Biometrics can be defined as:

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17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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A Definition of Biometrics

Biometrics can be defined as:


“The process of identifying and verifying
people based upon their unique biological
and unique behavioral features”



The Two Major Types of Biometrics

There are two major types of biometrics:



Physical biometrics:



The biological data that is captured
-
includes



the unique features from the finger, the hand,


the face, the eye, and the voice.


Behavioral biometrics:



The non
-
biological data that is captured
-
includes the


unique features from the way we sign our



name and the way we type.

The Biometric Technologies

Physical Biometric Technologies


Hand Geometry Recognition


Fingerprint Recognition


Facial Recognition


Voice Recognition


Iris/Retinal Recognition

Behavioral Biometric Technologies


Signature Recognition


Keystroke Recognition

Physical Biometrics

Hand Geometry Recognition Technology



Works by extracting a 3
-
D image of the hand (the
top and sides), 96 measurements are taken


Recognized as probably the oldest biometric
technology


Popular applications include physical access entry
and time/attendance applications


Disadvantages: Cannot be used for high security


situations, not enough unique features



in hand


Physical Biometrics

Fingerprint Recognition Technology


Has been around a very long time, along with
hand geometry scanning


Works by extracting the the breaks and
discontinuities in the valleys and ridges of the
fingerprint
-
also known as the minutae


Most popular application is physical access entry,
and Single Sign On Solutions for network security


Disadvantages: An extremely damaged




fingerprint will be rendered useless

Physical Biometrics

Facial Recognition Technology


Has received the most attention since 9/11


Misconception that Facial Recognition will be as good or
even better than the Human Brain for verification and
identification of individuals


Works by taking many images of the face, and extracting
unique features of the ears, eyes, nose, mouth, and cheeks


Popular venues for Facial Recognition include casinos and
airports


Disadvantages: privacy rights issues, changes in the
environmental settings, and physical changes in the



features of the face
-
such as weight gain/loss,


addition or removal of facial hair, etc.


Physical Biometrics

Voice Recognition Technology


Works by recognizing the unique characteristics of the
voice


Text phrase is recited numerous times, and voice
inflections are captured


Popular applications: telephony based verifications (such
as accessing credit card account info, conducting financial
transactions, trading financial instruments, etc.)


Disadvantages: extraneous noises in the environment and
physical ailments (cold or flu) of user


Physical Biometrics

Iris/Retinal Recognition Technology


Iris and Retinal Recognition have often been
confused as being similar, however, the two are
very different


Both have been deemed to be among the most
reliable and stable of the biometric technologies
available


The Iris and Retina rarely change over the lifetime
of an individual

Physical Biometrics

Iris Recognition Technology


Works by extracting the unique features in the
texture and patterns of the iris, (located in the front
of the eye
-
the colored region between the pupil
and the sclera)


Popular applications: expediting the immigration
process at airports, physical access entry, and
network security


Has been used to positively identify the famous
National Geographic picture of “The Afghan Girl”

Physical Biometrics

The Iris

Physical Biometrics

Retinal Recognition Technology


Works by examining the unique pattern of blood
vessels in the retina (located at the back of the eye,
near the optic nerve)


Used for extremely high security applications,
such as physical access entry into highly secure
areas of military or government installations


Disadvantages: Deemed to be very user invasive;
can cause much user discomfort; and requires the
most cooperation from the user, when compared to


other biometric technologies

Physical Biometrics

The Retina

Behavioral Biometrics

Signature Recognition Technology


Examines the way in which we sign our name, not the
signature itself


The unique behavioral characteristics are the timing, speed,
and pressure applied during the course of signing


It has a high level of resistance to impostors
-
easy to forge
a signature, but not the behavioral characteristics. Also
deemed to be a noninvasive biometric technology


However, it has not reached a dominant level of market
share like Fingerprint Recognition and Hand Geometry
Recognition. There have been very limited uses in the



financial sector

Behavioral Biometrics

Keystroke Recognition Technology


Examines the way in which we type on a computer keyboard


In order to capture the unique features, an individual must type a
specific group of words approximately 15 times
-
very often it is the
Username and Password


The unique features include:


*The cumulative typing speed;


*The elapsed time between consecutive keystrokes;



*The time that each key is held down;


*The frequency of use of other keys (function and numeric keys);


*The sequence utilized when typing a capital letter (Shift key or letter


key released first?)


