Design Project Document4.30.12x - open+pario

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i


Table of
Contents

1

Problem Formation

................................
................................
................................
...............................

4

1.1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

4

1.2

Objectiv
e Statement

................................
................................
................................
.....................

4

1.3

Black Box Model

................................
................................
................................
............................

4

2

Problem Analysis and Literature Review

................................
................................
..............................

4

2.1

Introduction to the Problem Analysis

................................
................................
...........................

4

2.1.1

Considerations

................................
................................
................................
......................

5

2.1.2

Specifications

................................
................................
................................
........................

5

2.1.3

Criteria

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

5

2.1.4

Usage

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

1

2.1.5

Production Volume

................................
................................
................................
...............

1

2.2

Introduction to the Literature Review

................................
................................
..........................

1

2.3

Friends of the Dunes Identification

................................
................................
..............................

1

2.4

Mission Statement

................................
................................
................................
........................

1

2.5

Goals

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

1

2.6

Humboldt Coastal Nature Center

................................
................................
................................
.

1

2.6.1

Client Criteria

................................
................................
................................
........................

2

2.6.2

Aesthetics of Displays

................................
................................
................................
...........

2

2.6.3

Public Interaction

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................................
................................
..................

2

2.6.4

Durability and Mobility

................................
................................
................................
.........

2

2.6.5

Characteristics of an Exhibit

................................
................................
................................
..

2

2.6.6

Interactive Exhibits

................................
................................
................................
................

3

2.
6.7

Construction Materials

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................................
................................
.........

3

ii


2.6.8

Dune Ecology

................................
................................
................................
.........................

5

2.7

Carbon Dioxide

................................
................................
................................
..............................

9

2.8

Storm Water Treatment and Impacts of Runoff in Humboldt Bay

................................
...............

9

2.9

Impacts of Transportation on Climate Change

................................
................................
.............

9

2.10

Impacts of Climate Change on Dune Eco
systems

................................
................................
.........

9

3

Alternative Solutions

................................
................................
................................
.............................

9

3.1

Introduction to Alternative Solutions

................................
................................
...........................

9

3.2

Brainstorming

................................
................................
................................
................................

9

3.3

Alternative Solutions

................................
................................
................................
...................

10

3.3.1

Dune Contrast Exhibit

................................
................................
................................
.........

10

3.3.2

Rising Seas

................................
................................
................................
...........................

11

3.3.3

Pour
ing Pollutants

................................
................................
................................
...............

12

3.3.4

ITSI (Interactive Threatened Species Identification)

................................
...........................

13

3.3.5

Carbon Footprint Wheel

................................
................................
................................
.....

14

3.3.6

Invasive Species Exhibit

................................
................................
................................
.......

15

4

Decision Process
................................
................................
................................
................................
..

16

4.1 Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

16

4.2 Criteria
................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

16

4.3 Solutions

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

16

4.4

Decision Process
................................
................................
................................
..........................

17

5

Specif
ications

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

18

5.1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................

18

5.2

Solution Description

................................
................................
................................
....................

18

5.3

Support Post

................................
................................
................................
................................

19

5.4

Bicycle Wheel

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................................
................................
..............................

19

iii


5.5

Thermoplastic Synthetic Resin Disc

................................
................................
............................

19

5.6

Cost Analysis

................................
................................
................................
...............................

19

5.6.1

Desi
gn Costs

................................
................................
................................
........................

20

5.6.2

Materials Costs

................................
................................
................................
....................

20

5.6.3

Maintenance Costs
................................
................................
................................
..............

20

5.7

Instruction for Implementation and Use

................................
................................
....................

20

5.8

Results

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................................
................................
................................
.........

21

5


Appendix A
-

References

................................
................................
................................
.....................

21

4


1

Problem Formation

1.1

Introduction

In Phase
One
of the design process the Dune Heads formulated an objective
statement and a black box
model (Figure 1.1). The figure simplifies

th
e impact generated by completing

the project at the
Humboldt Coastal Nature Center.


1.2

Objective Statement

The objective of
this proje
ct is to design and i
mplement an interactive exhibit

which promotes public
awareness of
of the environmental impacts of var
ious transportation methods.

1.3

Black Box Model










Figure 1.1
The black box model showing the input as
the condition of the world prior to the design
process, the black box indicating the design process, and the condition of the world after completion of
the project.

2

Problem Analysis and
Literature Review

2.1

Introduction to the Problem Analysis

The Problem
Analysis details the considerations, specifications, and criteria of the project. Usage of the
model as well as the production volume will be outlined in this section.

Input

The Humboldt Coastal
Nature Center with
a
desire for informative
and interactive displays
which educate the public
on the environmental
impacts of their
transportation
choices
.


The Black Box

Output

The Humboldt Coastal
Nature
Center

educating the public on
the environmental
impacts of
transportation decisions
through informative
and interactive displays
along the Living Green
Trail.


5


2.1.1

Considerations

C
onsiderations

will influence the entirety of the design process
. The
main consideration is that the
interpretiv
e display will be utilized by a demographically varied population
. Another factor that must be
considered is the importance of maintaining
aesthetic continuity with the existing styl
istic qualities

of
the

Humboldt

Coastal Nature Center.

2.1.2

Specification
s

Specifications for this project are details that must be included in the design process. Th
e interpretive
display must be 5
-

8 feet in height and
2
-
3

feet in width. Also, the interpretive display must be durable
enou
gh to withstand deployment from early spring through fall or
, preferably, year
-
round.

