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soilflippantΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

72 εμφανίσεις

S
MALL

G
ROUP

C
OMMUNICATION

Grace
Geng

Tom
Kwasa

Alex
Halvaty

Tao
J
i

O
UTLINES

Small
-
Group
Communication and
Problem Solving

Definition of a small Group

Use and Value of Teams
in the Effective
Organization

Characteristics of
Effective Problem
-
Solving Teams

The Basic Problem
-
Solving Procedure

Selecting The Group
Format

Participation and
Leadership in Teams

Effective Team Participants
Have Good Communication
Skills

Effective Team Participants
Perform Needed Task and
Maintenance Roles

Effective Team Leadership

Leader Responsibilities

S
MALL

G
ROUP

C
OMMUNICATION

AND

P
ROBLEM

S
OLUTION

D
EFINITION

OF

A

S
MALL

G
ROUP


Small
Group

A small
number of
people

Face
-
to
-
face
interaction

Actively
working
together toward
a common goal

U
SE

AND

V
ALUE

OF

T
EAMS

IN

THE

E
FFECTIVE

O
RGANIZATION



Seek or Share Information

Learningg
Group


Seek to inspire desirable attitudes,
understanding, and communication
patterns rather than merely to inform

Self
-
maintenance
Groups


a series of decisions in an attempt to
solve a particular problem

Problem
-
solving
Groups

C
HARACTERISTICS

OF

E
FFECTIVE

P
ROBLEM
-
S
OLVING

T
EAMS


Well organized


Receive periodic
training


Examine
assumptions
and opinions


Evaluate possible solutions


Avoid groupthink


Manage cultural diversity


Operate virtually


E
FFECTIVE

T
EAMS

A
RE

W
ELL

O
RGANIZED

Groups follow an organized
procedure are more productive

Avoid sloppy thinking

Fewer problems and negative behavior

Hand conflicts better

Build on strengths of members

Feel more empowered

E
FFECTIVE

T
EAMS

R
ECEIVE

P
ERIODIC

T
RAINING






Group
productivity



Group training





Training can dispel a
variety of
prejudices
people
have about teams.


E
FFECTIVE

T
EAMS

E
VALUATE

P
OSSIBLE

S
OLUTIONS


Compare the solution to predetermined
criteria

Example:
select employee


Supervisor receive at least one letter of
recommendation from satisfied customer

At least an increase of 20% in sales over
the previous month

Employee should be liked by fellow
workers

E
FFECTIVE

T
EAMS

M
ANAGE

C
ULTURAL

D
IVERSITY



Not all cultures view or
solve
problems
in the same
way.


U.S.

Expect problems to occur and are quick to
identify them when they do.

Great value on
speed

and decisiveness.


Asian

countries


Take longer to identify

problems. Evaluate all
alternatives, base decision on tradition and past
experience


M
ANAGE

C
ULTURAL

D
IVERSITY

CONT
.


Recognize differences


Elect members for their task
-
related
abilities


Find a purpose, vision, or superordinate
goal


Avoid cultural dominance


Develop mutual respect for each other


Seek a high level of feedback

Recommendations:

E
FFECTIVE

T
EAMS

O
PERATE

V
IRTUALLY


Face to face
meetings




Computer
-
mediated



communication
(CMC)


T
HE

B
ASIC

P
ROBLEM
-
S
OLVING

P
ROCEDURE

a


List possible alternatives


List as many as time/resources allow, use brainstorming
and NGT (silent vote)

b


Evaluate each alternative


Eliminate bad, combine similar, eliminate those not
meeting all “need” criteria, rank remaining against
“wants”

c


Select best alternative and discuss
implementation


Best solution=highest totals, tie breakers

S
ELECTING

THE

G
ROUP

F
ORMAT

Roundtables (most common)

Small group discussion, in private,
using problem solving

Panel

Small panel of well informed
ind.discussing

in front of a group

Symposium

Small group of experts, formal,
often to educate public

Forum

Audience participation following
panel or symposium

H
AVE

A B
REAK

P
ARTICIPATION

A
ND

L
EADERSHIP

I
N

T
EAMS


E
FFECTIVE

T
EAM

P
ARTICIPANTS

H
AVE

G
OOD

C
OMMUNICATION

S
KILLS


Active Listening:


Receives, interprets,
checks, repeat



Open
-
mindedness


Reach a decision that
benefits group as a
whole


E
FFECTIVE

T
EAM

P
ARTICIPANTS

H
AVE

G
OOD

C
OMMUNICATION

S
KILLS


Effective Personality Types (big five)


Extroversion


Agreeableness


Conscientiousness


Emotional Stability


Openness to Experience


E
FFECTIVE

T
EAM

P
ARTICIPANTS

P
ERFORM

N
EEDED

T
ASK

AND

M
AINTENANCE

R
OLES

Task and
Maintenance
Roles

Handling
Dysfunctional
Behaviors

G
ROUP

T
ASK

R
OLES

a)
Initiate

b)
Give information

c)
Seek information

d)
Give Opinions

e)
Seek Opinions

f)
Elaborate on ideas

g)
Energize the group

h)
Review and summarize
the discussions

i)
Record group
suggestions


G
ROUP

M
AINTENANCE

R
OLES

1.
Encourage

2.
Harmonize

3.
Relieve tension

4.
Gatekeep


D
YSFUNCTIONAL

B
EHAVIORS


Blocking


Aggression


Story Telling


Recognition Seeking


Dominating


Confessing


Special Interest Pleading


Distracting


Withdrawing


H
ANDLING

D
YSFUNCTIONAL

B
EHAVIORS

Plan your opening remarks carefully.

Position the person next to a leader

Avoid direct eye contact.

Assign specific tasks to dysfunctional members

Ask members to speak in a specific order.

Break in at break time

Position talkative member between 2 quiet members

Encourage withdrawers

Give praise and encouragement

E
FFECTIVE

T
EAM

L
EADERSHIP


Behavior Theories:

1.
Trait

2.
Two
-
dimension

3.
Function

4.
Three
-
dimension



Situational Theories:

1.
Situational Contingency

2.
Path
-
Goal



Recent Theories:

1.
Normative decision

2.
Transformational


L
EADER

R
ESPONSIBILITIES

Face
-
To
-
Face Meetings


a)
Inform
about meeting location.

b)
Select a meeting place conducive to
effective discussion.

c)
Check the facilities prior to meeting

d)
Welcome attendants

e)
Start and end on time.

f)
Preview and stick to the agenda.

g)
Keep minutes (recorder or secretary)

h)
Ask questions

i)
Listen carefully

j)
Summarize

k)
See to tasks and maintenance

l)
Thank participants

m)
Inform stakeholders.


L
EADER

R
ESPONSIBILITIES

Virtual
Meetings

a)
Select team members carefully

b)
Avoid micro management

c)
Provide detailed training

d)
Encourage regular and
extensive communications.



C
ONCLUSION


What is a small group? What are the advantages
of teams, and why? How does one solve problems
in small group?


How do you make team participants effective?
How to be an effective team leader?


Q
UESTIONS

T
HANK

Y
OU

A
LL

VERY

MUCH
!

----
G
RACE

G
ENG
, T
OM

K
WASA
,
A
LEX

H
ALVATY
, T
AO

JI