Teaching SQL in a New Method Part 1 Psychology of Teaching ...

southdakotascrawnyΔιαχείριση Δεδομένων

29 Νοε 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

407 εμφανίσεις


AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

1


Teaching SQL in a New Method

Part 1 Psychology of Teaching Technology


Contemporary psychology defines learning
as

the process of acquiring new knowledge,
behavior, skills, or understanding.

Teaching is the figurative chisel that imparts shape to minds
eager to learn, giving not only information b
ut

also the formative tools needed to assimilate that
information in a practical

and retainable

manner. SQL, or Structured Query Language, is a
da
tabase language designed for manipulating relational databases, and
it
can often seem like an
abstract concept to students new to the discipline. It is important

to understand the history and
development of SQL, analyze the its parts, and apply the compon
ents of its design to different
types of learning styles across demographics of gender and age. Success in teaching SQL is a
result of careful analysis of both SQL itself as well as the target audience of the material. If
these concepts are kept in mind,

SQL may be effectively taught by a new

and technologically
forward
-
looking method.

Part 1

Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring a skill or knowledge about
a subject
or discipline (Dictionary.com)
.

It consists of not only what is taught by a teacher in a traditional
classroom

setting
, but also formative information attained from other sources

often when the
student doesn’t even realize that he or she is in the process of learning.
An individual ca
n learn
many things in his

or her

daily routine
from what may merely seem to be everyday

life
experiences.
This is why multimedia and modern learning tools can provide such
landmark

advancement in the way SQL is taught. The fundamentals of SQL can be taug
ht in dynamic new
ways if the students, and how they learn, is carefully considered in the equation of how we teach.


AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

2


Learning cannot be considered as a single process
, and the job of educators and
curriculum designers is to accept that
the

job is never com
plete
.

Technology and society will
constantly provide us with the challenge of not only new material to convey to students, but also
new media with which to teach it. This can be considered an evolutionary process that began
with the
inception of life on
Earth and still prevails in
our contemporary culture. The continuity
of this process results from an ever growing, changing, and advancing society

one which can
be fundamentally understood by analyzing the doctrine of learning itself.

Learning styles have

traditionally been broken down into three primary categories: visual,
auditory, and kinesthetic.

This perhaps oversimplified categorization of learning, as presented
by

LDPride, a company that specializing in teaching to those with learning disabilities,

provides
a comprehensible starting point in understanding learning at its most fundamental level
. It
accomplishes this

by stating that a student learns by sight, sound, and touch

or some
combination of the three senses. Different individuals may have a
much stronger ability to learn
in one manner or another, owing to our unique individual neurological makeup. The three types
of learning may be explored in depth to gain a more comprehensive understanding of their
breadth

and application to teaching SQL
.



Visual Learners


The “See” Learners

Visual learners are those individuals that learn when their optic nerve is stimulated

in
short
,

they learn by seeing something

new or stimulating
. They tend to describe
everything by what they have witnessed with thei
r eyes. These people fall in the group
who prefer to take
the
front seats in a classroom or theater so that they are able to observe
everything closely

and

without obstruction. Visual learners tend to learn better when
diagrams, images, animations, and c
harts are present. These are also, however, the

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

3


students that most actively respond to the mood, body language, and facial expressions of
their instructor. As such, visual learners tend to suffer when human interaction is lost,
such as courses offering e
ntirely digital modules, even though visuals may be stimulating
.
Visual learners have been shown to retain information well, and perform excellently in
written assignments (
Learning Styles Online

2010
)
.




Auditory Learners



The “Hear” Learners

Some
learners

perform
optimally when the relevant information is available to be heard,
or explained, audibly
.

Auditory learners may be at their best when hearing not just
monotonous recordings, but dynamic audible stimuli, such as debates or discussions on a
topic. The use of tape recorders is often beneficial to these students, as they pay attention
to not only the content of the lecture, but also the inflection, tone, and pitch of the
instructor’s voice. This allows auditory learners to pick out the import
ant details of a
lecture, much like a visual learner would pick out bold text on a page. Live interaction
and being engaged in conversation is likely a key to long
-
term learning for these students.

Some may also benefit from
books

that are adapted to CD o
r digital formats or

reading
text
s

aloud. In contrast with the visual learners, these learners perform
exceptionally

on
oral exams and presentations

(
Hutton 2010
).



Kinesthetic Learners


The “Feel”

Learners

These learners tend
to assimilate information by
taking a hands
-
on approach. They learn
by engaging the world around them, manipulating with their hands, and operating in three
dimensional space. The manner in which objects interact is critical to these tactile
learners, and they may become bored or fi
nd it difficult to retain information on a topic

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

4


when they are not able to deal with it hands
-
on. These learners often benefit from
simulations, movable displays, and lab experiments, and they are prone to designing
interesting and unique solutions to pra
ctical problems
.
They are practical, by nature, and
excel at building and designing tools to help complete tasks, which is often where they
perform with the most innovation

(LDPride)
.