2.1.3

Criteria

Criteria

o

Cost

o

Longevity

o

Aesthetics

o

Safety

o

Educational Value

o

Simplicity











Constraint

o

Less than or equal to $400

o

At least 6 months


o

Display is
Attractive and appealing
from a distance

o

Safe for all Age Groups

o

More than before the user interacted
with the display

o

Less than

separate, required
instructions
1


2.1.4

Usage

The interactive display is intended to be used throughout the summer months as
an outdoor learning
tool.
If the display is sufficiently durable
, it could be used year
-
round. Also, all ages will likely interact
with the display and engag
e

features of the display
which
must be simple enough to provide longevity of
the device as well

as simplicity of maintenance and repair.

2.1.5

Producti
o
n Volume

A prototype of the interactive display will be produced for presentation and demonstration purposes

2.2

Introduction

to

the Literature Review

2.3

Friends of the Dunes


Friends of the Dunes i
s a nonprofit organization focusing on rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems and
providing education
al

and recreational resource
s

to Humboldt County

(FOTD, 2012)
.

2.4

Mission Statement

“Friends of the Dunes is dedicated to conserving the natural diversity of co
astal environments through
community supported education and stewardship programs”
(FOTD, 2012)
.

2.5

Goals

o

Provide community education that fosters understanding and appreciation and inspires
conservation.

o

Build community
-
based restoration programs that serv
e to maintain and enhance the
natural diversity of coastal environments.

o

Conserve strategically located coastal properties through conservation easements and
land acquisition to ensure that land use is consistent with the ecological values of native
coast
al dune systems.

o

Develop an effective and efficient organization capable of conserving coastal
environments in perpetuity

(FOTD, 2012)
.

2.6

Humboldt Coastal Nature Center

In 2007, Friends of the Dunes purchased what was formerly known locally as the Stamps
House
,

along
with 38 acres of property. Since then, Friends of the Dunes has converted the Stamps House into the
Humboldt Coastal Nature Center and added
75

acres. The HCNC
serves
as

headquarters for Friends of
the Dunes as well as a gateway to over 1,000
acres of coastal dunes
(FOTD, 2012)
.

2


2.6.1

Characteristics
of an Exhibit

2.6.1.1

Introducti
on

To create a successful exhibit, there must be a broad focus (Research Design Connections
, 2012
).
Presenting the information in small segments is strategically done since it promotes immediate
apprehension for the visitor ("Interactive Exhibit"). The
exhibit must spark the visitor’s interest. This can
be done by using a large shape or signature object (Research Design Connections
, 2012
). Research
shows that a visitor will only engage in a challenge if they are comfortable and oriented (Research
Design
Connections
, 2012
). An example of this would be using familiar buttons such as joysticks to
control levers or buttons that are labeled to lessen confusion.

2.6.1.2

Age Appropriateness

When
designing

interactive exhibits, a key factor is having suitable structure

that is appropriate
for all ages.
The accessibility or lack thereof

can easily detour a person from interacting with an
exhibit. Having adjustable heights within the exhibit or an adjustable seat can attract people of
all ages and heights ("Interactive Ex
hibit"). Families are the main focus when it comes to visitors
and interacting with exhibits ("Interactive Exhibit"). These suggestions are used to
accommodate this targeted group.

2.6.1.3

Learning Experience

Both children and adults enjoy interactive
exhibits
("Interactive Exhibit"
)
.

L
earning and absorbing
from
an exhibit occurs subconsciously

since exhibits
provide

visitors

with educational

entertainment
("Interactive Exhibit"). A prime example of this is Launch Pad. Launch Pad is the interact
ive science
center in London’s Science Museum. The goal of Launch Pad is to provide a place where people of all
ages can discover that exploring and experimenting in technology can be a satisfying and worthwhile
experience ("Interactive Exhibit").

2.6.1.4

Engagem
ent

According to Guillermo Fernandez of the La Caixa Foundation Science Museum and Montserrat
Benlloch, of the Faculty of Education of the University of Vic,
v
isitor engagement works best when an
exhibit is designed to:

o

Convey a self
-
contained idea that

can be grasped without the help of external factors.

o

Have a high attraction capacity, a parameter designed as the percentage of visitors who stop
and look at an exhibit for five or more seconds or interact with it fully.

o

Have a good retention capacity, de
fined as the total time that a visitor spends interacting with
an exhibit.

o

Offer the best possible vantage point for the researcher/observer.

3


2.6.1.5

Tests and Expectations

Visitors have their own expectations when viewing an exhibit
. T
he purpose of the exhibit

sh
ould be
clear
, making the visitor aware of what the outcome should be (Research Design Connections). It is
important to realize that all people will not react the same way to an exhibit; plan for human nature
(Research Design Connections
, 2012
). If a visit
or is having trouble with
comprehendin
g how an exhibit
works
, other

visitors will

likely

do the same (Research Design Connections).
As a designer it is important
to be aware of

the focus of
an

exhibit. Having too many components interacting at once can
cause
sensory overload (Research Design Connections
, 2012
).

2.6.2

Interactive Exhibits

2.6.2.1

Purpose

The purpose of an Interactive exhibit is to encourage pe
ople to engage with ideas and

concepts (Hein,
1991).

