FIR-01 01 Fireseeker: Autonomous IED Search PackBot

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Burlington, MA 01803
(781) 345 0200

DATE

PAGE

14
-
Nov
-
13


1

of
16

DOCUMENT NUMBER

REVISION

DESCRIPTION





FIR
-
01

01

F
ireseeker:
Autonomous IED Search
PackB
ot


All information, data, designs and drawings contained herein are the property of iRobot Corporation and may not be reproduced
, c
opied, appropriated or disclosed to third
parties, directly or indirectly, without the express written consent of iRobot Corporation.(c) [2004] iRobot Corporation


iRobot Proprietary

Fireseeke
r: Autonomous IED Search PackB
ot

WHITE PAPER

Brian Yamauchi

Lead Roboticist
, iRobot Corporation

Email:
yamauchi@irobot.com
,
Phone: (781) 418
-
3291




Overview


For our troops in Iraq, who face daily attacks with Improv
ised Explosive Devices (IEDs),
Fireseeker is an auto
nomous robot that can find

IEDs in urban environments. Unlike hand
-
held
explosives detectors, Fireseeker allows warfighters to maintain a safe standoff distan
ce from
potential IED locations and frees war
fighters to perform other tasks.


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US soldiers in Iraq are currently testing PackBots equipped with Noma
dics
Fido

explosives
sensors to

determin
e

their ability
to detect IEDs placed by insurgents. While teleoperated robots
provide
some
additional standoff
distance for warfighters,
Fireseeker takes this capability to the
next level, allowing soldiers to specify a particular area to be searched for explosives and
en
abling the robot to perform the

search autonomously.


Each Fireseeker UGV provides the followin
g benefits:




Can autonomously search for IEDs and VBIEDs in urban terrain



Frees warfighters for other tasks



Reduces manpower requirements



Increases standoff distance from suspected IEDs and VBIEDs



Man
-
p
ortable for quick, easy deployment



Battle
-
tested PackB
ot platform

(over 200 deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan)



Field
-
tested
Fido

explosives sensor



Established logistics and maintenanc
e support capabilities


Each Fireseeker UGV is capable
of performing a wide range
of IED search missions including:




Perimeter S
earch



Search a building perimeter for IEDs and/or VBIEDs and mark their location
s

on a map



5
-
and
-
25 Clearance



Deploy from a stopped vehicle carrying mounted troops and search a 5
-
meter radius
around the vehicle for IEDs and then a 25
-
meter radius


In each
case the Fireseeker UGV operates completely autonomously and relays its findings back
to its Operator Control Unit (OCU) in real
-
time.


Concept of Operations (CONOPS) Scenarios


Scenario 1: Perimeter Search

(
EOD Team
)


In the first scenario, an EOD team is

called to investigate possible explosives in a specified city
area. The EOD team deploys a squadron of Fireseekers and they spread out over the terrain and
autonomously perform perimeter recon around each block.
If any

r
obot

discovers a suspected
IED

us
ing its onboard
Fido

explosives sensor
, it transmits the
suspected location of the device

to
the troops on the scene, as well as any observers back at headquarters.


SRI’s coverage algorithm will let the operator specify the area where he wants the robots
to
search. He could also specify additional mission parameters like areas where he wants the robots
to focus the search (intersections, building entrances). The

operator then

simply selects how
many robots he wants to deploy. The coverage algorithm genera
tes a search pattern for all the
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robots, computes the ETA for the mission completion, and displays the progress of the search. If
an IED is detected, the robot will send the approximate position of the possible threat.


EOD technicians investigate the sus
pected IEDs, using a robot such as the PackBot EOD to
approach and examine the suspected devices.

The EOD team then destroys any devices that are
deemed to pose a threat.


Once the Fireseeker robots have completed reconnaissance of the entire area, they s
ignal the
operator that the
search is complete
.


Scenario 2
: 5
-
and
-
25 Clearance

(
Mounted Infantry
)


Warfighters in a HMMWV are patrolling an urban area known to be frequently targeted by
insurgents.

They are ordered to stop at a specified location and ren
dezvous with other troops.

According to the Joint IED Defeat Task Force’s 5
-
and
-
25 doctrine, they first search the area in a
5
-
meter radius around their vehicle for potential threats,
and
then search the area in a 25
-
meter
radius.