In one study, a sampling of twenty
-
two students at age fourteen were administered an
online course. At the onset of the course, the student were shown a panel consisting of two
courses based on entirely different learning styles and allowed to choose for
themselves which
course that they preferred to take. Though the courses contained the same factual content, the
manner that the course conveyed the material was distinctly different.

Though some students
chose to take the course that did not match their
psychologically determined learning style,
bringing up separate issues of how students should be matched to courses and instructors that are
beyond the scope of this discussion, the students who chose the course that matched their
learning style consistent
ly performed better than their peers
.

They were also shown to retain
more knowledge from the course as time passed
(Bajraktarevic, Hall, and Fullick 2003)
.

Though, to some extent, all learners fall into the above categories, it is more common that
an indi
vidual represents a composite of those categories, represented by several modern theories
in psychology. Perhaps one of the best, as easiest to understand theories was established by
psychologist Howard Gardener in his work from 1983 to 1989 known as Gard
ener’s Seven
Types of Knowledge
, which builds on three types of learning by establishing seven types of
knowledge that may be learned and again categorizing the potential of individual learners within
each discipline

(University of Washington 2010).


AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

5


Gard
ener’s Seven Types of Knowledge



Logical
-
mathematical intelligence
: the ability to detect patterns, think logically, reason
and analyze, and compute mathematical equations (e.g., chemists, economists,
engineers).



Linguistic intelligence
: the mastery of oral

and written language in self
-
expression and
memory (e.g., journalists, lawyers, politicians).



Spatial intelligence
: the ability to recognize and manipulate patterns (large or small) in
spatial relationships (e.g., architects, pilots, sculptors).



Musical
intelligence
: the ability to recognize and compose musical quality (pitches,
tones), and content (rhythms, patterns) for production and performance (e.g., composers,
conductors, musicians).



Kinesthetic intelligence
: the ability to use the body, or parts of

the body to create
products or solve problems (e.g. athletes, dancers, surgeons).




Interpersonal intelligence
: the ability to recognize another's intentions, and feelings
(e.g., managers, sales people, social workers).



Intrapersonal intelligence
: the
ability to understand oneself and use the information to
self
-
manage (e.g., entrepreneurs, psychologists).

(University of Washington 2010)


The fundamental importance of Gardener’s theory is in the exploration of what is known
as
multiple

intelligence
, or
the recognition that an individual has not one type of learning, but
varying strengths of many learning types. This theory was developed using a multidisciplinary

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

6


approach to biological science, logistical analysis, and psychology, and is commonly used in

contemporary psychology (University of Washington 2010).


Professor Mark Tenant, in 1995, took another approach

and one which is particularly
relevant to educators at all levels, as it addresses learning types in particular to the training
environment
.
The acronym he used for his theory was A.S.K, or attitude, skills, and knowledge

(Tennant 2005, 1
-
25).




A

represents "attitude," also known as affective learning. An example of this type of
learning is a shift in attitude toward the academic abilities o
f students with disabilities.




S

represents "skills," often called psychomotor or manual learning. Learning to operate
adaptive technology is an example of the development of skills.




K

represents "knowledge." Cognitive learning is the formal term used

for mental skills
such as recall of information. An example of knowledge is information on available
resources related to disability issues. (Tennant 2005, 1
-
25)

The importance of Tennant’s approach is that it uniquely considers what the student is
bringi
ng to the education environment and how that environment actually contributes not only to
the
learning

process
, but also to the change in the learning patterns of the student. According to
Tennant’s theory, any student can become a good student, independe
nt of his preexisting
learning type as defined by other theories. The key is to generate a learning environment that
stimulates the student to retain “knowledge”, according to Tennant, is modifying the student’s
“attitude” and “skills” (Tennant 2005, 1
-
25
). In short, Tennant’s approach suggest that we
should essentially teach students to become better learners, and in so doing retain a greater
amount of the material covered in the educational environment.


AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

7



The unique challenge in education is that the pro
cess of learning, as well as subject
matter, must be understood by trainers and instructors in order for meaningful learning to occur
(Sims 1995). Though many instructors and trainers may be adept in their disciplines, particularly
in mathematically chall
enging disciplines such as science and programming, few have taken time
to understand the psychology of education. The few that are effective are normally so not
through processes of understanding and study, but instead through what some would term
intuit
ion. They are the “people
-
person” type. In public educational environments, particularly at
lower or introductory levels, students are often given little or no choice in instructors, and the
difference in a student’s level discrepancy with that of his or

her peers is often determined by
that initial instructor. In fact, much of the student’s future success in academic coursework can
be established in introductory courses because this is where the students learn how to learn,
assimilate, and retain knowle
dge. This is a fundamental skill that is largely imparted by the
instructor (Tennant 1995).


