Genetic engineering in Aotearoa, New Zealand - DRC Citizenship ...

spikydoeΒιοτεχνολογία

11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

166 εμφανίσεις

(**
18

|

Genetic engineering in Aotearoa, New
Zealand: a case of opening up or closing down
debate?
1
7
K:B;O
=
;DKI 7D:
J
;;
H
E=;HI#
>
7O:;D
Introduction
7i_dcWdoYekdjh_[i"][d[j_Y[d]_d[[h_d]=;^WiX[[dWd_iik
[e\Yed
#
jhel[hio _d D[m P[WbWdZ$ J^[ HeoWb 9ecc_ii_ed ed =[d[j_Y CeZ_
Ó
YWj_ed
H9=CCWo(&&&je@kbo(&&'mWi[ijWXb_i^[ZWiW\ehkc\ehXej^fkXb_Y
WdZ[nf[hjZ[XWj["bWh][bo_dh[ifedi[jeZ[cWdZi\hec[dl_hedc[djWb_iji
WhekdZj^['///[b[Yj_edHe][hi#>WoZ[dWdZ>_dZcWhi^(&&($?jfhel_Z[i
Wd_Z[WbYWi[ijkZo\ehj^_ifWhje\j^[Xeea"Wij^[H9=C_d_j_WbboWff[Wh[Z
Éef[dÊ" Xkj ed Ybei[h _dif[Yj_ed YWd X[ i[[d je ^Wl[ X[[d ÉYbei[ZÊ em_d]
je i_]d_
Ó
YWdjbo kdgk[ij_ed[Z Wiikcfj_edi i^Wf_d] j^[ m^eb[ fheY[ii e\
_dgk_ho" Wh]kc[dj WdZ Z[b_X[hWj_ed$?j _i Wbie e\ _dj[h[ij\eh j^[ mWo _d
m^_Y^ j^[ Z[XWj[ ^Wi ]W_d[Z d[m cec[djkc i_dY[ j^[ H9=C" WdZ\eh
m^Wj _j ^Wi je Yedjh_Xkj[ je Yedj[cfehWho j^_da_d] WXekj fWhj_Y_fWj_ed _d
iY_[dY[ WdZ j[Y^debe]o feb_Yo$
J^[ H9=CÊi WffWh[dj ef[dd[ii mWi bWh][bo Wjjh_Xkj[Z je _ji mWhhWdj"
m^_Y^h[gk_h[Z_jje_dl[ij_]Wj[feii_Xb[efj_ediWdZh[b[lWdjfeb_YoY^Wd][i
d[[Z[Z h[]WhZ_d] =;$ Ceh[ if[Y_
Ó
YWbbo" _ji mWhhWdj mWi Éje h[Y[_l[ h[fh[i
#
[djWj_edi kfed" _dgk_h[ _dje" _dl[ij_]Wj[" WdZ h[fehj kfed j^[\ebbem_d]
cWjj[hi0


j^[ ijhWj[]_Y efj_edi WlW_bWXb[ je [dWXb[ D[m P[WbWdZ je WZZh[ii" dem
WdZ_dj^[\kjkh["][d[j_YceZ_
Ó
YWj_ed"][d[j_YWbboceZ_
Ó
[Zeh]Wd_ici"
WdZ fheZkYji1