2.6.2.2

Difficulties

Difficulties
in
designing
i
nteractive exh
ibit
s arise

in part because people have various
learning styles

(Allen, 2004). Furthermore, enhancing an exhibit to indicate each object’s role in a multi
-
step process
challenges designers (Riehle, 2
000).

The
goal

is to design an
i
nteractive exhibit that both simplifies an
otherwise complex process

and caters to the users various learning styles.

2.6.2.3

Constructivism Learning Theory

The term constructivism as it relates to learning theory and epistemology can be defined as
-

A learner’s
ability to construct knowledge
independently,

both individually and socially
,

as they learn (Hein, 1991).

2.6.2.4

Educative Experience

Not all experiences can

be considered educative. According to John Dewey, an experience is educative
only if a cognitive connection is made between the inputs applied and the outcomes or consequences
associated with them; the significance of the experience is in the awareness th
at relationships and
continuities among actions exist (Soltis, n.d.).

2.6.3

Construction Materials

2.6.3.1

Driftwood

The benefits of utilizing driftwood as a construction material include abundance, renewability,
uniqueness, durability and low cost (Douglas, 2003).

4




(Figure 1)

A driftwood structure.

catskillwoodnet.org

2.6.3.2


Plexiglas

Plexiglas

is a transparent thermoplastic often used as a lightweight or shatter resistant alternative
to glass

(Cavette
)
.


5



(Figure 2)

A Plexiglas
structure http
://www.blox.fr/23
-
146
-
large/table
-
basse
-
plexiglas.jpg


2.6.4

Dune Ecology

2.6.4.1


Introduction

Sand dunes are unique habitats that
support

a wide variety of plants and animals that have adapted to
the harsh conditions. Plants in the area are constantly growing to keep
up with the sand that is blown
around on top of them, making unwanted growth difficult to get rid of. Most

local

dunes have grown
with a species of plant named
Ammophila arenaria
,

which spreads fast
er

and larger than other beach
grass species. This plant d
igs its large roots in the sand and creates a more stable piece of land for dune
creatures.

All of the plants and animals listed in this section contribute to the ecological diversity of the
dunes and are all equally important.



6


2.6.4.2

Humboldt Dune Plants

Dense

Forest Plants



Sitka Spruce, Beach Pine, Douglas Fir, Bracken Fern, Salal, California
Polypedy, Poison Oak, Bearberry, Black Huckleberry, Twinberry
, Pink Flowering Currant, Silk
Tassel,
Rattlesnake Orchid.

Dune Mat Plants



Native Dune Grass, Yarrow, Sil
ve
ry Phacelia, Beach Strawberry,
Humboldt Bay
Wallflower, Coastal Sagewort, Beach Layi
a, Dune Goldenrod, Yellow Sand
Verbena, Beach Evening
Primrose, Dune Tansy, Beach Bur
, Creamcups, Sea Rocket, Beach
Buckwheat, Purple Owl Clover, Beach
Pea, Seaside D
a
isy, Pink Sand Verbena, Beach
Morning Glory.

Dune Hollow Plants



Wax Myrte, Dune Sedge, Hooker Willow, Dune Rush, Spanish Lotus,

Pacific
Silverweed, Hooded Ladies Tresses.

Invasive Species



Yellow Bush Lupine, English Ivy, Rattlesnake Grass, European B
each

Grass,
Hottentot Fig (
Ice plant
).

(All info from FOTD Brochure)

2.6.4.3

Animals

Birds



Marbled Godwit, Western Sandpiper, Long
-
Billed Curlew, Sanderling, Willet, Snowy

Plover,
Common Raven, Brown Pelican, Ruby
-
crowned Kingle
t, Western Gull, Black Phoebe,
Chestnut
-
backed
Chickadee, Anna’s Hummingbird, White
-
tailed Kite, Osprey, Red
-
tailed Hawk,
Northern Harrier.

Reptiles and Amphibians



Northern Alligator Lizard, Ensatina Salamander, California Slender
Salamander, Rough
-
skin
ned Newt, Western Terrestrial Garter Snake, Red
-
legged Frog, Pacific Treefrog,
Western Toad.

Mammals



Opossum, Big Brown Bat, Little Brown Bat, California Vole, Black
-
tailed Jackrabbit, Deer
Mouse, Trowbridge Shrew, Pocket Gopher, Striped Skunk, Long
-
tai
led Weasel, Gray Fox, Raccoon.

Beach Wash
-
ups



Eelgrass, Sea Palm, Bull Kelp, Comb Jelly Sea Gooseberry, By
-
the
-
wind
-
sailor,
Moon Jellyfish, Littleneck Cockle, Basket Cockle, Pacific Razor Clam, Gaper Clam, Dungeness Crab, Beach
H
opper, Sand Dollar (Skele
ton).
(All info from FOTD Brochure)

2.6.4.4

Humboldt Dune Ecology

Most of the Humboldt dunes consisted of the species of beach grass
Leymus mollis
, another species also
existed at the same time named
Leymus triticoides
.
Eventually

through cross pollination,

a new species,
Leymus × vancouverensis
, was
formed

(Pickart, A). This grass dominated the shores and showed no
problems until the European Beach grass was introduced in 1901 to stabilize the shifting sands (FOTD).
7


Unfortunately this grass spread uncontrol
lably

and is now harming the delicately balanced

ecosystem of
the dunes.

The coastal
dune in a Mediterranean climate such as Humboldt is

a harsh environment for plants to
grow under.

Dune ecosystems are finely balanced and the slightest problem could upse
t it.