In assessing learning it is important to look to the instructor. A study done in 1994 shows
that the qualities of instructors that consistently received awards
and recognition for their
teaching or instructional ability followed the following patterns, though the personalities and
qualifications of the instructors varied greatly. These include the qualities that:



all children can learn and that it is the respons
ibility of the teacher to try various
techniques and approaches to find out what will work for each child;



children do not all learn in the same ways since each is a unique individual;



a holistic approach to teaching improves learning;


AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

8




knowledge is constructed, so care is taken in uncovering prior knowledge and building
on it;



children, as learners, are teachers; teachers must also be learners;



teachers need to know each child very well in order to assist their intellectual, social,
an
d emotional development;…



genuine understanding … or generative knowledge… is a high priority, so continuity
and connections in learning are emphasized;



teaching is guided by the child's strengths and interests



learning is a continuous process, a "contin
uum of growth";



self
-
reliance and independence of students is the ultimate goal;




time must be spent teaching children how to learn (learning about learning);



involvement of parents as teachers is crucial to learning;




learning requires risk taking and

mistakes”

(
Collinson

1994).

This study exemplifies the integration and importance of the psychological theories discussed
previously, particularly emphasizing the role of the instructor as not only
an imparter

of
knowledge, but also as a mentor in the mea
ns and methods of learning.

As programmers, our profession has spent years reverse engineering the way we think in
order to generate meaningful mechanical and electronic artificial intelligence. Ironically, the
simplifications
of our own psyche
that prod
uced artificial intelligence systems has also given us
insight into how our minds function
on a basic, and reproducible level. In their textbook,
Poole
,


AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

9


Mackworth
,

and Goebel

equate the science of the mind to learning to fly (1998). They state that
we ca
me to understand flight by dissecting flying animals and modeling after their component
and behavior. Similarly, in order to reproduce our minds, as in artificial intelligence, or
understand other minds, as in the field of education, it is necessary to fi
rst break down something
complex into component systems. Once simplified, then modification and enhancement can
begin, which is analogous in education to the application of new and developing technologies
and multimedia to the growing field of education.



Rao

and Hayagriva

stated that it took many years for the creators of artificial intelligence to
understand that access to wealths of information is not enough to make computers

or humans

learn anything useful(1995). This is further illustrated by the te
chnology of our contemporary
age. Both Generation X and Generation Y have grown up in a world where the “How
-
To” books
for practically any skill were and are online at their fingertips, and yet does this increase the
amount of people that are capable prog
rammers? Simply put, no. It doesn’t. Access to
information alone is not enough to engender learning. The experiments of
Rao

and Hayagriva

with artificial intelligence in robotic only became successful when the electronics were given
meaningful interact
ions with their environment

and given both memory and unique perception.
In other words, the robots were allowed to tune their circuits, much like analogous neural circuits
in humans though greatly simplified, in response to the environment around them
.

In effect, the
artificial intelligence was not only amassing data, but its configuration was constantly and
dynamically changing in response to external stimuli.

Humans minds work in a similar manner, exhibiting extremely complex series or circuits.

Jose
oph LeDoux, an expert in the field of neuropsychology, extensively covered the subject of

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

10


our own nueral networks in his book
Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are

(2002). The text vividly illustrates how our own learning, emotional, and behavio
ral processes
are controlled by a series of complex electrical circuits, some simple and some having many
thousands of inputs and outputs before accomplishing the goal of their process. The work also
illustrates that constant clean
-
up is necessary in orde
r to sort relevant information from useless or
outdated information, keeping our intelligence functioning properly (LeDoux 2002). As
educators we can take a lesson away from this biology by understanding that learning is a
process of give and take, and pr
ioritization is as much a part of learning as knowledge. When
teaching or instructing, a variety of visual, tactile, and audible cues can be combined to help
make certain points stick out in the student’s mind. This brings us to a fundamental in both
ele
ctronics, neurology, and, of course, learning itself: repetition is the key to long term
knowledge.

Multiple studies have shown that
not even
genetically identical twins

share the exact
same appearance or mental processes, illustrating that both nature a
nd nurture play a role in not
only our physical attributes but also in our method of learning.

This fundamental debate
encompasses a large part of the twentieth century, and the revolution in genetics and proteomics
has revealed that the nature
-
nurture deb
ate is roughly a tie, with both factors contributing
significantly to development. Attitudes of parents, instructors, and even those seen on television
or video games can play a role in the developing mind,

or grow up with the same experiences of
life.

J
uddith Yero’s multiple freely available articles on education

explain

in detail that

individuals are innately distinct from one another because of their constantly changing
knowledge and learning processes. He goes on to state that it

would not far be far

from

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

11


ignorance if
to

expect

to individuals to

perceive
things in the exact same manner, as this is
simply an impossibility with so many variables at play (Yero)
.