Wdo Y^Wd][i Yedi_Z[h[Z Z[i_hWXb[ je j^[ Ykhh[dj b[]_ibWj_l[" h[]kbWjeho"
feb_Yo" eh _dij_jkj_edWb WhhWd][c[dji\eh WZZh[ii_d]" _d D[m P[WbWdZ"
][d[j_Y ceZ_
Ó
YWj_ed" ][d[j_YWbbo ceZ_
Ó
[Z eh]Wd_ici" WdZ fheZkYjiÊ$
H9=C (&&'W
?d WZZ_j_ed" j^[ j[cfbWj[ j^Wj É_dj[h[ij[Z f[hiediÊ ?Fi j^ei[ ]hekfi
fh[i[dj_d] Yheii#[nWc_dWXb[ [l_Z[dY[ m[h[ h[gk_h[Z je ki[ WZZ[Z je j^[
WffWh[dj ef[dd[ii e\ j^[ fWhj_Y_fWj_ed [n[hY_i[$ J^[ j[cfbWj[ _dYbkZ[Z W
hWd][e\Wif[Yjie\=;X[oedZf^oi_YWbh_iai$<eh[nWcfb[0Éj^[a[oijhWj[]_Y
_iik[i ZhWm_d] ed [j^_YWb" YkbjkhWb" [dl_hedc[djWb" ieY_Wb" WdZ [Yedec_Y
h_iaiWdZX[d[
Ó
jiWh_i_d]\hecj^[ki[e\][d[j_YceZ_
Ó
YWj_ed"][d[j_YWbbo
ceZ_
Ó
[Z eh]Wd_ici" WdZ fheZkYjiÊ H9=C (&&'X$
(*+
Genetic engineering in Aotearoa
J^[H9=CYekbZX[i[[dWi^Wl_d]Yh[Wj[ZW\ehkcjeh[YedY_b[fWhj_[i
m_j^Z_l[hi[WffheWY^[i$Effei_d]l_[mfe_djim[h[Whj_YkbWj[Z$
Fhefed[dji
e\ =; [nfh[ii[Z j^[_h Z[i_h[\eh b[ii h[]kbWj_ed" ik]][ij_d] j^Wj j^[ h_iai
m[h[ WYY[fjWXb[$ C[Wdm^_b[" [dl_hedc[djWb ]hekfi fhefei[Z j^Wj j^[
h_iai

m[h[ Xej^ kdY[hjW_d WdZ _dYWbYkbWXb[$ =[d[j_Y [d]_d[[h_d] _i l_[m[Z
Xoj^[i[]hekfiWiWYbWii_YYWi[m^[h[j^[fh[YWkj_edWhofh_dY_fb[i^ekbZ
X[ _cfb[c[dj[Z" Wi _j\kb
Ó
bi Xej^ Yh_j[h_W\eh fh[YWkj_ed0 kdY[hjW_djo WdZ
fej[dj_Wbbo i[h_eki _hh[l[hi_Xb[ Yedi[gk[dY[i He][hi#>WoZ[d [j Wb$ (&&($
J^[Yecc_ii_ed[hiÊh[ifedi["^em[l[h"Z[cedijhWj[ij^[Z_\
Ó
Ykbj_[ij^[o
[nf[h_[dY[Z_dc[[j_d]j^[_hW_cjeYWj[h\ehWdZh[dZ[hceh[Yedl[h][dj
j^[ Z_l[hi[ YkbjkhWb WdZ [j^_YWb lWbk[ fei_j_edi WdZ j^[ l_[mi e\ ÉehZ_dWho
f[efb[Ê" fWhjbo X[YWki[ j^_i Yedij_jkj[i W Z_iYekhi[ e\ h[i_ijWdY[ je WdZ
j^[ ÉiYWdZWb_p_d]Ê e\ =; i[[ 8[Ya'//. ed j^[ cWa_d] Éh[WbÊ e\ [Yebe]_YWb
h_iai$
‘Expert’ and ‘citizen’ participation
J^[ h[i[WhY^ ikccWh_p[Z ^[h[ _d_j_Wbbo\eYki[Z ed j^[ =; Yedjhel[hio"
Wi\hWc[Z Xo j^[ H9=C" WdZ XWi[Z ed j^[ ikXc_ii_edi cWZ[ Xo?Fi i[[
He][hi#>WoZ[d(&&)$7d_iik[hW_i[ZXo8[Ya'//."^em[l[h"ZhWmiWjj[d
#
j_ed je j^[ Wif[Yji e\ Y_j_p[d _dlebl[c[dj$?j h[bWj[i je m^Wj 8[Ya '//.0
,- YWbbi Éh[Ô[n_l_jo e\ j^[ ^WpWhZ fej[dj_WbÊ" _d m^_Y^ j^[ Éh_iao _dZkijhoÊ
_i_jiemdmehij[d[co"WdZWYjkWbbofhelea[ifkXb_Yeffei_j_edXo_jiemd
ceZ[i e\ X[^Wl_ekh" dej`kij Xo j^[ h_iai _j _i ][d[hWj_d] i[[ Wbie Modd[
'//,$ J^[ heb[ e\ ieY_Wb cel[c[dji _d h[bWj_ed je [Yebe]_YWb h_iai _i j^ki
je iYWdZWb_p[ j^[ fej[dj_Wb ZWd][hi e\ _d j^_i YWi[ =; j[Y^debe]o$ J^[
Yecc_ii_edÊi h[fehj h[\[hi je j^[ d[[Z je Z[l[bef W Éi^Wh[Z\hWc[meha e\
lWbk[iÊ" [cf^Wi_p_d] j^[ l_[mfe_dji e\ ÉWi cWdo D[m P[WbWdZ[hi Wi fei
#
i_Xb[ $$$ Wi ckY^ Wi Qj^WjS e\ m[bb#h[iekhY[Z eh]Wd_iWj_ediÊ H9=C (&&'Y0
'($ >WhZbo ikhfh_i_d]bo" j^[ Yecc_ii_ed\ekdZ _j Z_\
Ó
Ykbj je XWbWdY[ j^[
cWdo Z_\\[h[dj l_[mfe_dji ^[bZ Xo ijWa[^ebZ[hi WdZ je Z[
Ó
d[ Wd W]h[[Z
[j^_YWb\hWc[meha m_j^_d m^_Y^ je WYYecceZWj[ j^[ ikXc_ii_edi e\ lWh_
#
ekih[b_]_eki"[Yebe]_YWb"CWeh__dZ_][dekif[efb[iWdZFWa[^W;khef[Wd
Z[iY[dZWdji]hekfiHe][hi#>WoZ[dWdZ>_dZcWhi^(&&($J^[[nj[djje
m^_Y^ fkXb_Y ef_d_ed WdZ h[fh[i[djWj_l[ WZl_Y[ mWi _]deh[Z /"//." eh/(
f[hY[dj"e\j^['&".,'fkXb_YikXc_ii_edim[h[W]W_dij=;H9=C(&&'Y"
je][j^[h m_j^ W jhWZ_j_ed e\ ded#l_eb[dj Z_h[Yj WYj_ed" YekbZ [nfbW_d j^[
dWjkh[ e\ fkXb_Y fhej[ij\ebbem_d] j^[ fkXb_YWj_ed e\ j^[ H9=C h[fehj$
<eh [nWcfb[" ikY^ ÉiYWdZWb_p_d]Ê jeea j^[\ehc e\0 j^[ Z[ijhkYj_ed e\ W =;
fejWjejhW_bWjB_dYebdKd_l[hi_jo9hefWdZ<eeZH[i[WhY^?dij_jkj[BWXehW
#
jeho1 W fb[Z][ Xo )"+&& ÉehZ_dWho Y_j_p[diÊ je jWa[ Z_h[Yj WYj_ed W]W_dij =;1
j^[ eYYkfWj_ed Xo Wdj_#=; CWeh_ e\ j^[ e\
Ó
Y[i e\ j^[;dl_hedc[djWb H_ia
(*,
Participation and engagement

