwanted variation.
It can also be ‘hit or miss.’
Farmers can inseminate female animals with semen containing s_______. Using insemination,
farmers can control the offspring's characteristics by selecting
the best males and females.
Horse
and bull semen is sold around the world to different farmers searching for specific
characteristics. Semen can also be frozen and stored for convenience. Explain why semen from
a top racing horse can cost up to £100,000 per sample ?
Insemination in animals:
Wor
d bank: mating sperm
Stage one:
Live sperm are taken from animals with the best characteristics. Sperm is then
frozen, stored, sold and distri
buted before insemination. Stage two:
The sperm is injected
directly into the vagina of the female
animal. Stage three:
By adopting this method you can
control which male ‘mates’ with which female.
Notes
Diagram
Stage one
Stage two
Stage three
High tech breeding
High tech breeding
In vitro fertilisation and embryo transplanting
In vitro fertilisation and embryo transplanting
Breeders and farmers also use e___________ transplants to produce many identical
offspri
ng with the desired characteristics.
All the embryos are produced from a
single
fertilisation, by the fusing of an egg and a sperm which takes place in a test-tube. The
zygote is then split many times producing identical c________. These are then
implanted into host female animals and then allowed to develop during a normal
pregnancy. Cloning animals in this way: is it ethical ?
Embryo transplantation:
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Word bank: embryos clones
The sperm and egg
fuse. The resulting

zygote is then split
many times. Each
clone is then placed
into the womb.
Fertilisation
Embryos develop
as
normal inside the host
womb until delivery.
The offspring have
the very best
characteristics.
Egg cells are
harvested from the
ovaries of the best
female animals.
A
single harvest can
yield many eggs.
Sperm gametes taken
from the best male
individuals are taken
from liquid nitrogen
and defrosted ready
for fertilisation.
Notes
Diagram
Sperm
Egg
Embryo transplant
Genetic engineering and transferring genes
Genetic engineering and transferring genes
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Genetic engineering, the science of transferring g_______ from one species to another is
currently used to manufacture human insulin and alter
the characteristics of some food
crops like corn and tomatoes. In the near future, scientists may
be able to treat humans
with inherited diseases like sickle cell anaemia or c________ fibrosis. Already GM crops
are now on the market and diabetics inject human insulin made using bacteria with
chromosomes containing the human insulin gene. How was insulin originally produced for
diabetics befor
e genetic engineering ?
Genetic engineering in use:
Word bank: genes cystic
Research is now taking place to
treat inherited diseases by gene
therapy. This might lead to a
cure for sickle cell anaemia,
cystic fibrosis and Huntington's
disease.
Inherited diseases
There are now many GM
crops on the market, for
example corn. The USA leads
the way in GM technology. In
the UK, protests have been
made against GM crops.
Human insulin is now
produced using genetically
modified bacteria. This helps
millions
of diabetics across the
world to control their blood
sugar levels.
Notes
Diagram
Human insulin
Changing crops
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Genetic engineering in plants
Genetic engineering in plants
Plants characteristics can be changed by scientists using genetic engineering. Scientists can
now ‘insert’ genes from other species that make crops r_________
to a pesticide or even
produce a vitamin like
vitamin
C. Crops that are changed in this way are called GM crops.
Corn has been engineered to be resistant to a herbicide which kills off other plants or
weeds. Some plant species now have genes from bacteria which produces a poison that
kills i________ that eat and destroy the crop, therefore reducing the amount of profit
farmers make when their crops are s
old.
Inserting new genes into crops:
Promoter
Antibiotic gene
New
genes
Terminator
New genes are inserted into a
bacterial ‘plasmid’
The plasmid is inserted into
a
bacterium a
nd then transferred
into corn.
Word bank: resistant insects
The bacterial plasmid
inserts itself into the
plant crop DNA (e.g.
corn) Seeds now
contain the new genes.
Stage three
A new
genetically
modified crop called
GM cr
ops are
produced carrying the
new inserted gene.
The ‘new gene’ is then
inserted into a bacterial
plasmid isolated from
bacteria using restriction
or cutting enzymes.
Genes or a gene that
codes for new proteins
from other species are
identified and isolated
by scientists.
Notes
Diagram
Stage one
Stage two
Stage four
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The
The
flavr
flavr
savr
savr
tomato
tomato
The flavr
savr
tomato was one of the first true genetically modified crops. Scientists
wanted to prolong the time t_________ took to ripen. This would make transport easier
and increase the shelf life of the tomato. Al
tering the tomato's
genes to slow down the
ripening process would increase the profits of the tomato growers and supermarkets.