They are
subject to many weather conditions that most plants would falter under, such as summer droughts, high
winds, a shifting foundation, porous soil, and sal
t spray from the sea (Pickart, 2008
). These plants
resilience is why the European Beach

grass is causing so many problems in the area.

European Beach Grass

has many different mechanisms for outliving and outperforming the other plants
in harsh conditions. A higher nitrogen
allocation allows it to absorb more nutrients other species
. During
drought times the plant rolls its leaves up, conserving energy and putting it into the reproductive cycle

to ensur
e the continued survival of the species
. The plant also has a better vertical growth, leading it to
stay easily above the lin
e of sand allocat
ion (Pickart, 2008
). The main reason this plant is important to
focus on is because it is
over competing for available nutrients in the soil, leading other plants in the
area struggling to survive. This struggle is creating a loss of diversity in the area
,

species of plants and
animals are becoming endangered because of the European Beach grass and efforts are being put in
place to conserve these species.

2.6.4.5

Endangered

Plants

The plants in this section will all play a role in our interactive exhibit. The most
important endangered
plants will be featured in the exhibit, with secondary plants making an informational list. The two plants
that have the most history in the area and need the most attention will be featured.


The Humboldt Wallflower

(
Erysimum menziesi
i eurekensii
)


A subspecies of the Menzies

wallflower and is unique to the Humboldt
Bay

(FOTD).


Beach Layia
(
Layia carnosa
)
-

Added

to the list of endangered species in 1988, this is one of

the
main plants that will be preserved when European beach gra
s
s population is lowered

(FOTD).


Other Endangered plants in the area (FOTD)



o

Pink sand
-
verbena (
Abronia umbellata spp. brevifolia
)

o

Humboldt Bay owl’s
-
clover (
Castilleja ambigua spp.humboldtiensis
)

o

Point Reyes bird’s
-
beak (
Cordylanthus maritimus spp. pa
lustris
)

o

Dark
-
eyed Gilia (
Gilia millefoliata
)

o

American glehnia (
Glehnia littoralis ssp. leiocarpa
)

o

Western Sand spurrey (
Spergularia Canadensis spp. occidentalis
)

8


o

Sea
-
Watch (
Angelica lucida
)

2.6.4.6

Endangered Animals


Western Snowy Plover



A species of bird tha
t nest
s

on the shores from March to

September,

involving
various

reasons for their decline such as
predat
ion
,
human
encounters

including

dogs, and the
loss of a breeding habitat are contributing to their dwindling numbers

(FOTD).

2.6.4.7

Invasive Species


European beach grass

(Ammophila arenaria)


This beach grass has many mechanisms for

continuing its survival.

First planted in 1901 to help stabilize the

land for
railroads, this species

has deep roots and is incredibly difficult to eradicate for
numero
us
reasons (FOTD).


Iceplant

(Carpobrotus chilensis and Carpobrotus edulis)
-

A succulent native to South Africa,

the
ice plant was believed to be introduced in the 1500’s for ship ballasts (FOTD). The
spread

has
gone too far and an unnatural amount of
the ice plant now spreads over the
dune area,

crowding out the native plants and stabilizing the land.

Yellow Bush Lupine

(Lupinus arboreus)


Native to California
, not Humboldt county
however.
Larger than other species
, it absorbs many of the necessar
y nutrients that other
plants need to survive

(
FOTD).

2.6.4.7.1

Invasive Species Impact and Removal

o

European beach grass

(Ammophila arenaria)

B
each

grass prevents sand from
movi
ng around the dune, causing an
unnatural stabilization and disrupts the natural
flow of
material through the dune ecosystem
. The re
moval is very difficult

because roots

of this plant are buried deep in the dune system and are

very

int
ertwined. The removal
usually consists of digging out the root and cutting it. Eventually
,

after 4
-
8 treatment
s
,

the root
will starve of nutrients and die (FOTD).


o

Ice plant

(Carpobrotus chilensis and Carpobrotus edulis)


Ice

plant is a
succulent;

it
retains

water
and can even continue to grow when uprooted. The plant is removed by
rolling up the
plant like
a
carpet and cutting the root underneath. After this happens
,

they need to be
placed

somewhere to

dry out and die
.

I
f they are anywhere near
soil
,

the

plant will reach
out and re
-
root

itself
and
continue
to grow

(FOTD).

o

Yellow Bush Lupine

(Lupinus arboreus
)


The plants are so la
rge that they create
their own
microclimates, allowing weedy plants to grow and spread around the dunes.
They are usually
uprooted as a whole and burned. Precaution is needed when cle
aning
9


as the plants have large
seed banks and wil
l sprout up where a removal has recently
happened (FOTD).

2.7

C
arbon Dioxide

Carbon
Dioxide
is

emitted naturally through the carbon cycle and through human
activitieslike the burning of fossil fuels

("Climate change
-

greenhosue gas emissions")
.

For more information on how Carbon Dioxide impacts the environment, follow the link
below:

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/co2.html

2.8

Storm Water

Treatment and Impacts of Runoff in Humboldt Bay

http://northcoaststormwater.org/projects.html

2.9

Impact
s of Transportation on Climate Change

http://www.cicero.uio.no/fulltext/index_e.aspx?id=3032

2.10

Impacts of Climate Change on Dune Ecosystems

PDF I downloaded

3

Alternative Solutions

3.1

Introduction to Alternative Solutions

Alternative solutions were developed t
hrough several brainstorming sessions involving input from all
group members. Developing several alternatives for the implementation of an interactive display at
Humboldt Coastal Nature Center provides the opportunity for analysis of group ideas and allows

for
combination and application of various ideas into the design of the project. In this section, the
brainstorming process will be detailed, as will the six alternative solutions developed by the group.