Instead of dismounting
their vehicle and exposing themselves to IED attack or enemy fire, the
warfighters deploy a Fireseeker robot from the Humvee. The robot then autonomously searches
the area
with
in a 5
-
meter radius
, using its
Fido

sensor to
detect any

explosives present
.

I
f the
5
-
meter zone is clear, the robot then autonomously sea
rches the area within 25
-
meters,
while the
soldiers remain protected inside the vehicle.


If any IEDs are found during

either phase of

this search, the robot sends an alert to the
warfighters. Th
e Humvee can then be relocated to a safe position, and an EOD team can be
dispatched to disarm the device.


Fireseeker UGV


PackBot Platform


We have selected the highly
-
robust, all
-
weather, all
-
terrain, man
-
portable iRobot PackBot as the
UGV platform for
Fireseeker. PackBot was developed under the DARPA Tactical Mobile
Robotics program (contract F04701
-
01
-
C
-
0018). PackBot is equipped with two main treads,
used for locomotion, and two articulated flippers with treads that are used to climb over
obstacles.

PackBot can travel at sustained speeds of up to 4.5 mph. On a full set of batteries,
PackBot can drive at 4.5 mph continuously for 8 hours, for a total range of 36

miles. Standing
still, PackBot can run its computer and sensor package for 36 hours.


Pa
ckBot is 27 inches long, 16 inches wide, and 7 inches tall, and weighs 40 pounds. All of a
PackBot’s electronics are enclosed in a compact, hardened enclosure. These electronics include
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a 700 MHz mobile Pentium III with 256 MB SDRAM, a 300 MB compact fla
sh memory storage
device, and a 2.4 GHz 802.11b radio Ethernet. Each PackBot can withstand a 400G impact,
equivalent to being dropped from a second story window onto concrete. Each PackBot is also
waterproof to 3 meters. Three modular payloads fit into
the rear payload bay. Each payload
connector provides power, Ethernet, and USB connections from the PackBot to the payload
module for a highly
-
flexible mission capability.


PackBot is a robust platform for all
-
weather, all
-
terrain mobility. PackBot is at

home in both
wilderness and urban environments, outdoors and indoors. In the wilderness, PackBot can drive
through fields and woods, over rocks, sand, and gravel, and through water and mud. In the city,
PackBot can drive on asphalt and concrete, climb o
ver curbs, and climb up and down stairs while
carrying a payload. PackBot can also climb up, down, and across surfaces that are inclined up to
60 degrees. In addition, PackBot can climb up and down inclines of up to 55 degrees, and across
inclines of 45
degrees, while carrying a 22.5 pound payload. Heavier payloads can be carried
over less steep terrain.


PackBot is equipped with a sensor head that includes a color camera and a low
-
light black
-
and
-
white camera. The sensor head provides real
-
time digital

video (320 x 240 color images at
30Hz) transmitted over the radio Ethernet to the Operator Control Unit (OCU). Alternative
cameras such as an Indigo Omega FLIR (forward
-
looking infrared) camera or a Sony FCB
-
EX780S zoom camera (25x optical zoom, 12x digi
tal zoom, 300x combined zoom) can also be
mounted in the sensor head.



Figure
1
: U.S. Army soldier uses a PackBot to explore a cave complex in Afghanistan

In Afghanistan
, s
oldiers from the Army’s 82
nd

Airborne Division have succe
ssfully used
PackBots to explore cave complexes and

suspected al Qaeda compounds.
Figure
1

shows a
soldier using a PackBot to explore a suspected al Qaeda cave near Qiqay, about 20 miles from
Khost in eastern Afghanistan.

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Figu
re
2
: PackBot pulls a wire from a roadside IED in Iraq

PackBots equipped with EOD manipulator arms are used on a daily basis to help US soldiers
inspect and disarm suspected IEDs in Iraq.
Figu
re
2

shows a teleoperated PackBot pulling a wire
from a roadside IED.


In addition, the 101
st

Airborne Division used a PackBot in the assault on Najaf. Army
warfighters used the PackBot to perform room
-
by
-
room searches of the Najaf Agricultural
Resear
ch Institute complex, which was suspected of housing Iraqi troops or Fedayeen guerillas.
Army soldiers have also used PackBots equipped with chemical/biological sensors to search
Iraqi mass grave sites for chemical and biological contaminants.