Calgene
were the company responsible for producing the new tomato. The new gene does
not affect the tomato's t______ or appearance. Why is this important
to growers,
consumers and supermarkets ?
The fla
vr
s
avr
tomato:
Promoter
Antibiotic ge
ne
Gene to slow
Terminator
Gene inserted into a
bacterial ‘plasmid’
and then transf
erred into the tomato.
ripening
Word bank: tomato's taste
The flavr
Savr
tomato is now
widely used in the
USA and other
countries.
Artificial selection over many hundreds of years, by
tomato growers has changed the tomato and led to all the
varieties that we can buy in the supermarket. Scientists
using genetic engineerin
g can now change the
characteristics of a plant crop like a tomato in weeks.
The original wild
type tomato.
How
does it differ from
tomatoes found in
today’s shops.
Notes
Diagram
Wild type
Creating the Flavour Savour tomato
GM tomato
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Genetic engineering and Human insulin
Genetic engineering and Human insulin
Genetic engineering makes it possible to produce human insulin for d_________ on a
large scale using simple bacteria. Prior to genetic engineering,
diabetics had to inject pig
insulin extracted from pig pancreas to control their blood sugar
levels. Scientists isolated
the gene in humans that makes
insulin and inserted it into bacteria. The bacteria with a
copy of the insulin g______ are grown in bioreactors. The insulin produced by the bacteria
is then extracted, purified and sterilised for human use.
Why was pig insulin not suitable
for some humans ?
Making insulin:
Word bank: diabetes gene
Promoter
Marker gene
New genes
Terminator
Gene inserted into a
bacterial ‘plasmid’
Plasmid inserted
into a bacterium
Human insulin
made by simple
microbes is
now
used instead of
pig insulin.
The insulin
gene is cut from the rest of the DNA,

inserted into a bacterial plasmid using enzymes and
then inserted into a bacteria. These bacteria divide
producing identical clones which are all able to
produce insulin which can then be extracted.
The human gene
for making insulin
inside the pancreas
is isolated from
Human DNA.
Notes
Diagram
Insulin gene
Inserting insulin genes into bacteria
Human insulin
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Cloning humans and animals
Cloning humans and animals
Nature throws up its own c______ with the birth of identic
al twins. Scientists have so far
managed to clone sheep and even chimpanzees. Molly and Dolly were cloned from DNA
obtained from the skin cells of a single sheep. The skin DNA was
p
laced inside two empty
egg cells. Cell division was started by a small e_________ charge. The embryos were then
implanted into two surrogate sheep who gave birth to identical clones, Molly and Dolly.
Although this technology may save endangered species, like the Giant Panda, humans too
could be cloned. Why is there ethical issues to cloning Humans ?
Cloning:
Word bank: clone electric
Many species are now under
threat from hunting or loss
of habitat. These species
could be saved from
extinction, by cloning.
Endangered species
Nature produces its own
clones when a single
fertilised egg splits and leads
to the formation of two
identical babies.
Molly and Dolly were
successfully cloned in the late
90s.
What implications
does
this new technology hold for
the Human race ?
Notes
Diagram
Molly and Dolly
Natural cloning
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Designer babies
Designer babies
Understanding what genes in Humans, code for which human characteristics will allow
scientists to screen developing foetuses for inherited diseases like sickle cell anaemia and
other diseases like cancer and mental illness. Eventually scien
tists could even give parents
information about their offspring, like eye and hair c_______, behaviour and even
intelligence. Parents could then begin to screen and s_______ their children on the basis of
the child’s genes or DNA. This could lead to so called designer babies. Do you think that
this is an ethical use of such information ?
Designer babies:
Word bank: colour select
Hair colour
Eye colour:
The eye colour of the new baby can be determined by genetic
testing.
Hair colour:
The hair colour can also be determined by knowing
the genes that are carried by the foetus. Intelligence:
Gene indicators for
intelligence and even behaviour maybe discovered in the near future.
Parents may decide to terminat
e a pregnancy on this advice.
The foetus’s DNA
profile is
determined
during pregnancy by
analysis of a small
sample of cells.
Notes
Diagram
Gen
e testing
Eye colour
Behaviour/intelligence
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Cloning humans
Cloning humans
The future ?
The future ?