Drawing on the fields of psychology, biology, logistics, and many other worthwhile
disciplin
es that have delved into the human mind and its inner workings, educators may learn
about their own teaching methods and their students methods of learning in order to advance
education in specific disciplines. The administration of SQL curriculum may be
enhanced by
encouraging a fundamental understanding of the education processes and encouraging peer
review of successful educators and their methods.





AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

12


Part 2

How to teach SQL: Student Populations, E
-
Learning, and SQL
Case Studies

If administration of a new SQL curriculum that takes advantage of the multitude
multimedia and e
-
learning options is to be successful, educators must identify specific student
groups and determine the best way to meet their individual needs on a large scal
e. Primary
distinctions in curriculum exist between adult and childhood education, normally divided into K
-
12, college, and continuing adult education groups, each of these with important and unique
needs.
Introduction of SQL, other programming language
s, and logical thinking that lends itself
to programming techniques in the K
-
12 ages is a particular challenge.
Additionally, with an
increasingly large number of female students and professionals in the field, it becomes important
to address distinctions
that may benefit female students and capitalize upon interactions between
different genders, backgrounds and age groups.

Studies have shown that adult learners differ significantly from younger learners. Unlike
their younger counterparts, adults are normally more self
-
directed and tend to be goal
-
oriented,
approaching education with distinct expectations from the outcome, s
uch as a new career or
defined new skill sets
(Lieb 1991)
.
For adult learners is it important to recognize their past
experience and accumulated knowledge and establish a casual environment, where the instructor
acts more on
-
level with students and encoura
ges discussion on topics over lecturing
(Doyle
2010)
. In addition, the female student base at colleges and universities has been increasing
steadily over the last century.
Though men continue to have higher lifetime earnings than
women, m
en now make up o
nly
forty
-
two

percent of the nation's college students

(
Bureau of
Labor Statistics

2009)
.
W
ith sex discrimination fading and their job opportunities widening,
women are coming on much stronger, often leapfrogging

the men to the academic finish (Lewin
2006). In this educational climate, where adult learners are prevalent and the gender bias is

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

13


fading, finding new curriculum approaches becomes the challenge for SQL instructors of the
future.

E
-
learning has become t
he wave of the future. Just as Microsoft’s revolutionary
slideshow creation program PowerPoint replaced light and mirror projectors as classroom lecture
aides, dynamic technology is now creating entire courses that in many cases replace the
classroom, adm
inistering to students hundreds of miles away.

E
-
learning is essentially the
computer and network enabled transfer of knowledge and skills in what has been described as
the “teacher
-
constructed world”, and interactive field trip

requiring the intimate invo
lvement of
the teacher for success
(Tavangarian
, Leypold
, Nöltin, and Röser 2004)
. The great benefit of E
-
learning is that is largely reproducible once it is created; however, this comes at a the price of
increased costs in both materials and time to crea
te a virtual experience conducive to education.

The tools for E
-
Learning are varied, with some of the largest names in software getting
into the mix. The popular Blackboard Learning software is common choice, with many do
-
it
-
yourself instructors also choo
sing the Open Source Moodle software for their courses (
Review of
Web

2010, Moodle 2010). Software manufacturers, such as Adobe, have released their own
privately supported E
-
Learning software systems, such as the Adobe Captivate system that
seamlessly in
tegrates with Adobe Flash

(Review of Web 2010)
.

Microsoft has released their
own system for creating E
-
Learning modules, called t
he Microsoft Learning Content
Development System (LCDS)
. It

is a free tool that enables the Microsoft Learning community to
c
reate high
-
quality, interactive, online courses. The LCDS allows anyone in the Microsoft
Learning community to publish e
-
learning courses by completing the easy
-
to
-
use LCDS forms
that seamlessly generate highly customized content, interactive activities, q
uizzes, games,
assessments, animations, demos, and other multimedia

(Microsoft Learning 2010)
.

While

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

14


Microsoft provides options for the inexperience web programmer,
the experienced ActionScript
programmer

can take advantage of more complex programs like

A
dobe Captivate

that
provide
unlimited possibilities to engage students. Other popular E
-
Learning
software programs

include

Lectora and Articulate, both of which seamlessly allow instructors to incorporate their existing
Microsoft PowerPoint and audio file
s into their E
-
Learning courses with a variety of available
options and widgets (
Review of Web

2010).
Additionally, major publishers, such as Prentice
Hall, among others, are beginning to produce educational modules to accompany their texts, such
as the SQL text
Understanding Relational Database Querying Languages, First Edition
,
released in 2001 (
WinRDBI

2010).
These programs can increase performance, access, and give
students flexibility to attend classes at irregular hours. This also helps to account for the
increasing numbers of adult learners, as it becomes increasingly practical for working adults t
o
attend E
-
Learning classes to start or complete their degree programs.