Fireseeker

Software Architecture


The Fireseeker software architecture will combine technologies developed at iRobot, SRI, and
the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The iRobot Aware software architecture is a lightweight,
high
-
performance architecture that allows ma
ny processes to share information for real
-
time
robot control. Aware supports both publish/subscribe and message queue communications
abstractions that are implemented via shared memory and UDP message passing. This allows
the seamless integration of cap
abilities running on multiple processors. The PackBot’s low
-
level
motion control and sensor driver software is implemented via Aware.


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Fireseeker IED
Search Behaviors
SRI Coverage
Planner
INL Intelligence
Kernel
Architecture
iRobot Aware
Architecture
PackBot
Low
-
Level Control
Software
Nomadics
FIDO Sensor
Wayfarer
Navigation
Sensors
SRI Player
Architecture
INL Graphical
User Interface
Other
JAUS
OCUs
Sentinel Multirobot
Control Interface
Fireseeker IED
Search Behaviors
SRI Coverage
Planner
INL Intelligence
Kernel
Architecture
iRobot Aware
Architecture
PackBot
Low
-
Level Control
Software
Nomadics
FIDO Sensor
Wayfarer
Navigation
Sensors
SRI Player
Architecture
INL Graphical
User Interface
Other
JAUS
OCUs
Sentinel Multirobot
Control Interface

Figure
3
: Fireseeker Software Architecture

Player is an open
-
source software architecture dev
eloped by SRI and used by many university
research laboratories. SRI has developed state
-
of
-
the
-
art planning algorithms that allow multiple
robots to cover a search area in the presence of dynamic obstacles.

The Intelligence Kernel is an
open
-
source
soft
ware architecture developed by INL
,

which is used by many government
research laboratories

and some universities.


We will implement two
translator modules

so that we can take advantage of all three
architectures.
The Aware/Player

translator module will e
nable communication between Aware
and Player
. This module will subscribe to Aware publications and periodically send the
corresponding messages to Player. Player can get updated information from the translator and
can send commands to the translator.


Fo
r example, consider a coverage behavior running in Player. This behavior will be able to send
desired positions and velocities to Player. The translator will read these commands and publish
them via Aware. The Aware reactive control behaviors will then

attempt to navigate to the
specified location.


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Conversely, consider a localization system running on Player that requires LIDAR and odometry
data. Aware’s sensor drivers will read the updates from the LIDAR and odometry and frequently
update these value
s in an Aware publication. The translator will read all publications and
transmit the corresponding data to Player, where it can be used by the localization system. The
localization system will then publish a corrected position estimate via Player and th
e translator
will publish the position to Aware, allowing all Aware processes to make use of this information.


A similar approach will be used with the Aware/Intelligence Kernel translator module


Wayfarer Autonomous Urban Navigation


Fireseeker combines
state
-
of
-
the
-
art explosives detectors with autonomous urban navigation
capabilities developed by the iRobot Wayfarer Project. Wayfarer was funded by the US Army
Tank
-
Automotive Research, Development,

and Engineering Center (TARDEC contract
DAAE07
-
03
-
C
-
L14
7)

to develop autonomous urban reconnaissance capabilities for the rugged,
man
-
portable, battle
-
proven, iRobot PackBot UGV.


The Wayfarer PackBot is capable of performing fully
-
autonomous perimeter reconnaissance and
route reconnaissance missions in urban
terrain, including GPS
-
denied areas

[Yamauchi

05]
.
Wayfarer is equipped with LIDAR and stereo vision sensors for obstacle avoidance in three
-
dimensional environments. Wayfarer is also equipped with behaviors that add robustness to
navigation in unstructu
red environments, including behaviors that automatically deploy flippers
to assist in climbing obstacles and behaviors that detect when the robot is stuck on an obstacle
and allow the robot to free itself without human intervention.



Figure
4
: Wayfarer UGV autonomously climbing rock using flippers

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Figure
5
: Wayfarer UGV performing
autonomous
perimeter recon in urban environment


Figure
6
: Map of urban terrain generated by Wayfar
er UGV

Figure
4

shows a Wayfarer UGV climbing over a large rock using its automatic flipper
deployment behavior.
Figure
5

shows a Wayfarer UGV performing autonomous perimeter
reconnaissance in urban terr
ain.
Figure
6

shows a map of an urban environment autonomously
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generated by a Wayfarer UGV during perimeter reconnaissance. The black areas in the map
correspond to open space; the white areas correspond to obstacles; and the gr
ay areas are
unknown territory.
The green line shows the path taken the robot. This path was determined
autonomously by the robot with no user
-
supplied path, waypoint, or terrain information
needed
.


