Modelling Data-Intensive Web Sites with OntoWeaver

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 2 μήνες)

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Modelling Data
-
Intensive Web Sites
with OntoWeaver

Knowledge Media Institute

The Open University


Yuangui Lei, Enrico Motta, John Domingue

{y.lei, e.motta, j.b.domingue}@open.ac.uk

Outline


Motivation


OntoWeaver Rationales


Site View Modelling


Presentation Modelling


Customization Framework


An Example


Advantages and Limitations


Conclusions

Motivation


Data
-
intensive web sites


Time
-
consuming design process


Few re
-
usable components


Costly maintenance process


Solutions


Model
-
based web modelling methodologies


HDM, RMM, WebML, etc.



Customization Layer

User Profiles

User Model

Customization Requirements

Presentation

Layer

Presentation Styles

Layouts

Site

View

Layer

Data Elements

Navigational Elements

KA Forms

Query Forms

Data

Layer

Databases

Data Services

Domain Model

Current Research Practices

Open Issues


Limited support for the specification of site views;


RMM, OOHDM, HDM
-
Lite


ARANEUS, WebML, OntoWebber, HERA


Limited support for the specification of presentation
styles and layouts;


Style sheets


Layout design


Limited support for customization at design time as
well as at run time;


The customization specification is intertwined with the site
view layer


The aspects of customization are limited

OntoWeaver: an Ontology
-
Based
Approach


Goal:


to enable the process of designing ontology
-
based web
applications to be carried out at the conceptual level


Rationales


Employing the notion of ontology as the back
-
bone


Site View Ontology


Presentation Ontology


Customization Framework


All aspects of a web site expressed declaratively


Advantages


Low
-
cost route to data
-
driven web applications


All aspects of a web site amenable to reasoning


Site Design Critiquing


Customization

Customization Layer

User Profiles

User Model

Customization Requirements

Presentation

Layer

Presentation Styles

Layouts

Site

View

Layer

Data Elements

Navigational Elements

KA Forms

Query Forms

Data

Layer

Databases

Data Services

Domain Model

Domain

Ontology

Site View

Ontology

Presentation

Ontology

Customization

Framework

OntoWeaver: an Ontology
-
Based
Approach


Goal:


to enable the process of designing ontology
-
based web
applications to be carried out at the conceptual level


Rationales


Employing the notion of ontology as the back
-
bone


Site View Ontology


Presentation Ontology


Customization Framework


All aspects of a web site expressed declaratively


Advantages


Low
-
cost route to data
-
driven web applications


All aspects of a web site amenable to reasoning


Site Design Critiquing


Customization

OntoWeaver Architecture

OW

Web Site

Inference

Engine

Site
Builder

Presentation
Specification

Site View
Specification

Site
Designer

Site View &

Presentation


Ontologies

User

Profiles

Domain

Ontology

Ontology
Editor

Customization

Rule Base


Site Customizer

Online Page
Builder

User

Ontology

Customized

View

Modelling the Site View Layer

hasSubComponent

hasSubResource

Site

Resource

Component

hasIndexResource

hasComponent

SubResource

MetaData

hasMetaData

hasResource

LinkItem

hasOutput

Output

Input

Command

hasInput

hasCommand

hasLinkItem

Examples of the Site View Constructs

KA

component

Input element

Command

Element

Output

Elements

Data

Component

Dynamic

Output

Site View Constructs Summary


Composite User Interface Constructs


Site, SiteResource, ResourceComponent


Component Primitives:


DataComponent


KAComponent


SearchComponent


Pre
-
defined services


Atomic User Interface Constructs


Output, DynamicOutput, Command, Input


Navigational Constructs


LinkItem, DynamicLinkItem, Parameter




Modelling the Presentation Layer


Presentation Styles


Fonts, colours, etc


Template
-
based approach


Templates: generic templates, widget templates, data
component templates


Presentation objects: attaching templates with site view
components


Layouts


Organization of site view components


Layout modelling


Text Layout


Component Layout


Presentation Model


SitePresentation



Presentation Model

SitePresentation

Template

hasPresentation

hasTemplate

hasLayout

Presentation

Layout

PresentationTemplate

ComponentURI

hasTemplate

hasComponentURI

AreaLayout

hasAreaLayout

ComponentURI

Customization Framework


Declarative Site Model


Site view specifications;


Site presentation specifications;


Site ontologies.


User Ontology


A model to enable the recording of user profiles


Only very basic ontology is provided, typically this will be
specialised for particular applications


User Profiles


Information about end users in terms of user ontology.


Customization Rules


Conditions


Customization Actions


Jess Inference Engine

OntoWeaver Architecture

OW

Web Site

Inference

Engine

Site
Builder

Presentation
Specification

Site View
Specification

Site
Designer

Site View &

Presentation


Ontologies

User

Profiles

Domain

Ontology

Ontology
Editor

Customization

Rule Base


Site Customizer

Online Page
Builder

User

Ontology

Customized

View

Example: Building a Paper Review
System


Four types of users


Authors


They browse conference information


They submit papers


Reviewers


They get the papers assigned for review from the web site;


They submit their reviews to the web site;


Program committee members


They browse review recommendations.


Chair


Has access to everything, notifies authors, etc.


Design Process


Domain Ontology Design:


Site View Design:


Designing navigational structures


Composing user interfaces for web pages


Presentation Design


Specifying visual appearance for user interface elements


Specify layout for user interface elements


Customization Design:


Identifying potential audiences;


Creating different site models for different user groups;


Defining customization rules for individual users or groups;


OntoWeaver Site Designer

A General View

User Group Specified Customization

Rule
-
based Customization


Reviewers get extra links
for obtaining assigned
papers and submitting
reviews;


Two corresponding new
web pages have been
created;


Customized web pages
are generated on the fly
when users whose role is
“Reviewer” login onto the
paper review system and
make requests about web
pages
.


A Customized View For Paper Reviewers

Advantages


High level specification


The design can be made much simpler


Automatic site generation through ontology mapping


Customization support


The modular approach


The customization framework


Site maintenance


Tools support for manual and semi
-
automatic
maintenance


Limitations


Focusing on data presentation, data
acquisition, and data querying


Remote web services are not considered


Semantics of web pages are not explored

Conclusions


OntoWeaver uses an
ontology
-
driven approach

to the
design and development of data
-
intensive web sites.


It provides
a set of ontologies

to support the modelling
and specification of all aspects of data
-
intensive web
applications.


It provides
a customization framework

to allow the
specification of customization requirements at a high
level of abstraction.


It provides
a tool suite

to support the design and
development of data
-
intensive web istes.