3.2

Brainstorming

Brainstorming sessions were held thr
oughout the various phases of the design process. Most intensive
brainstorming was performed prior to the development of the literature review as well as prior to the
development of alternative solutions. These brainstorming sessions occurred approximately

twice each
week and did not exceed one hour in length to maximize input of group members. The brainstorming
session held in the early stages of developing alternative solutions was the most strenuous session,
aiming at the development of feasible design o
ptions that could be incorporated at HCNC. Refer to
Appendix C for complete brainstorming notes.

10


3.3

Alternative Solutions

Below is a list of six alternative solutions developed by the group that are considered to be the most
beneficial to the goals of HCNC.

o

Dune Contrast Exhibit

o

Rising Seas

o

Pouring Pollutants

o

Carbon Footprint Wheel


o

ITSI ( Interactive Threatened Species Identification)

o

Invasive Species

3.3.1

Dune Contrast Exhibit

The Dune Contrast Exhibit visually represents the effects of removal of invasive
species from the dune
ecosystem. The Dune Contrast Exhibit is an enclosed, three dimensional model of the dunes which is
divided into halves, one half showing an existing dune without removal of invasive species, and the
other showing how native plants of
the dunes recover and flourish following removal of invasive species.
Additional information is included with the Dune Contrast Exhibit, identifying invasive species such as
beach grass and annual grasses, as well as identifying native plants that play cr
itical roles in a healthy
dune ecosystem.

The materials used in the Dune Contrast Exhibit include clay used to replicate dune vegetation, sand,
driftwood to add aesthetic appeal to the framework of the exhibit, two by fours to construct the basic
framework

of the exhibit, plywood as the base for informative displays, and Plexiglas used to enclose
the model and protect it from the elements. The cost of the materials is roughly 200 US dollars, mainly
in Plexiglas and fastening implements such as nails, screws
, and metal brackets.

The Dune Contrast Exhibit satisfies all of the client criteria identified in the previous section. The use of
naturally occurring materials such as sand and driftwood reduces costs as well as maintains aesthetic
continuity at HCNC. E
nclosing the model in Plexiglas extends longevity of the model and provides safety
to children who may be otherwise tempted to physically touch the mechanical components of the
model. The visual representation of the dunes provides educational value to use
rs young and old.





11










Figure 3.1: The Dune Contrast Exhibit
utilizes a large scale three dimensional model of the dunes to
provide a visual comparison to dunes which have received ecological restoration efforts and those which
have not. Within the

display are informative diagrams which the user can activate by pushing buttons on
the front of the display.

3.3.2

Rising Seas

Rising Seas is a three dimensional model of the Humboldt Bay. Upon
the flip of a switch by


the user, a
recirculating wat
er pump is initiated and slowly pumps water into the model of the bay, causing the sea
level to rise until it eventually floods the lower levels of the model. This action is intended to represent
the effects of climate change on sea levels along the coastl
ine. Informational displays are also
strategically placed on the model including identification of factors that contribute to climate change,
and the influence of climate change on the coastal dune ecosystem.

This is one of the more costly alternative solu
tions because

the
plumbing system includ
es

a recirculating
pump, filter, water storage tank, and backflow prevention valve. All electrical components of the Rising
Seas will be powered by on site solar applications and all wiring w
ill be protected from the elements.
Other materials used in the construction of the exhibit are very similar to the Dune Contrast Exhibit,
except for the fact that materials used to construct vegetation and buildings within the model must be
water resistan
t to ensure longevity of the model.

Rising Seas meets all client criteria. Safety and simplicity are taken into account in the design of the
exhibit by enclosing mechanical plumbing components from direct access by the user, and the scale of
the pump and

other plumbing components are designed to operate at less than 5 PSI, prolonging the
lifespan of the exhibit as well as requiring minimal maintenance.



12













Figure 3.2 Rising Seas
is a visual model representation of climate change related impacts
on sea level
change and how that directly affects coastal ecosystems. Rising Seas utilizes an enclosed model of
Humboldt Bay, including natural landscapes as well as developed areas, in which the user can activate a
pump which slowly adds water to the mode
l, causing the sea level to increase and eventually overtake
the model landscape. Additional informative components detailing potential causes of climate change
relative to the Humboldt Coastline are also components of the display.

3.3.3

Pouring Pollutants

The P
ouring Pollutants exhibit incorporates an enclosed model of Humboldt Bay highlighting the
effluent sources of storm water conveyance systems terminating in Humboldt Bay. The Pouring
Pollutants exhibit shows

untreated storm water

fro
m city streets
draining

into Humboldt Bay and
demonstrates the contaminants
using dyes. As a comparison, a storm water treatment system is
replicated showing the benefits of treating storm water prior to termination into Humbo
ldt Bay. The
Pouring Pollutants exhibit also includes informative displays surrounding the enclosed model which
cover topics such as storm water treatment systems, contaminants of particular concern to Humboldt
Bay, sources of these contaminants, and ways
in which these contaminants are controlled and removed
from Humboldt Bay.