This map was generated using LI
DAR for obstacle detect
ion.
GPS was
not

used

to generate this
map. Instead the UGV determined its position using a hybrid odometry/compass localization
system that provides robust position information in GPS
-
denied areas.

The blue lines are spaced
at 10 meter intervals, and t
he total area of the map is approximately
5000 square meters
.



Figure
7
: Ruggedized Wayfarer navigation payload

We have recently developed a ruggedized version of the Wayfarer navigation payload
(
Figure
7
)
that includes LIDAR, stereo vision, and INS/GPS capabilities within a weather
-
proof housing.
We plan to integrate the Nomadics Fido sensor with this rugged payload to provide Fireseeker
with a battlefield
-
ready operational capability.


Sentinel Multir
o
bot Command and Control Interface


Fireseeker allows the deployment and control of multiple autonomous UGVs with explosive
detectors to search for IEDs. Sentinel is funded by
TARDEC

(contract W56HZV
-
04
-
C
-
0684)

to
develop a system for the command and contr
ol of multiple semi
-
autonomous UGVs.


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Sentinel provides an intuitive command and control interface allowing a single human operator
to effectively control and coordinate multiple UGVs. The interface provides the operator with
situational awareness of th
e ongoing operations of the deployed UGVs using a layered approach.
The
layered approach allows the operator to command and control the robots from a system
-
level
down to low
-
level direct control of each individual UGV should it become necessary.




Figure
8
: Sentinel system
-
level command interface (left) and individual UGV control interface
(right)


The Sentinel system
-
level command interface, shown in
Figure
8
, allows the operator to:



Interactively
view a map the UGVs are operating in, including the ability to pan, zoom,
and view the current and past locations of all UGVs



Specify desired global goal points for each UGV



Gain a quick snapshot of individual UGV and system
-
level status


The Sentinel indi
vidual UGV control interface, shown in
Figure
8
, allows the operator to specify
a UGV and:



View detailed telemetry, including battery charge, brake status, and GPS position



Inspect transmitted video feeds and navigation sensor dat
a



Control the UGV through local waypoint designation or direct teleoperation


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Figure
9
: Sentinel Tablet PC
-
based user
interface.


Figure
10
: Two iRobot PackBots controlled
by the Sentinel command inter
face.



The Sentinel command interface has been executed on a small form
-
factor Tablet PC hardware
interface using a touch
-
screen interface, shown in
Figure
9
. With this design, the operator can be
mobile and actively interactin
g in the same environment as the deployed UGVs. The Sentinel
interface has been used in the control of multiple semi
-
autonomous iRobot PackBot UGVs,
pictured in
Figure
10
.


Nomadics
Fido

Explosives Sensor


The Fido Portable Explo
sives Detector is the most sensitive, handheld expl
osives detector on the
market

and
it weighs less than three pounds. Inspired by dogs, the gold standard in explosive
detection, Fido screens packages, shipping containers, vehicles, facilities and people
for traces of
explosives. Unlike current alternatives, the exquisite sensitivity of the Fido supports both
particle and vapor detection, enabling previously unheard of applications for explosive detection
technology.


Figure
11
:
Nomadics Fido Portable Explosives Detector

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Size and sensitivity set the Fido apart from the competition. In side
-
by
-
side field operations, the
performance of Fido is comparable to dogs, without the inconvenience of ever having an "off"
day. Fido can detect

explosive vapor at levels as low as a few femtograms. This means the sensor
is a thousand times more sensitive than any of its nearest competitors. This phenomenal
sensitivity is housed in a device weighing less than three pounds.


The Fido is suitable fo
r handheld, bench
-
top and robot mounted applications. It is designed for
ease of operation and provides the operator with real
-
time information. The device provides a
touch pad with clearly labeled keys and an LCD display. Powering up the Fido typically ta
kes
less than three minutes. Once in operation, sample results are displayed in real
-
time on the LCD
screen or through an optional audio signal.


Actual detection of explosive materials occurs in the sensing element which has a reversible
response allowing

it to be reused many times. After each target is analyzed, the Fido takes only
seconds to baseline before sensing the next target. Replacement of the sensing element and
battery is simple and requires no tools.