|

18
CWdW][c[dj7kj^eh_jo;HC71WdZWj^h[[#m[[a^kd][hijh_a[XoWijkZ[dj
_d 9^h_ijY^khY^$ =[d[hWbbo" ikY^ WYj_edi ^Wl[ X[[d i[[d Wi _bb[]_j_cWj[ Xo
X_ej[Y^debe]o
Ó
hci" h[i[WhY^ _dij_jkj[i WdZ _dikh[hi" m^_Y^ ^Wl[ h[\[hh[Z
jej^[cWiÉ[Ye#j[hheh_icÊ"ehÉiWXejW][Ê"j^[mehae\j^[É\Wh
#b[\jÊWdZÉd[[Z
#
b[iiÊ 
D[m P[WbWdZ >[hWbZ
" @kbo (&&' je @kbo (&&($
J^[ YWi[ ijkZo ^_]^b_]^ji\kdZWc[djWb YedÔ_Yji Wced] j^[ lWh_eki
WYjehi

m_j^ h[if[Yj je j^[_h Z_\\[h[dj YedY[fji e\ [dl_hedc[djWb h_ia" _ji
WdWboi_i" j^[ feb_Yo#cWa_d] fheY[ii WdZ h[bWj_edi^_fi X[jm[[d iY_[dY["
j[Y^de

be]o WdZ dWjkh[$ FWhj e\ j^[ fheXb[c\WY_d] j^[ Yecc_ii_ed bWo _d
^em je h[Ye]d_p[ WdZ h[YedY_b[ j^[i[ Éied]b_d[i e\ h_iaÊ  @WiWde\\'///"