SQL stands for Structured Query Language and, as the name implies, it is a database
language
designed for manipulating relational databases.
To students new to the discipline
database

manipulation can often seem to be a somewhat abstract concept, and one that is often
taught in terms of lecture and lab experience, resulting in few hands
-
on activities where students
are allowed to learn from their own mistakes or form unique learning me
thods.

The original SEQUEL program was designed in the 1970s at IBM for internal use in
managing it relational database
, and it is from these origins and modern SQL and its web
-
based
multi
-
user derivative mySQL

were born
(
Schumacher and Lentz 2007
).

As
mentioned above,
SQL is a simple language but
many students have difficulties in understanding the fundamental
concepts associated with SQL, as numerous scholarly articles reveal
.
Although there are a
plethora of virtual resources as well as commercial bo
oks and products available, SQL remains a

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

15


topic that proves difficult for student
s (Sadiq 2004). Because each individual learns and retains
information in a different manner, as described above, the most effective

way to teach SQL is by
having student lea
rn from their own mistakes
.

This allows the same information to be conveyed
in a way that students of diverse backgrounds can understand, because they essentially are
playing a part in their own instruction.


This report will examine how students find dif
ferent
methods of SQL instruction to be effective.


At many universities, SQL is first introduced in the traditional lecture environment, and
learning is enhanced by preplanned lab exercises.
When administered online, courses are
normally divided into a
series of modules coupled with virtual exercises of a scope similar to
their on
-
campus counterparts (University of Dundee 2010).
In this sense, administration of

SQL

curriculum

is the same as any other model of

programming

language
, such as common
languages
like

C, C++ and Java
. The exercises usually involve limited amounts of laboratory time and are
in the format of problems and solutions. The result is that the feedback

the student receives is
limited, and most introductory students do not expre
ss a full understanding of the SQL
environment’s capabilities. Dr. Davis of the University of South Hampton carried out a relevant
research study in 2001 which he and his colleagues drastically restructured an introductory
computer science course, reducin
g the number of lecture hours per week by more than half and
breaking the lab groups into small, discourse
-
oriented pods. The result was a dramatic increase
in overall test scores by the end of single semester, proving that the “1980s” version of teaching

programming and computer science is, in fact, obsolete, as should be updated to reflect the
diversity of students in technological disciplines (Davis 2010).

Many times, introductory level college courses are a students first experience in SQL;
however, al
most every class contains student with intermediate through advanced knowledge of

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

16


SQL. This provides additional challenges in designing curriculum. As educators this makes us
ask ourselves how
students at all levels can be engaged, and the answer is enga
ging the students
in discourse

and, like the internet, encouraging the free sharing of experience not only from the
instructor, but also from a student’s peer group.

Lab exercises
of the problem
-
solution variety, as show in many prominent instructors Dr.

teaching materials for database programming,
alone are not enough to overcome the initial
frustration at error messages in the SQL environment and stimulate not only intake of knowledge
of the SQL environment but passion for programming

(Gers 2010)
. Unkn
own errors can result
in frustration, causing frustration, boredom, and general lack of interest. Worse yet, poorly
executed SQL database programming by inexperienced or under
-
enthusiastic programmers after
graduation can cause major security errors in co
mmercial and government databases (Muck
2005). As a by
-
product poor administration of SQL
curriculum

may also discourage talented
and motivated students form pursuing programming disciplines in the future.
As one
programming instructor states “when I’m e
ntering a new area

[of learning]
, my first attempts are
necessarily going to not be that great because I don’t know what I don’t know yet”

(Panopticon
2010). Students can only learn by understanding their mistakes, learning what they do not know,
and beco
ming motivated to fill those gaps.

Despite the challenges of teaching SQL,
there are several ways to learn SQL affectively.

ESQL

stands for

Extended Structured Query Language
, and t
his method is used to define data
and work on connections
. It involves wo
rking

step by step

in a logical manner that encourages
full understanding of the SQL environment

(IBM 2010)
.

Additionally, full and comprehensive
documentation for ESQL is provided online by IBM, and is easily incorporated into an SQL
course.


AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

17


Another

method
for learning SQL
is WinRDBI, which
stands for

Windows Relational
Data Base Interpreter education tool
, as currently used by Arizona State University in partnership
with Prentice Hall Publishing

(WinRDBI 2010)
. The software is an excellent tool tha
t can be
used to
enhance student
understand
ing of
the formal query of relational databases
, with more
feedback and responsiveness than what is seen in many teaching lab settings.
In fact, WinRDBI
provides students with the chance to look at the formal rel
ation query and obtain feedback for
queries virtually instantaneously through its unique graphical interface (Dietrich 1997
).
In
addition to its easy to use and responsive interface,
WinRDBI
also stimulates learning by
allowing the user, presumably the st
udent, to

create many queries at
once. The software then
allow
s

for storage in XML
and provides the users with numerous export options, allowing the
files to be saved in SQL, DBN, and RDB filetypes. The value of WinRDBI as an educational
inte
rface is in
its responsiveness. F
or tactile learners there is the opportunity to
experiment
.