The Nomadics Fido Explosive Detector has ap
plications ranging from homeland security and
force protection to humanitarian demining. The world is a different place than it was even a few
years ago. Issues that had been given nominal importance then, have now become vital. The
importance of explosive
s detection units for baggage, mail and cargo must be met. Interdicting
the IED chain as well as building and personnel screening are serious challenges our military
forces must meet everyday. Fido meets these needs and goes further.



Figure
12
: Fido sensor integrated with PackBot EOD

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The Fido explosives sensor has been integrated with three PackBot EOD robots (
Figure
11
).
These robots have been deployed to Iraq where EOD teams are testing the robot’s ab
ility to
detect actual IEDs.

When integrated with a PackBot, the Fido sensor is powered directly from
the PackBot power system
, eliminating sensor battery life constraints.


SRI Coverage Planning


SRI's coverage planning algorithms are encapsulated in a s
patial reasoning system called Spare.
This system was developed during the SRI Centibots Project, under the DARPA Software for
Distributed Robotics (SD
R) program (Contract: NBCHC020073)
. Spare was successfully
demonstrated as part of the final Centibots
system, in which 100 robots were deployed to explore
and secure large unknown environments [Ortiz et al. 05].


The Spare system combines a map of the environment with a mission specification to determine
an allocation of spatial goals and particular beh
aviors to each robot. Each mission is complex
and exhibits a set of constraints. For example, in the perimeter search mission, robots must
exhaustively cover the area of interest while taking into account the limited range of their FIDO
sensor. Simultane
ously, they must maintain a radio contact (possibly through relays) to the
OCU. Certain areas may require more attention (and thus more time) than others, which should
also be taken into account during planning. For instance, building perimeters and veh
icles, as
well as operator
-
designated zones of interest, will likely require finer search granularity than
large open areas.


Spare optimizes the placement and behavior of the robots in order to maximize the overall multi
-
criterion utility, taking into acc
ount factors such as distances between robots, energy usage, line
-
of
-
sight maintenance, and zones of special interest. Because Spare can optimize across multiples
constraints, the commander is able to adjust the relative importance of each constraint when

specifying the mission.


Once the commander has defined the mission, solution generation proceeds in two phases. First,
Spare extracts an abstract discrete representation of the map
.
Second, it uses optimization
techniques to generate the best allocati
on of robots with respect to the abstract map and the
mission constraints. The allocation is then handed off to the robots for execution.


Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

Intelligence Kernel


The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed an Intelligen
ce Kernel

architecture

that has
been ported to a wide variety of mobile robots

[Pacis,

et

al.

04]
.
The Intelligence Kernel
includes capabilities for path planning and obstacle avoidance as well as a graphical user
interface that can be used to interact wi
th multiple robots.


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One application of this architecture has been in mine detection, and this system has been selected
by the US Army for the Autonomous Robotic Countermine System (ARCS) project.

In one set
of t
rials, a UGV and a UAV using the Intelligen
ce Kernel were able to cooperate in a mine
detection task, with the UAV identifying potential threats and the UGV moving in to examine
those threats. This system was able to locate the position of mines and display those positions on
an aerial map of the
terrain

(
Figure
13
)
.


During the Fireseeker Project we plan to integrate the Wayfarer urban navigation system with the
INL Intelligence Kernel and graphical user interface. This will allow multiple Fireseeker robots
to display th
e position of suspected IEDs on a single Operator Control Unit (OCU) interface
display, superimposed onto aerial or satellite imagery. The terrain images may be provided from
a pre
-
existing database or generated in real
-
time from UAVs.



Figure
13
: Aerial map of mine locations generated by UAV/UGV team

Integration of Wayfarer urban navigation capabilities with the INL Intelligence Kernel will also
allow greater interoperation with other robots using this architecture. These inclu
de
systems

developed by the Army Night Vision Laboratory

(NVL)
, the Navy
Space and Naval Warfar
e
Systems Command (
SPAWAR
)
, NASA’
s Johnson Space Center, and Carnegie Mellon
University

(CMU)
.

This architecture fully supports the Joint Architecture for Unman
ned
Systems (JAUS) and will allow Fireseeker to interoperate with JAUS
-
compatible robots and
OCUs.

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Research and Development Plan


Task 1: Wayfarer PackBot Platform

(iRobot)


For Task 1, iRobot will integrate two PackBot Scouts with ruggedized Wayfarer nav
igation
payloads. These robots will be used as the platforms for the research in this project.


