Unit 1: Overview of Linux: History,


9 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Unit 1: Overview of Linux: History,
Characteristics, and Installation


1: Describe the history and unique characteristics of the
Linux operating system.

1.1: Identify the events that led to the development of Linux.

1.2: Identify the characteristics of Linux that contribute to its

2: Create a dual
boot environment with Linux and
Microsoft Windows.

2.1: Identify and use the partition types on a computer.

2.3: Identify the features of the Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
subsystem in Linux.

2.4: Partition a drive correctly for a Windows/Linux dual boot.

2.5: Install and configure Linux into a dual
boot environment.

Licenses that govern Linux and
free and open
source software

There is a difference between free
software and open
source software. Both
use the same license

the GPL. However,
free software helps users focus on
freedom and ethics but open
software is related to the efficiencies
gained by the free
software approach to

What is Free Software?

Free software
” is a matter of liberty, not price. To
understand the concept, you should think of “free” as in
“free speech”, not as in “free beer”.

Free software is a matter of the users' freedom to run,
copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software.
More precisely, it refers to four kinds of freedom, for the
users of the software:

The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom

The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it
to your needs (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a
precondition for this.

The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your
neighbor (freedom 2).

The freedom to improve the program, and release your
improvements to the public, so that the whole community
benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a
precondition for this.

The Open Source Definition

Open source doesn't just mean access to
the source code. The distribution terms of
source software must comply with
the following criteria:


1. Free Redistribution

The license shall not restrict any party
from selling or giving away the software as
a component of an aggregate software
distribution containing programs from
several different sources. The license shall
not require a royalty or other fee for such

2. Source Code

The program must include source code, and must allow
distribution in source code as well as compiled form.
Where some form of a product is not distributed with
source code, there must be a well
publicized means of
obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable
reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the
Internet without charge. The source code must be the
preferred form in which a programmer would modify the
program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not
allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a
preprocessor or translator are not allowed.

3. Derived Works

The license must allow modifications and
derived works, and must allow them to be
distributed under the same terms as the
license of the original software.

4. Integrity of The Author's Source

The license may restrict source
code from
being distributed in modified form

the license allows the distribution of "patch
files" with the source code for the purpose
of modifying the program at build time.
The license must explicitly permit
distribution of software built from modified
source code. The license may require
derived works to carry a different name or
version number from the original software.

5. No Discrimination Against
Persons or Groups

The license must not discriminate against
any person or group of persons.

6. No Discrimination Against Fields
of Endeavor

The license must not restrict anyone from
making use of the program in a specific
field of endeavor. For example, it may not
restrict the program from being used in a
business, or from being used for genetic

7. Distribution of License

The rights attached to the program must
apply to all to whom the program is
redistributed without the need for
execution of an additional license by those

8. License Must Not Be Specific to
a Product

The rights attached to the program must
not depend on the program's being part of
a particular software distribution. If the
program is extracted from that distribution
and used or distributed within the terms of
the program's license, all parties to whom
the program is redistributed should have
the same rights as those that are granted
in conjunction with the original software

9. License Must Not Restrict Other

The license must not place restrictions on
other software that is distributed along with
the licensed software. For example, the
license must not insist that all other
programs distributed on the same medium
must be open
source software.

10. License Must Be Technology

No provision of the license may be
predicated on any individual technology or
style of interface.

What is GNU?

The name “GNU” is a recursive acronym

for “GNU's Not Unix”; it is pronounced

as one syllable with no vowel sound between the

and the

The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to
develop a complete Unix
like operating system
which is
free software
: the GNU system.

GNU's kernel isn't finished, so GNU is used with
the kernel Linux. The combination of GNU and
Linux is the
GNU/Linux operating system
, now
used by millions.



The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft
license for software and other kinds of works.

The licenses for most software and other practical works
are designed to take away your freedom to share and
change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share
and change all versions of a program
to make sure it
remains free software for all its users. We, the Free
Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public
License for most of our software; it applies also to any
other work released this way by its authors. You can
apply it to your programs, too.