For
visual and auditory learners, the graphical interface provides audible and visual cues to stimulate
learning. Instead of receiving what psychologists might term a punishment or negative feedback
in the form of error messages that seem incomprehensib
le, all learning types benefit from
receiving immediate and easily comprehensible feedback. Though errors are general
discouraged or even punished, it has been proven that the most learning occurs when mistakes
are made, and it is best to make them in a s
afe environment (
Jeanguiot

2000).


WinRDBI
provides that safe environment. Its graphical interface seems familiar to most
Microsoft Windows

users

and to creat
ing

a new database the WinRDBI
software
gives the user
options on how they would like to setup

their database
.

The database storage
options in

WinRDBI are Relational Database or XML
(WinRDBI 2010)
.

In addition
, WinRDBI can
even

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

18


help students to make a specific query about relational algebra

with real
-
time feedback

not
available in any other metho
d
(WinRDBI 2010)
.

Another viable option is
SQL
-
Tutor
,

a new system for learning SQL which has designed
a
n entirely

new
instructor
-
created
environment to help students to learn SQL

(Greer 1994)
.

The
SQL
-
Tutor
software
gives the students

learning SQL

a wide

range of
information and response
levels appropriate for users at various skill levels to continue to develop their skills at an optimal
level. S
QL
-
Tutor
has a simple, user
-
friendly interface that is graphical in nature, and again very
reminiscent of
applications that are familiar to any Microsoft Windows user
.

Students rarely
require assistance with the interface, and support is easily available (Greer 1994).

In the
SQL
-
Tutor
software, the student simply fills in the tables on the system and engages

in a three
-
part
learning activity. In the initial stage,
the problem
is
displayed to student for
further thought or
analysis, giving the student an opportunity to

find out the elements requested in the query.
During the second part

the
SQL structure

appe
ars in the system
,
allowing the

student
to name the
table and to
attribute it in a SQL statement. The last part displays the schema of the database
n
which the table is created (Greer 1994)
.

The visual element of this interface, much like a flow
-
chart, he
lps students to build a stronger understanding of SQL processes and interactions with
which student normally struggle, a learning method that has been shown by the American
Psycological Association to dramatically increase learning (
Bartoletti

2008)
.

While

providing easy
-
to
-
use visual feedback, the software stresses full understanding of
of basic, fundamental commands in SQL over memorization of all of the myriads of possible
SQL commands that exist. As one computer expert says,


Learning basics is importa
nt to fully
understand any specific area
[of technology]”

(
Preventative Guru 2010), which is
particularly

true in an education setting.
The

SELECT statement
is
particularly

emphasized in this software

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

19


because
full mastery and understanding of the
SELECT
command is integral to establishing a
firm understanding of SQL fundamentals
.

It is not enough for students to learn all the statements
in SQL with this system
, if they do not have a firm understanding of the basic commands
.

By
the very nature of the lea
rning process, students are expected to make many mistakes in their
queries,

so the

SQL
-
Tutor provides feedback to students
in a way they that they can understand
and apply the correction.

A common mistake, s
uch as whether the student has completed his/her

query in the system
, is easily shown by the graphical interface

using
positive/negative feedback

and

error flag
s
(Greer 1994)
.

Again, learning is enhanced for all learning types by repetition and
simple, user
-
friendly explanation or errors.

Traditional teaching of computer programming at universities has gravitated towards
teaching simpler concepts first, or even approaching simpler, un
-
practical programming
languages for introductory courses (Kak 2009).
The fact also remains that most stude
nts in high
-
school are being taught well below their level, especially in technology
-
based courses that are
often offered as electives (Zucker 1996).
SQL
-
Tutor is based on a new approach which is
Constraint

Based Modeling (CBM). CBM is a new technique fo
r student modeling

that engages
and challenges the student simultaneously (Greer 1994).
SQL
-
Tutor
remains

miles ahead of the
competition because it supports

three kinds of learning

at once
:
conceptual,

problem
-
solving and
meta
-
learning
. By combining these

techniques, students from varying backgrounds and skill
levels are engaging in the learning environment, making teaching SQL

a widely used and very
marketable language

practical in the short period of time allotted most university courses.


Another well d
eveloped and supported tool is the

SQLator
,

a web
-
based interactive tool
for learning SQL created by the University of

Queensland in 2001

(Sadiq 2004)
.


SQLator
incorporates the previously discussed idea of an instructor
-
created environment, and takes it to a

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

20


new level of proficiency

and web
-
based interactivity.


