Enterprise Application Integration

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Applying Semantic Web To
Enterprise Application Integration

By: Vipul Narain

Enterprise Application Integration


Stages of
evolution


Initial phase of Enterprises


manual processing of data


Advent of computer


different enterprise entity automated on
multiple technology platforms suiting their needs


No
Enterprise Application Integration (EAI). Example: HR,
Finance, Manufacturing, Production Planning, Purchase etc.
had their own IT technology implementations suited for their
needs.


Need for information was felt across different enterprise
entity. Example: Manufacturing needed to know from
Production planning when on equipment planning and
purchase status for items required.


Initial phase of EAI


different need based integration points,
unique and non standard


Enterprise Application Integration


Stages of
evolution

contd.


Non standard EAI resulted in following

:


1.
Multiple interfaces, all different

2.
Maintenance Issues

3.
Redundant and duplicate data stores

4.
Data inconsistencies as a result of above

5.
Complexities associated with multiple technologies

6.
More failure points

7.
No concept of re
-
use



Last Decade of last century saw the emergence of object
-
oriented technologies. This did not solve the issues of EAI
but promoted re
-
use, easy maintenance.


Enterprise Application Integration


Stages of
evolution

Contd.


EAI issues led to paradigm of Service
-
Oriented Architecture
(SOA)


Here are the major features of SOA:


1.
Notion of Service


Service Centric

2.
Service
-
A service is a logical grouping of operations.


3.
Services could be discovered during run time

4.
Services provided loose coupling among applications and were
based on message based protocols

5.
Services needed to be registered or published in a central
repository called Service Registry

6.
Services could be invoked by Service Requestor (based on
agreed upon message protocol with Service provider)

7.
Services could be composed from different Services

8.
Services provide platform independence


Enterprise Application Integration


Stages of
evolution

Contd.


Here are some major components of SOA:


1.
Service

2.
Enterprise Service Bus

3.
Service Registry

4.
Service Broker

5.
BPM Tools

6.
Internet Gateway



SOA was embraced by large Enterprises to solve the
problems of EAI


Vendor products like IBM MQ were used
during this phase







Enterprise Application Integration


Stages of
evolution

Contd.


EAI using vendor specific

products tied an enterprise to
vendor


Open Source development, advent of internet/ intranet led to
paradigm of Web Services which was based on the standards
of WSDL, XML, SOAP and UDDI. Vendor offerings with these
standards required other vendors to be compliant to new Web
Service Standards


These helped in standard EAI interfaces and seem to have
solved number of earlier EAI ills.


Enterprise boundary no longer was confined within an
enterprise and extended to vendors, external trading partners
as well (B2B) apart from application
-
to
-
application(A2A)
within an organization



Enterprise Application Integration


Stages of
evolution

Contd.


Traditional Web Service Standards embraced for EAI
suffered from following major drawbacks:


1.
Syntax based, do not describe the meaning of the interface

2.
Lack the ability for machine to machine interpretation without
formal agreement in place

3.
Assume all participating application are WSDL compliant and in
case not


adapters are used.

4.
Do not fully meet the criterion for lose coupling in case of
synchronous transactions


a communication Channel is opened
between provider and requestor.



The above drawbacks led to Semantic Web Services (SWS)
and Semantic SOA (SSOA)



Semantic Web


World Wide Web
Consortium(W3C) Definition

“The
Semantic Web

provides a common framework that
allows
data

to be shared and reused across application,
enterprise, and community boundaries. It is a collaborative
effort led by W3C with participation from a large number of
researchers and industrial partners. It is based on the
Resource Description Framework (
RDF
)”

Semantic Web


Vision of founding
father

“ I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become
capable of analyzing all the data on the Web


the content,
links, and transactions between people and computers. A
‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to
emerge, but when it does, the day
-
to
-
day mechanisms of
trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by
machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people
have touted for ages will finally materialize. ”

Semantic Web


Concept of Ontology

Information Technology borrowed this term from philosophy. Here is
the Merriam Webster Dictionary


“ 1: a branch of metaphysics
concerned with the nature and relations of being

2: a particular theory about the nature of being or the kinds of things
that have existence”.

Semantic Web


Concept of Ontology
Contd.

A formal study based on conceptualization of data (objects of
interest), their relationships and other entities of interest.
Putting simply, this simply means that interface is fully described in
standard common data format with relationships between different
pieces of data attributes, their hierarchy and meaning. The
underlying framework for describing the semantics is based on
WSMO standards (Web Services Modeling Ontology).

Semantic Web


Concept of
Ontology Contd.

Ontology: These describe formal semantics and link human
and machines by providing entities understood by both.

Goals: The objectives of Service Requestor are formally
enunciated in goals. These are high
-
level descriptions of
actual concrete tasks.


Web services: These declare the actual Web Service
capabilities. Only if service requestor and provider have
same ontology a match could be established. The notion of
mediator described next is to resolve these differences.



Semantic Web


Concept of Ontology
Contd

Mediators: These compare the two Ontology


provider and
requestor and determine the similarities between the two.
These are grouped as follows:

1.ggMediators: Link the provider and requestor goals

2.ooMediators: Import and resolve mismatches between
ontologies

3.wgMediators: Links Web Services to goals

4.wwMediators: Links the two Web Services

Semantic Web


Concept of Triple
Space Computing


Based on concept of Tuple space computing used in parallel
processing Language like Linda


A major advantage of Tuple space computing is that it
provides decoupling from three orthogonal dimensions:






Reference: Sender and receiver communication is not
directly coupled



Time: The Sender and receiver are not in direct synchronous
communication





Space: As long as same space is shared, the two need not
run in same computational environment.


Semantic Web


Concept of Triple
Space Computing


W3C defined Resource Description Framework (RDF) is based
on the concept of shared space to address the problems with
Tuple space Computing. RDF defines semantic data in the
Notation 3 or N3 format. These include subject, verb and
object identified with a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).
Additionally, RDF Schema defines classes, properties, domains,
and hierarchy of classes. Web Ontology Language (OWL)
further enhances RDF.


The Triple Servers will have data published on them that could
be requested, read and interpreted by machines


The major advantages provided to the providers and
consumers are the Time autonomy


the only restriction being
the Triple being written to common space before it could be
read


WSMO supports Triple Space Computing

Semantic Web and EAI


TSC Servers provide Transactions to be read and written on
common Space


This allows location Transparency


provider and consumer do
not need to know each others location


Allows lose coupling in communication as well as provider and
consumer do not talk directly to each other. This is great
benefit for EAI dealing with synchronous transactions.


Allows Services to be changed during run time based on
ontology matches


Allows the consumer and provided need not have knowledge
of each other


discovery in real sense


Builds Intelligence in Machine to Machine interactions


Conclusion


To conclude, the strengths provided by concepts of
Semantic Web applied to Enterprise Application
Integration are enormous. These relate to in building
capability of machines talking to machines in
Application
-
to
-
Application as well as B2B scenarios in an
Enterprise. The Semantic SOA (SSOA) will help in
achieving the declared objectives of SOA through
Semantic Web Service by supporting all features of SOA
and extending them.


Questions ????