Other types of licenses

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)

Microsoft End
User License Agreement

The background of Linux

Revolution “OS”



Insert CD. Reboot Machine. You'll be
presented with a very nice Fedora artwork
GRUB splash and some options.

Select the 'Skip' option when you'll be
asked if you want to check the media
before installation and press ENTER:

Anaconda (the Fedora installer) will load
and you'll see the welcome screen. Click

Choose your language:

Choose your keyboard layout:

Now, if you have an empty hard drive, all
you have to do is click Next (make sure
the "

partitions on selected
drives and create default layout
" option is

If you don't have an empty hard drive and
you still want to install Fedora 8 on your
machine, then make sure you select the
Use free space on the selected drives
and create default layout
" option (10 GB
minimum free space is required). Click

Disk Partitioning Swap

The default partitioning schema is
displayed. This screen allows you
to make changes to the schema.
The partitioning schema will
depend on the purpose of your
Linux system. In this configuration
we will create three partitions for
swap, /boot, and /. Swap is used
as virtual memory space for an
operating system. Swap should be
configured for 2 times the amount
of RAM or 2GB maximum.

Select the free space then click

Select swap as the File System

Set Size to 1024MB (or twice your
RAM size)

Click OK.

Disk Partitioning /boot and

Create the /boot partition. /boot
contains boot specific files and
usually needs about 100MB.

Select /boot as the mount point

Set the Size to 100MB.

Click OK

Create the / partition. The
remainder of the disk space will
use the / partition.

Select / as the mount point

Set the Size to the remainder of
space available (Fill to maximum

Click OK

Disk Partition Completion

When you complete your manual
configuration you should see the
three partitions you created.
Changes can be made as
necessary. Tab or point to

Next and select.

The primary and extended
partitions from the example

Boot Loader Configuration

The default boot loader is
GRUB. If you have more
than one boot partition you
can select which you want to
use as the default. In this
case the partition identified
as Other is your existing
Windows partition and the
Linux partition is identified
as Fedora Core. Ensure
Fedora Core is selected as
the default. You may also
select a boot loader
password and configure boot
loader options. Tab or point
to Next and select.

The boot loader is similar to a traffic
officer, pointing the Basic Input/Output
System (BIOS) to the operating system
that it must load.

People who are used to running only Windows
may not be familiar with the Windows boot
loader (ntldr). Until Windows Vista was
developed, ntldr was not designed to support
other operating systems. However, we will be
booting between Windows and Linux in this
course. We will use the GRand Unified
Bootloader (GRUB) to accomplish this because
the Windows XP/2003 boot loader cannot
accommodate other operating systems.

If you have a DHCP network (dynamic IP
address) you can click Next right now,

if you have a static IP address click the
"Edit" button

When you're done with the network
configuration, click Next and you will be
asked to select your location (country/city):

Once you've selected your timezone, click
next and you must enter the root (System
Administrator) password. The longer, the
better (

Now you can select the desired packages
(or not):

Hit the Next button and everything will be
done automatically from now on. The
installation process will take about 8
minutes (depending on your

specs and the selected packages).

When the installation is over, you will get a
"Congratulations, the installation is
complete" screen. Click the 'Finish' button
and your computer will automatically

Remove the DVD from your optical drive
and your brand new Fedora 8
operating system

will start for the first

Before you reach the Fedora desktop, you
must do a one
time general system

1. Accept the license (it's free, don't worry)
and click Forward.

2. Configure your firewall. By default, SSH
is checked but if you don't use it,

3. SELinux defaults to (Enforcing), change
it and click the 'Forward' button.

4. Make sure the date and time are
correctly setup.

5. Don’t’ submit your hardware profile to
the Fedora Project to help focus their
efforts on popular hardware and platforms.

6. Create a user account.

That's it! Now log in to your new Linux OS
(with the user and password you've just

and enjoy the ultimate, spectacular,
breathtaking Fedora 8 distribution.