The materials required to construct the Pouring Pollutants are very similar to the previous alternatives.
The enclosed model requires Plexiglas, the necessary wood to construct the
basic frame, and a simple
recirculating plumbing system to control the simulated storm water runoff.

13


The Pouring Pollutants exhibit meets all of the client criteria. The plumbing system is designed to require
the minimum level of maintenance and starting the simulation will be as simple as the push of a button.












Figure 3.3 Pouring Pollutants
is an exhibit that demonstrates how contaminants can enter natural
bodies of water through municipal storm water conveyance systems. Pouring Pollutants includes two
hypothetical storm water conveyance systems, one of which is treated prior to termination i
nto
Humboldt Bay, and the other demonstrates a storm water conveyance system which includes no
treatment prior to termination into Humboldt Bay.

3.3.4

ITSI (Interactive Threatened Species Identification)


Interactive Threatened Species Identification (ITSI) high
lights the effects of European Beach Grass, (an
invasive plant species) encroachment on the natural habitat of the Western Snowy Plover, whose
coastal population was listed in 1993 as “threatened” under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. ITSI
encourages
the user to identify the various links in the relationship of the Western Snowy Plover and
European Beach Grass

using a computer generated model to show the influence of Eauropean
Beachgrass on the Western Snowy plover population.

The user activates ITSI

by releasing the invasion of European Beach Grass into the habitat of the
Western Snowy Plover. As the European Beach Grass invasion spreads along the sand dune it reveals the
various predators concealed within it. The spread of the invasive species conti
nues encompassing
increasing amounts of the Western Snowy Plover habitat as well as creating increased vegetation and
greater populations of various predators.

14










Figure 3.4: ITSI
is an interactive exhibit designed to help the user identify the impa
cts European Beach
Grass has on the Western Snowy Plover and its habitat.


3.3.5

Carbon Footprint Wheel

The

Carbon Footprint Wheel

is an exhibit which informs the user on the various amounts of carbon
dioxide is emitted into the environment based on the mode of transportation which is used to travel ten
miles.
. The
information that will be presented on this exhibit will include the statistics of carbon dioxide
emitted daily from a vehicles exhaust and how it affects the atmosphere. It will also include how taking a
bus or riding a bike or walking to places can help r
educe from harming the climate. The goal of this
exhibit is to make a visitor reflect on the way they arrived at the HCNC

m
aking the visitor aware of
their
impact on

the environment and
educating them on ways
in which they can reduce

that

impact
.

The materials that will be used in this exhibit will include a
driftwood post, a recycled bicycle rim and
tire
, and four

thermoplastic s
y
nthetic
r
esin
d
is
k which will seal an informatio
nal display between the
disks.

The
Carbon Footprint Wheel

encourages
visitors of HCNC to consider the
environmental impacts of their
transportation decisions.

This exhibit
meets the demand for transportation information to be displayed
at HCNC.







15







Figure 3.5:
Carbon Footprint Wheel

3.3.6

Invasive Species

Exhibit

The Invasive Species Exhibit
will provide visitors to HCNC a guide to invasive weeds commonly found on
the dunes as well as educate them

on the eradication process of each species.
. The invasive species will
be replicated by using clay and showing
their

impacts
on
the environment
namely, disturbing


native
plant

communities
. The information included in this exhib
it will be an overview of all of the
invasive species and how they affect the natural diversity of the sand dunes.
The
m
aterials that will be
used to create this ex
hibit will include

coastal driftwood
,
which will be
used
as

the foundation of the
exhibit
.
. The next piece of material that will be used is natural plants and grass from the invasive species
that will be
planted

along the edges of the exhibit
. Plywood will be used to set up the display
for the
information. The information will be put onto a large poster and laminated for appeal. To protect the
information the display holds, there will be Plexiglas placed on the plywood.

The Invasive Species Exhibit will work well with the HCNC since re
moving

invasive plants

is a high
priority of
FOTD
. The goal of the exhibit would be to inform the visitors of the HCNC why it is important
to remove the invasive species of plants from the sand dunes. Also, an alternati
ve goal would include
advocat
ing

for
remov
al

of invasive

plants
In an attempt to raise volunteer participation.










16




Figure 3.6: Invasive Species Exhibit


4


Decision

Process


4.1 Introduction

The decision process is developed by analyzing and selecting a solution for FOTD. Using the weighted
criteria, constraints, specifications and considerations, Duneheads
evaluated
several alternate solutions.
Using a decision matrix (Delphi Method), numeric
al weights are assigned to each criterion then totaled.
The solution(s)

determined using this process was

then presented to the client for further review and
feedback.

4.2 Criteria

The various criteria and a description of each are presented below. The des
cription of each criterion is
detailed only as it applies to this design project.

o

Cost
-

The cost of all materials used to construct the exhibit should not exceed $400.00.

o

Longevity
-

The exhibit shall remain in proper working order for a minimum of four
months (June
-
Sept.).

o

Ae
sthetics
-

The exhibit shall have a visual appeal

to visitors of HCNC and follow the
color

scheme of the existing structure and dune landscape.

o

Safety
-

The exh
ibit shall be safe for all users under normal conditions and labeled with
all appropriate warnings.

o

Educational Value
-

The exhibit shall attempt to give the user a better understanding of
the values held by FOTD.

o

Simplicity
-

The ex
hibit shall convey

in
formation in clear and concise manner.


o

Site Appropriate
-

The exhibit shall only convey information relevant to FOTD.

o

Durability
-

The exhibit shall maintain structural integrity under normal use.

