Chapter Four - GEOCITIES.ws

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1999

2000

1999

2000

1999

2000

Presentations by:

Fred Bounds

Timothy J. O’Leary Linda I. O’Leary

Input and
Output

CHAPTER

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Chapter Four

Competencies

After reading this chapter, you should be
able to:

1. Explain the difference between
keyboards and direct
-
entry input devices.

2. Describe the features of keyboards
and the four types of terminals.

3. Describe direct
-
entry devices used
with microcomputers.

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Competencies

4. Discuss voice recognition systems.

5. Describe monitors and monitor
standards.

6. Describe printers (ink
-
jet, laser,
thermal) and plotters (pen, ink
-
jet,
electrostatic and direct
-
image)

7. Describe voice
-
output devices.

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Overview


Two most important places for
computer
-

human interface


Computers can only work with binary
language


Input devices translate what we
understand to a form acceptable to the
computer


Output devices do the reverse


Input: Keyboard versus Direct Entry

Input devices convert people
-
readable
data into machine
-
readable form. Input
may be by keyboard or direct entry.

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Data Entry


Keyboard entry


Keys like typewriter to enter text and numbers


Data normally comes from an original or
source document


Direct entry


Data in machine readable form at entry point

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Data Entry


Entry methods


Point
-
of
-
sale (POS) methods
-

keyboard and
bar scanning


Wand reader


Platform scanner

A Point
-
of
-
sale
transaction

Keyboard Entry

In keyboard entry, people type
input. There are four types of
terminals: dumb, intelligent,
network computer and Internet
terminal.

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Traditional
keyboard

Escape key


Navigation
keys

Function keys

Spacebar

Numeric keypad

Windows key

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Keyboard Entry


Keyboards
-

besides alphanumeric,
special purpose keys that toggle or work
with the Control, Alt and Shift keys

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Keyboard Entry


Terminals
-

input and output device
connecting users to mainframe
computers


Dumb terminal
-

no processor or local
storage


Intelligent terminal
-

CPU, memory and
storage; Net PC, or network computer

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Keyboard Entry


Terminals
-

input and output device
connecting users to mainframe
computers


Network terminal
-

low cost alternative to
intelligent terminal


Internet terminal
-

or Web terminal,
accesses and displays Web pages on a
television set

Direct Entry

Direct entry creates machine
-
readable data that can go directly to
the CPU. Direct entry includes
pointing, scanning and voice
-
input
devices.

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Direct Entry


Data is already in machine
-
readable
format


No keyboard or transcription device
required


Three categories


Pointing devices


Scanning devices


Voice
-
input devices

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Pointing Devices


Mouse, trackball or touch
-
surface
-

cursor moves in
response to rolling ball or
moving finger

Traditional
keyboard

Left button

Right button

Roller ball

Retaining ring

Cable

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Pointing Devices


Mouse, trackball or touch
-
surface
-

cursor moves in
response to rolling ball or
moving finger


Touch screen
-

screen
recognizes position of
touching finger

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Pointing Devices


Mouse, trackball or touch
-
surface
-

cursor moves in
response to rolling ball
or moving finger


Touch screen
-

screen
recognizes position of
touching finger


Light pen
-

screen
recognizes position of light
-
sensitive pen
-
like device

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Pointing Devices


Digitizer
-

special pad and stylus used
to capture images hand drawn


Digital camera
-

image recorded digitally
and stored on chips or disks; not yet film
quality, but increasingly popular as
prices drop


Digital notebook
-

notepad that can
capture handwriting and store it

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Digitizer: an
industrial design


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Pen
-
based computer:
recording inventory

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Scanning Devices


Image scanner
-

images scanned and
broken into digital code


Fax machine
-

scanner codes images
and sends them over the phone line


Bar
-
code readers
-

photoelectric
scanner reads vertical bars

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Image Scanner


Identifies images
on a page and
converts them to
digital electronic
signals


Increased usage
in desktop
publishing and
for home use as
well

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Fax Machines


Fax machine
-

scans images and
transmits them over phone lines to a
receiving fax on the other end