Task 2
:
Fido

Sensor Integration (iRobot/Nomadics)


For Task 2
,

iRobot and Nomadics will integrate a Fido explosives sensor with a Wayfarer
PackBot. Previously
, iRobot and Nomadics integrated Fido sensors with PackBot EOD robots
.
These robots
have been dep
loyed to Iraq
, and US soldiers are currently testing the ability of this
system to detect IEDs in urban environments.


Task 3
: IED Detection Behaviors (iRobot
)


For Task 3, iRobot will develop low
-
level reactive behaviors that serve as the foundation for
effective IED
-
neutralization. These behaviors include
obst
acle avoidance
,

navigatin
g to a
particular location while avoidance obstacles, with or witho
ut GPS,
and navigating through an
urban environment using


Task 4: Coverage Planning Integration (iRo
bot/SRI
)


For Task 4, SRI will develop
a version of their coverage planning system for the urban IED
search task.
iRobot and SRI will implement a translator modu
le to communicate between Aware
and Player.


iRobot and SRI will then integrate the coverage planning system with the IED detection
behaviors developed in Task 3.

At the end of Task 4, we will have a fully
-
operational Fireseeker
prototype capable of searc
hing for IEDs in an urban environment.


Task 5
: Intelligence Kernel Integration (iRobot/INL)


For Task 5,
iRobot and INL will implement a translator module to communicate between Aware
and the Intelligence Kernel.


iRobot and INL will
then
integrate
the

In
telligence Kernel with the IED search behaviors and the
coverage planning system. At the end of Task 5, Fireseeker will be able to inte
grate additional
components from other research labs developed for

the Intelligence Kernel.

DOCUMENT NO.

REVISION

DESCRIPTION





PAGE

FIR
-
01

01

Fireseeker: Autonomous IED Search
PackBot

16

of

16



iRobot Proprietary


Task 6
: INL Graphical

User

Interface Integration (iRobot/INL
/SRI
)


For Task
6, iRobot,
INL
, and SRI

will integrate the graphical user interface (GUI) developed
with the Intelligence Kernel with the Fireseeker robot
s

and the coverage system
.

The

GUI

will
show the progress of the sea
rch along with the locations of all of t
he robots and any detected
IEDs
. A
ll

of this data will be

superimposed over an aerial map of the terrain.


At the end of Task 6, the Fireseeker robot
s

will be controllable via the Intelligence Kernel GUI.
In addit
ion,

Fireseeker will be fully JAUS
-
compliant (including experimental messages, as
necessary), and any JAUS OCU that supports the necessary messages will be able to control and
task

Fireseeker.


Estimated Schedule and Budget


ID
Task Name
1
Wayf arer Platf orm
2
IED Search Behaviors
3
Coverage Planning Integration
4
Intelligence Kernel Integration
5
IK GUI Integration
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Qtr 2, 2006
Qtr 3, 2006
Qtr 4, 2006
Qtr 1, 2007
Qtr 2, 2007
Qtr 3, 2007
Qtr 4, 2007
Qtr 1, 2008
Qtr 2, 2008
Qtr 3, 2008
Qtr 4, 2008

Figure
14
: Fireseeker Schedule

Fireseeker is a 12
-
month project

with a Rough

Order of Magnitude

(ROM)

cost of $3
M
.
Figure
14

shows the overall schedule for the Fireseeker Project.



References


[Pacis,

et

al.

04]
E. B. Pacis, H.R. E
verett, N.

Farrington, and D. J. Bruemmer,

“Enhancing
F
unctionality and
Autonomy in Man
-
P
ortable R
obots,”

SPIE Defense and Security
Symposium 2004
, April 2004
.

[Ortiz et al. 05] Charles L. Ortiz, Regis Vincent, Benoit Morisset, “Task Inference and
Distribu
ted Task Management in the Centibots Robotic System,”
Proceedings of the
Third International Conference on Autonomous Agent and Multi
-
Agent System
,

2005.

[Vaughan et al. 2003] Richard T. Vaughan, Brian P.
Gerkey, and Andrew Howard. “On Device
Abstractions
for Portable, Reusable Robot Code,”
Proceedings of the

IEEE International
Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, volume 3, pages 2421

2427, October
2003.

[Yamauchi

05] Brian Yamauchi, “Wayfarer: An Autonomous Navigation Payload for the
PackBot,”
Pr
oceedings of AUVSI Unmanned Vehicles North America 2005
, Baltimore,
MD, June 2005.