4.3 Solutions

Listed below are the alternate solutions
from Section III
:



Dune Contrast



Rising Seas



Pouring Pollutants

17




ITSI

(Interactive Threatened Species Identification)



Alternate Transportation



Invasive Species

Detailed descriptions and diagrams for each alternate solution can be found in Section III
.


4.4

Decis
ion Process

The decision process is developed using a decision matrix. Duneheads used the Delphi Method to
i
ndividually quantify the

alternate solutions as each relates t
o the weighted criteria

shown in Table 4
-
1.
The corresponding values are then totaled,

resulting in a numerical value of each alternate solution
shown in Table 4
-
2.






Table 4
-
1: Weighted Criteria

Criteria

List

Weight

Cost

6

Longevity

8

Aesthetics

8

Safety

10

Educational Value

9

Simplicity

7

Site Appropriate

9

Durability

9





Criteria List

Weight

Solutions

Dune
Contrast

Rising
Seas

Pouring
Pollutants

ITSI

Alt.
Transportation

Invasive
Species

18


Cost

6

7



8



9



6



10



6





42



48



54



36



60



36

Longetivity

8

6



5



4



8



9



10





48



40



32



64



72



80

Aesthetics

8

7



8



8



6



8



9





56



64



64



48



64



72

Safety

10

9



7



4



9



7



10





90



70



40



90



70



100

Educational
Value

9

5



8



8



6



8



7





45



72



72



54



72



63

Simplicity

7

7



6



4



9



8



9





49



42



28



63



56



63

Site
Appropriate

9

9



9



9



9



10



10





81



81



81



81



90



90

Durability

9

6



5



4



8



9



10





54



45



36



72



81



90

Total



465



462



407



508



565



594


Table 4
-
2 Decision Values


5

Specifications

5.1

Introduction

The purpose of section V

is to
describe

the final design that was chosen during the process
performed

in section IV. Within this section are
(
x amount of
)

figures
including

detailed descriptions
.
T
his section
will also include

a table of costs which gives a list of all the materials that were bought.
Also included
in this section is an estimated total time of annual maintenance. Lastly, included in this section is an
easy to follow tutorial to encourage designs
related to this.

5.2

Solution Description

The

Carbon

Footprint Wheel is an exhibit designed by the
DuneHeads for
Humboldt Coastal Nature
Center. The purpose of this exhibit is to portray the different modes of transportation along with their
associated carbon footprint. A wheel is spun and is stopped at the corresponding mode of
transportation that was used to get to

the HCNC. The information about the mode of transportation is
displayed on two Thermoplastic Synthetic Resin Discs (TSRD.) The Carbon Footprint Wheels main
components as seen in figure 5
-
1 consists of a bike wheel, two clear circular TSRD, and driftwood
to
mount the bike wheel.
(
An AutoCAD drawing is available in appendix E for viewing.
)

19



Figure 5.2
-
1 The Footprint Wheel (front view)

5.3

Support Post

The support post is constructed of driftwood and thus has unique contours and shape
s
. In general
terms it mea
sures five feet in length and four inches in diameter. The post is set upright to support the
interactive exhibit.


5.4


Bicycle Wheel

The outer rim and hub of the bicycle wheel are constructed of aluminum. The axle and spokes are
constructed of steel. The bic
ycle wheel measures 24 inches in diameter.
Eighteen

of the 36 spokes
were removed to enable flush mounting of the thermoplastic synthetic resin disc to the hub. The axle
is utilized to mount the bicycle wheel to the support post.

5.5

Thermoplastic Synthet
ic Resin Disc

The Thermoplastic Synthetic Resin Disc (TSRD) measures 23.5 inches in diameter and 3/8 inch thick. A
two inch diameter hole was removed from the center to enable flush mounting to the hub and outer
rim of the bicycle wheel. The TSRD is divide
d into six equal angular sectors formed by angles of 60°.
Each angular sector is dedicated to a different mode of transportation and its corresponding carbon
footprint.

5.6

Cost Analysis

The cost analysis
is split into thr
ee categories
. The first, design costs,
analyzes

the amount of time
member
s

of the design team spent on each of the five sections of the design process. The second
section, the materials costs, is the cost of the materials used to construct the Carbon Footprint Wheel.
The final section of the cost analysis is the estimated costs
of maintaining the Carbon Footprint
Wheel.

20


5.6.1

Design Costs

The Design Costs of the Carbon Footprint Wheel was calculated by adding the total time spent by each
member of the design team on each individual section. Once the sum of hours spent on the design of

the project was calculated, the team used a pie chart to display the percentage of total team time
spent on each individual section of the design process. This pie chart is included in
Figure

5.4.

Figure

5.4 Pie Chart displaying total hours spe
nt on each section of the design process
)

5.6.2

Materials Costs

The cost of materials used to construct the Carbon Footprint Wheel was about $275. The majority of
the materials cost was in the printing of TSRD displays. The hardware used to assemble the Carbon
F
ootprint Wheel was minimal and the wood used for the supporting post was driftwood that was
gathered from Clam Beach.
Figure

5.5 displays an itemized table showing the retail cost of each item,
the actual cost to the design team, as well as the quant
ity of each item used.