Fax modem cards in computers achieve
same results without scanning capability

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Bar
-
Code Readers


Photoelectric scanners
that read vertical zebra
-
striped marks called bar
codes


The bar code is a
unique identifier that
links to a product code
in the store’s computer

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Bar
-
Code Readers


The computer contains
the product description
and price

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Scanning Devices


Character and mark recognition devices


Magnetic
-
ink character recognition (MICR)
-

used by banks to read magnetically
encoded characters


Optical
-
character recognition (OCR)
-

specially preprinted characters are read by
OCR devices such as wand scanners


Optical
-
mark recognition (OMR)
-

devices
sense the presence or absence of marks,
common for test scoring

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Voice
-
Input Devices


Convert speech into digital code


Most common device is the microphone


Voice recognition systems


Microphone, bundled with sound card and
software


Some voice recognition systems must be
trained for user’s voice


Some can translate from one language to
another

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Voice Recognition Systems


Continuous
speech
-

used to
issue commands
to special
application
programs


Discrete
-
word
-

permits users to
dictate directly into
a microcomputer

Output: Monitors, Printers,
Plotters, Voice

Output devices convert machine
-
readable information into people
-
readable form.

Monitors

Monitor standards indicate screen
quality. Some monitors are used
on the desktop, others are portable.

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Monitor Standards


VGA (“
Video Graphics Array”)
-

16
colors at 640 by 480


Super VGA or SVGA (
“Super Video
Graphics Array”)
-

minimum resolution
of 800 by 600, up to 1600 by 1200


XGA (
“Extended Graphic Array”)
-

resolution up 1024 by 768, over 18
million colors

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Cables

Cable
Port
Devices
Parallel
printer, CD-ROM
drive, Zip drive
USB
modem, joy stick,
scanner


Serial



mouse, modem,





keyboard



Video



monitor

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Color and Resolution Capabilities

Standard
Pixels
Colors
SVGA
800 x 600
1024 x 768
256
256

VGA

640 X 480

16



XGA

1024 X 768

65,536

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Monitors


Cathode
-
Ray Tubes
-

similar to
television technology


Flat
-
Panel Monitors
-

or liquid display
(LCD) monitors


Passive
-
matrix or dual
-
scan
-

images
created by scanning the entire screen


Active
-
matrix
-

each pixel is individually
activated

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A desktop monitor:
SVGA display

Printers

There are three types of printers:
ink
-
jet, laser and thermal.

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Printers


Ink
-
jet Printer


Sprays droplets of ink on paper to produce
text and images


Inexpensive

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Printers


Laser Printer


Technology
similar to
photocopier


Laser beam
creates images
which are applied
via toner to paper

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Printers


Thermal Printer


Heat used to produce text and images on
heat
-
sensitive paper


Very high quality color option

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Printers


Other Printers


Dot
-
matrix uses pins to produce dots on
paper to represent text and images


Chain printer
-

high speed printer for
minicomputers and mainframes

Plotters

Plotters are special
-
purpose
drawing devices.

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Plotters


Pen Plotter


Moving pen or pencil
over drafting paper


Least expensive


Slower speed and
limited capability


Ink
-
Jet Plotter


Uses sprayed
droplets of ink


Faster

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Plotters


Ink
-
Jet Plotter


Uses sprayed
droplets of ink


Faster


High quality


Quiet operation

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Plotters


Electrostatic Plotter


Electrostatic charges
(rather than pens)
produce dots on
specially treated
paper


Paper is then
developed


Very fast


Hazardous chemicals

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Plotters


Direct Imaging
Plotter


Electrically heated
pins create images
on heat
-
sensitive
paper


Expensive paper
required


Two
-
color output only

Voice
-
Output Devices

Voice
-
output devices vocalize
prerecorded sounds.

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Voice
-
Output Devices


Make sounds that
resemble human
speech but actually
are using prerecorded
vocalized sounds


Components are
often a sound card
and a speaker system

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