As Laurie Brady showed in her definitive
2004 study on interactivity in web based learning, st
udents exhibit more satisfaction and higher
test scores in interactive web interfaces versus ones that appear static, similar to desktop
programs (2004). The
SQLator involves online work

and virtual interaction,

so it is a new an
environment for learning S
QL

that takes full advantage of contemporary communication
technology
.


There

are classes for learning that directly target specific learning

types
, and the
SQLator
is an excellent application of this psychological insight (Brusilovsky 1999)
.

SQLator

goes

one step further by
provid
ing

a brief multimedia Tutorial for SQL.

It
can

make question
-
dependent evaluation of SQL queries, resulting in a customized learning experience
(Sadiq
2004)
.

SQLator
also has the benefits of

web
-
based
technology on its side, al
lowing students
access to the SQL lab twenty
-
four hours a day from anywhere with internet access

(Sadiq 2004)
.

The s
tudents’ use of SQLator varies according to their
own schedules

regarding times of study
,
with around eighty students logging on between
nin
e
p.m and
five
a.m

every day, greatly
increasing the availability of the SQL lab over the traditional on
-
campus labs and increasing the
popularity of the program with working adults (Sadiq 2004)
.

Modern technology provides numerous opportunities to provi
de an alternative learning
environment with the capacity for more effective learning outcomes than the traditional
classroom setting. Web
-
based technologies allow courses to meet the needs of an increasingly
diversified group of students and encourage exp
erimentation, interaction, and innovation in SQL
programming. As educators and instructors, improving the quality of programs and stimulating
student interest in SQL programming is a duty that cannot be overlooked. By incorporating the

AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

21


knowledge of instr
uctors worldwide and encouraging collaboration, new and superior methods of
teaching SQL are attainable.







AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

22


References

About Moodle
. 2010. Moodle Homepage. Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://moodle.org/

Bajraktarevic, N.; Hall, W.; and Fullick, P. 2003.
Incorporating learning styles in hypermedia
environment: Empirical evaluation.
Proceedings of the Workshop on Adaptive Hypermedia and
Adaptive Web
-
Based Systems.
Nottingham, UK, pp. 41
-
52. Accessed 5 Aug
ust, 2010. Available
at http://wwwis.win.tue.nl/ah2003/proceedings/paper4.pdf.

Bartoletti, R. 2008.
How Good Visual Design Helps Learning
. American Psychological
Association (APA) Publication Manual.
Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://cnx.org/co
ntent/m17294/1.4/

Brady, Laurie. 2004. The Role of Interactivity in Web
-
Based Educational Material. Usability
News, 6, 2. Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://psychology.wichita.edu/surl/usabilitynews/62/interactivity.htm

Brusilovsky, P. 1999.
Adaptive and Intelligent Technologies for Web
-
based Education
.
Künstliche Intelligenz, 4, 19
-
25.

Collinson, V. 1994.
Teachers as Learners: Exemplary Teachers' Perceptions of personal and
Professional Renewal.

San Francisco and London. Austin & Winfield, 8
6.

Computer Basics
. 2010. Preventative Guru Homepage.
Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://www.preventiveguru.com/computer
-
basics.html

Davis, H. C., Carr, L. A., Cooke, E. C. and White, S. A. 2001.
Managing Diversity: Experiences
Teaching
Programming Principles
. In: The 2nd LTSN
-
ICS Annual Conference, 28
-

30 August
2001, London.

Definition of Learning
. Dictionary.com Online Dictionary. Accessed 5 August, 2010.
Available

from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/learning.

Dietrich, Suzan
ne W.; Eckert, Eric; Piscator, Kevin. 1997.
Proceedings of the twenty
-
eighth
SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science Education
. Technical Symposium on
Computer Science Education.
San Jose, California.

Doyle, Terry. 2010.
General Ideas About Teachin
g
Adults. Farris State University. Accessed 5
August, 2010. Available at
http://www.ferris.edu/fctl/Teaching_and_Learning_Tips/Teaching%20the%20Adult%20Learner
s/GeneralIdeas.htm

Education and usual weekly earnings for women and men, second quarter 2009
.
2009. Bureau of
Labor Statistics. Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2009/jul/wk2/art05.htm


AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

23


ESQL Overview
. 2010. IBM Homepage. Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wbihelp/v6rxmx/inde
x.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.etools.mft.f
p8.doc/ak00990_.htm

Gers, Felix. 2010.
Databases (DBs) and SQL with PostgreSQL
. Private Teaching Materials.
Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at http://www.felixgers.de/teaching/sql/

Greer, Jim E.; McCalla, Gordon . 1994.

Student modeling: the key to individualized knowledge
-
based instruction
. NATO ASI series: Computer and systems sciences, 125.

Jeanguiot NP. 2000.
Learning by mistake: The status of error in the initial education of nurses
.
Rech Soins Infirm. Sep, 62, 36
-
7
8.