Keystroke Recognition is a 100% software solution
-
therefore, all that is needed is a keyboard
-
no need to
install new hardware









Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications

Biometric Technology has solutions and applications
in the following market sectors:


*Time and Attendance


*Physical Access Entry


*Computer and Network Logon

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Time and Attendance


Time and Attendance refers to the clocking in and clocking
out of hourly wage employees, and keeping track of hours
worked


Very often, some sort of timecard is used, an employee ID
number, or a Social Security number for the purposes of
clocking in and out


Here lies the problem
-
an employee could give another
employee their Identification Number, and have that
employee clock in for them, when they have not even
appeared at all for their shift


This is referred to as “Buddy Punching”

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Time and Attendance


Biometric Technology has been utilized to help
eliminate the problem of “Buddy Punching”


Many Time and Attendance applications have
utilized Hand Geometry Recognition as the tool of
choice


The employee’s hand becomes their Clocking In
and Clocking Out mechanism


Since nobody can share their hand, and it is



unique, the problem of “Buddy




Punching” almost becomes zero

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Time and Attendance


Places where Hand Geometry Recognition is being used:


Owens
-
Illinois; Krispy Kreme Doughnuts; Decatur Hotel
Group (in New Orleans); First Bank Puerto Rico; and
McDonald’s


Advantages of using Biometric Technology for Time and
Attendance:


*Cost of issuing and replacing Timecards eliminated


*Very accurate Payroll Calculations and Employee

Attendance Records, reduction in paperwork




*Payroll Policies can be applied consistently


and fairly, especially to Overtime and Holiday


Pay

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: A Hand Geometry Scanner

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Physical Access Entry


Biometric Technology has also made its mark in
Physical Access Entry scenarios


The need to have a lock and key system has
become almost obsolete


Your Hand, Finger, or Eye can be used to unlock a
door


However, most systems today use Hand
Geometry Recognition and Fingerprint




Recognition

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Physical Access Entry


Typically, the Hand Geometry Scanner or Fingerprint
Scanner is mounted to a wall, and an electromagnetic lock
strike attached to the door is wired directly to the
Biometric Device


Once the Hand Geometry or Fingerprint has been verified
by the Biometric System, a signal is sent to the lock strike
to unlock the door


In Physical Access Entry scenarios, Biometric Devices
can operate in a standalone or networked

mode, where one
door or multiple doors can be unlocked and opened

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Physical Access Entry


Many types of organizations are using this type of security,
ranging from International Airports to Military
Installations to University Dormitories to Child Daycare
Centers


Advantages of using Biometric Technology:

*Only personnel enrolled in the Biometric System can gain
entry

*Cost of issuing/replacing ID Cards becomes almost zero
-
your Hand Geometry or Fingerprint is the key

*Efficiency and Ease of Use: Verification by Biometric
System in less than 1 Second

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Physical Access Entry


Many organizations and businesses today are adopting the
implementation of a “Multi
-
Modal” Security Solution
-
a
Two Tier Security System


This involves using more than one biometric technology
together in order to maximize the level of security


A typical example of this is using a Hand Geometry
Scanner at the main entry point, and then using a
Fingerprint Scanner at more sensitive points within the
place of business

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: A Fingerprint Scanner

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Computer and Network Logon


Typically, in order to gain access to a network, we have to
type in an established Username and Password


However, with the growth of the Internet and Web Based
Applications, the need for multiple Usernames and
Passwords has grown exponentially


As a result, people tend to write down their Usernames and
Passwords on “Post Its” and leave them on their computer
monitor


This has led to a substantial increase in the costs of
password administration and maintenance
-
now at $250 per


employee per year

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Computer and Network Logon


The use of Biometric Technology can eliminate
the need for Usernames and Passwords


Your Fingerprint or Iris becomes the mechanism
for gaining access to the network or your
computer


Fingerprint Recognition and Iris Recognition are
the primary tools utilized


This is referred to as “Single Sign On Solutions”
-


because only one piece of identification,


your biometric, is needed

Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: Computer and Network Logon


These “Single Sign On Solution” devices come embedded
onto a keyboard, onto a mouse, or into a small camera (for
Iris Recognition)


Advantages of using Biometric Technology for Computer
and Network Logon:

* Password administration and maintenance costs become
virtually zero

*No need to remember multiple Usernames and Passwords

*Use of a Biometric is much more secure than Usernames
and Passwords
-
after all, a Biometric cannot be shared



*You cannot “forget” you Biometric
-
unlike
Usernames and Passwords


Biometric Technology Solutions and
Applications: A Network Logon Device