(
Figure

5.5 Itemized Material Costs
)

5.6.3

Maintenance Costs

The cost of maintaining the Carbon Footprint Wheel is minimal. The Carbon Footprint Wheel will
require greasing of the component on which the bike wheel rotates about twice per year. The outer
surfaces of the TSRD prints may require periodic cleaning to en
sure adequate visibility for the user of
the information presented on the display.
Figure

5.6 shows the method of maintenance and the yearly
cost of performing such maintenance as required.


(
Figure

5.6 Annual Maintenance Costs
)

5.7

Instruction fo
r Implementation and Use

Implementation of the Carbon Footprint Wheel should begin with research of the carbon footprint for
the various modes of transportation which will be displayed by the Carbon Footprint Wheel. Once this
research has concluded, print
ing a desired form of the display should be initiated early in the process
because it will need to be complete before the wheel can be assembled.

Begin assembly by drilling a hole 1/4'” in diameter in the post approximately 5 feet above the ground
level o
f the mounting post. Insert a 6” section of all
-
thread through the hole and fasten this in place
using a nut, washer, and lock washer to prevent the all
-
thread from rotating. Next, slide the hub of
the bike wheel with the carbon footprint display onto the
all
-
thread and secure it in place leaving one
inch of space between the bike wheel and the mounting post. When this is secured, it should be able
to spin freely. Next, slide the front display into position and fasten it in place. The front display should
b
e oriented vertically and should not be allowed to rotate.

21


Once the components are in place, test the wheel to make sure that the desired carbon footprints
align accurately to the viewing window.

Use of the model is intended to be simple for any user who is tall enough to reach the bike wheel.
Simply grab the wheel, and align it so that the carbon footprint of the relevant mode of transportation
appears in the viewing window. The user can then comp
are that footprint to the carbon footprint of
other possible modes of transportation they could use to get to the Humboldt Coastal Nature Center.

5.8

Results

During

the
testing
of
the Carbon Footprint Wheel model,
users become more awa
re of the
environmental impact of the modes of transportation they used to reach the

Humboldt Coastal Nature Center.









5


Appendix A
-

References



"Research Design Connections." Research Design Connections. Research Design Connections,
2004. Web. 2
1 Feb 2012. <http://www.researchdesignconnections.com/pub/2004
-
issue
-
4/museum
-
exhibit
-
design
-
successful
-
examples
-
informal
-
learning>.

"The Interactive Exhibit." The Interactive Exhibit. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb 2012.
<
http://www.yourhandcraftedgarden.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/The_Interactive_Exhibit
.70164232.pdf>.

Douglas, D. (2003). Driftwood Furniture: Practical Projects for Your Home and Garden, Firefly
Books, Toronto, Ontario.

22


FernaÂndez, Guillermo, and Monts
errat Benlloch. "Interactive Exhibits: how visitors respond."
Interactive Exhibits: how visitors respond. Museum International, 04/02/2003. Web. 21 Feb
2012. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468
-
0033.00287/pdf>.

Friends of the Dunes, (2012) “Du
ne Ecology”
<http://www.friendsofthedunes.org/nature/geology
-
ecology.shtml> (Feb. 16, 2012)

Friends of the Dunes, (2012) “Endangered Species”
<http://www.friendsofthedunes.org/nature/endangered.shtml> (Feb. 16, 2012)

Friends of the Dunes, (2012) “Endangere
d Species”
<http://www.friendsofthedunes.org/nature/endangered.shtml> (Feb. 16, 2012)

Friends of the Dunes, (2012) “Goals” < http://www.friendsofthedunes.org/about/goals.shtml >
(Feb. 16, 2012)

Friends of the Dunes, (2012)
“Mission
Statement”<http://www.fr
iendsofthedunes.org/about/miss

ion.shtml> (Feb 16, 2012)

Friends of the Dunes, (2012) “Project Overview” <http://www.friendsofthedunes.org/HCNC/>
(Feb. 16, 2012)

Friends of the Dunes, (2012) “Restoring the
Dunes”<http://www.friendsofthedunes.org/nature/res
tore.shtml > (Feb. 16, 2012)

Friends of the Dunes, (2012) “Western Snowy Plover”
<http://www.friendsofthedunes.org/nature/western
-
snowy
-
plover.shtml> (Feb. 16, 2012)

Friends of the Dunes, (2012) “Who We Are” <http://www.friendsofthedunes.org/about/ > (Fe
b.
16, 2012)

Hein, G. E. (1991). “Constructivist Learning Theory.” The Museum and the Needs of People,
<http://www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/constructivistlearning.html> (Feb. 17, 2012)

Pickart, Andrea J. "Restoring the Grasslands of Northern Cali
fornia's Coastal Dunes." Grasslands
Winter 2008. Fws.gov. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.
<http://www.fws.gov/humboldtbay/pdfs/grasslandsarticle.pdf>.

Soltis, J.F. (n.d.). “John Dewey (1859
-
1952)


Experience and Reflective Thinking, Learning,
School and Life, Democrac
y and Education”,
<http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1914/Dewey
-
John
-
1859
-
1952.html>

Vander Meer, Carol, Personal Interview, February 17, 2012

23


"Carbon Dioxide."
Climate change
-

greenhosue gas emissions
. United States Environmental
Protection
Agency, 2011. Web. 29 Apr 2012.
<http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/co2.html>.

Cavette, Chris. "Acrylic Plastic." . eNotes, n.d. Web. 29 Apr 2012.
<http://www.enotes.com/acrylic
-
plastic
-
reference/acrylic
-
plastic>.