Kak, Avinash. 2009. Teaching Programming. Purdue University.
Accessed 5 August, 2010.
Available at http://cobweb.ecn.purdue.edu/~kak/programming.pdf.

Kinesthetic Learners
. 2010. Study Guide Zone.
Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at

http://www.studygui
dezone.com/kinestheticlearners.htm

Learning Styles
Explained. LDPride.net Learning Disability Service.

Accessed 5 August, 2010.
Available from
http://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm#What%20are
.

LeDoux, Joseph. 2002.
Synaptic Self: How Our Brains
Become Who We Are
. Penguin Books.
New York, NY.

Lieb, Stephen. 1991.
Principles of Adult Learning
. Arizona Department of Health Services.
Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at http://people.cs.ubc.ca/~poole/ci/ch1.pdf

Lewin, Tamar. (2006)
The New Gender D
ivide: At Colleges, Women Are Leaving Men in the
Dust
. New York Times. Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/09/education/09college.html

Muck, Tom. 2005.
Do
-
It Yourself Database Administration: Ten Biggest Mistakes
. Commun
ity
MX. Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://www.communitymx.com/abstract.cfm?cid=C8B40

Poole; Mackworth; and Goebel. 1998.
Computational Intelligence and Knowledge
. University
of British Columia Department of Computer Science. Accessed 5 August,

2010. Available at
http://people.cs.ubc.ca/~poole/ci/ch1.pdf

Rao, V. and R. Hayagriva. 1995.
C++ Neural networks and Fuzzy Logic
, 2nd ed
. MIS Press.
New York, NY, 1
-
20.

Rapidly Create Online Courses
. 2010. Microsoft Learning.
Accessed 5 August, 2010. Ava
ilable
at
http://www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/training/lcds.aspx

Rayala, Martin. 1996.


Changing your mind:
Toward a theory of learning: Applying complexity
science to learning as a complex, dynamic system
. Unpublished.
Accessed 5 August, 2010.
Available at http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/harvard.html.


AngieBioTech

(INSERT AUTHOR NAME HERE)

24


Review of eLearning Softwares. 2010. Articulate vs Adobe Captivate vs Lectora.
Review of Web:
Make the Most of Technology. Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://reviewofweb.co
m/software/elearning
-
softwares
-
review
-
of
-
articulate
-
adobe
-
captivate
-
lectora/

Sims, Ronald R.; Sims, Serbrenia J. 1995.
The Importance of Learning Styles: Understanding
the Implications for Learning, Course Design, and Education
. Greenwood Publishing Grou
p.

Westport, CT.

Sadiq, S.; Orlowska, M.; Sadiq, W.; and Lin, J. 2004.
SQLator: An Online SQL Learning
Workbench
. In Proceedings of the 9th annual SIGCSE conference on Innovation and technology
in computer science education ITiCSE '04. Leeds, UK, 28
-

30 J
une, 2004. ACM Press.

Schumacher, Robin; Lentz, Arjen. 2007.
Dispelling the Myths
. MySQL AB
.
Accessed 5 August,
2010. Available at
http://dev.mysql.com/tech
-
resources/articles/dispelling
-
the
-
myths.html
.

Tavangarian D., Leypold M., Nölting K., Röser M. 2004.
Is e
-
learning the Solution for
Individual Learning?

Electronic Journal of E
-
Learning. Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://www.ejel.org/volume
-
2/vol2
-
issue2/v2
-
i2
-
art4.htm

Tennant, Mark. 2005.

Psychology and Adult Learning
. Third edition
.
Routledge. New York, NY.

Types of Learning
. University of Washington DO
-
IT Center for Disability. Accessed 5 August,
2010.
Available at

http://www.washington.edu/doit/TeamN/types.html

T
-
SQL Tuesday #8:
Learning and Teaching SQL
. 2010. Panopticon Central.

The
V
isual (spatial)
L
earning
S
tyle
.
2010.
Learning Styles Online.
Accessed 5 August, 2010.
Available at
http://www.learning
-
styles
-
online.com/style/visual
-
spatial/

WinRDBI Educational Tool
. 2010. Acce
ssed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://winrdbi.asu.edu/index.html

Yero, Juddith.
2010.
Education Myths
. Teacher’s Mind Resources.
Accessed 5 August, 2010.
Available at http://www.teachersmind.com/myths1.htm.

Zucker, Steve. 1996.
Teaching at the
University Level
. Notices of the AMS, 83, 3, 863
-
865.
Accessed 5 August, 2010. Available at
http://www.ams.org/notices/199608/comm
-
zucker.pdf

Hutton, Shannon. 2010.
Helping Auditory Learners Succeed
. Education.com.
Accessed 5
August, 2010. Available at

ht
tp://www.education.com/magazine/article/auditory_learners/