Cloning humans has been made possible by technology developed by
British scientists
who first c_______ sheep, Molly and Dolly. In January
2005,
an American scientist made
claims on World News that he and his team
had cloned the first human, although the
identity of the donor and the family involved remains secret. Like scientists who cloned
Molly and Dolly, DNA
from the skin cell of a m______ was placed inside a female donor
egg that was emptied of its DNA. If the pregnancy succeeds the birth of first human clone
will raise the question: What have we done in the name of science ?
Cloning humans:
Word bank: cloned male
A new World is born
with the birth of the
first human clone, but
when will it happen
and who is it ?
Clones
The developing
embryo
is then implanted into
the womb of a surrogate
mother for nine months
until birth.
Implantation
The DNA from a human
donor is placed inside an
empty egg cell. An
electric current is used to
start cell division.
Replacing genes
DNA from the
human to be
cloned is taken
from a single skin
epithelial cell.
Notes
Diagram
Skin DNA
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Genetic engineering and Human cloning
Genetic engineering and Human cloning
Headlines everyday claim that scientists
have cloned the first Human. Genetic
e__________ makes it possible to produce human clones using similar technology first
used to clone sheep i.e
Molly and Dolly. How
many days, months or years are we
from the

fist Human clone, only time will tell !
Cloning Humans:
Word bank: engineering
Donor cell
Donor egg
Donor cell
Donor egg
Fusing cells
are shocked
Fused cell contains
23 pairs of genes
Embry
o is placed
inside a host womb
Cloned Human
Host female
Stage five
Stage six
Stage four
Stage three
Stage two
Stage one
Stage one:
A donor cell is taken from the skin of a male and an egg cell is taken from a female. Stage two:
The egg is
emptied of its genes and then fused with the donor skin cell DNA. The two cells are allowed to fuse. Stage three.
A
s
mall electric charge is applied across the two fusing cells. Stage four:
The zygote now contains 23 pairs of
chromosomes identical to the donors cells. Stage five.
Like any other normal zygote, the cell starts dividing. It is
then
implanted into a host wo
mb, where it develops during a normal pregnancy. Stage six:
Nine months later a Human clone
of the donor is born.
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Extension questions and homework
1:
Define the fol
lowing terms: Genome, Gene, Characteristic, Selective-breeding, Genetic-engineering & Cloning
2:
Look at the pictures of the following fruit and vegetables. Complete the table.
3:
a) Explain the advantages to animal and plant breeders of the following:
(i) Selective breeding.
(ii) Artificial insemi
nation.
(iii) Embryo transplants.
(iv) Designer babies and human cloning.
(v) Genetic engineering and the transfer of genes into plant crops.
b) What are the arguments against and
for the use of information
on human genes provided by the human genome
project.
c) What are the dangers of cloning humans and selecting children
based on their genes.
Selective breeding (yes/no)
Corn
Sunflower
Strawberry
Modern variety appearance
Wild type appearance
Plant
Corn
Sunflower
Strawberry
4:
a) What is meant by a bacterial plas
mid.
b) How has genetic engineering helped diabetics.
c) Explain how genetic engineering has made it possible to produce large amounts of drugs quickly and cheaply.
d) Why are these drugs thought to be safer than those extracted from
plants or tested on animals.
e) How can insurance industries use information on your DNA.
f) How will knowing the human genome help humans born with inherited diseases like cystic fibrosis and sickle
cell anaemia.
g) How has genetic fingerprinting helped the police catch criminals.
5:
Look at the table and answer the following questions.
a) Whi
ch ch
aracteristics have
been changed by genetic engineering.
b) Why is slow ripening so im
portant to farmers and supermarkets.
c) Why is it beneficial for tomatoes to have a high Vitam
in C content.
d) Why are GM crops controversial in this country.
6:
Complete the following:
Diabetics need regular injections of the hormone
called ____________ to control their blood _________. This
hormone is made by a _________ which can be isolated and cut
out
of human DNA and then added to a
___________ using a plasmi
d.
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£0.45/kg
Slow
2030 mg/kg
90 g/kg
4350 kg
Engineered variety
90 g/kg
Protein/kg
Fast
Ripening
£0.60/kg
Cost/kg
1100 mg/kg
2300 kg
Wild variety
Vitamin C/kg
Yield/hectare
Tomato Characteristic
Internet:
Go to google.co.uk and find about how demonstrators have protested about the introduction
of GM crops in the UK.
Also find out about the Human Genome project and its likely uses.