em_d] fWhjbo je j^[ fheY[Zkh[i [cfbeo[Z je eXjW_d j[ij_cedo He][hi#

>WoZ[d(&&)$>[dY["j^[ikXc_ii_edj[cfbWj[[cfbeo[ZcWZ[Z_iY
kii_ed
e\ _dj[hYedd[Yj[Z\WYjehi WiieY_Wj[Z m_j^ WZefj_ed e\ =; Z_\
Ó
Ykbj" i_dY[
Wdim[hi je _ji gk[ij_edi ^WZ je ÉijWdZ Wbed[Ê$ J^_i mWi W fheY[ii j^Wj

ikffehj[Z W h[ZkYj_ed_ij WffheWY^" m^[h[ Wdim[hi je gk[ij_edi YekbZ X[
l_[m[Z_d_iebWj_ed\hec[WY^ej^[h$J^_iWffheWY^cWo^Wl[X[[dik_jWXb[
\ehfhefed[djie\=;"Xkj_jZ_iWZlWdjW][Zj^ei["ikY^Wij^[[
dl_hedc[djWb
]hekfi" m^e fh[\[hh[Z je fh[i[dj j^[_h YedY[hdi WXekj =; m_j^_d W ceh[
^eb_ij_YmehbZ#l_[m$IkY^Wf[hif[Yj_l[[cf^Wi_p[ij^[_dj[hYedd[Yj[Zd[ii
e\[b[c[djie\j^[[Yeioij[c"WdZe\dWjkh[m_j^ieY_[jo"WdZj^kiYedj[dZi
j^WjWh]kc[djiWXekjlWh_ekiWif[Yjie\=;YWddejWdZi^ekbZdejX[Whj_
#
Ó
Y_Wbboi[fWhWj[Z\hec[WY^ej^[h$<hecj^_ia_dZe\f[hif[Yj_l["_jYWdWbie
X[ h[Ye]d_p[Z j^Wj Z_\\[h[dj Y_j_p[d fei_j_edi ed Wd _iik[ ikY^ Wi =C cWo
X[ heej[Z _d Z_\\[h[dj" f[h^Wfi _dYecfWj_Xb[" edjebe]_YWb Yecc_jc[dji"
_dm^_Y^YWi[_j^WiWbiejeX[WYademb[Z][Zj^WjYedÔ_Yjd[[Zifhe\ekdZ
WdZi[WhY^_d]feb_j_YWbd[]ej_Wj_ed"m_j^_Z[dj_j_[iWjijWa["dejedbo[nf[hj
Wkj^eh_jo fh[c_i[Z\hec m_j^_d ed[ ikY^ ceZ[hd_ij edjebe]_YWb fei_j_ed
BWjekh (&&&1 i[[ Wbie 9^Wfj[h'$
HWffheY^[c[dj Wbie fhel[Z Z_\
Ó
Ykbj X[YWki[ Y[hjW_d ]hekfi \eh [n
#
Wcfb[" fhefed[dji e\ =; ikffehj[Z Xo iY_[dj_
Ó
Y [nf[hji iWm [Yedec_Y
fhe]h[ii WdZ dWjkh[ Wi [d^WdY[Z Xo =;" m^_b[ ej^[hi [dl_hedc[djWb
]hekfi WdZ bWo WYj_l_iji iWm dWjkh[ je X[ Wj h_ia\hec j^[ _cfb[c[djWj_ed
e\ =;$ Ceh[el[h" j^[ YWi[ ijkZo h[l[Wbi b_c_jWj_edi ed Y_j_p[d _dlebl[c[dj
_dXk_bZ_d]WXheWZ[h#XWi[ZkdZ[hijWdZ_d]e\h_iaYedd[Yj[Zm_j^Z_\\[h[dj
f[hif[Yj_l[ied]el[hdWdY[i[[=[dki(&&&"(&&)$J^[i[^Wl[hWd][Z\hec
h[b_WdY[edikXehZ_dWj_ede\j^[Y_j_p[dhojeijWj[WdZ[nf[hjWkj^eh_joj^[
]el[hdc[dj"iY_[dj_iji"_dZkijh_Wb_iji"j^hek]^YbW_c[Z[gkWb_joe\f[efb["
m^_b[ ikXehZ_dWj_d] dWjkh[ H9=C je ^eb_ij_Y WffheWY^[i [cf^Wi_p_d]
j^[ [gkWb_jo e\ f[efb[ WdZ dWjkh[ [dl_hedc[djWb YWcfW_]d[hi1 i[[:hop[a
'//-$