Using Standards in e-Learning

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New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Using Standards

in

e
-
Learning

Claude Moulin


UMR CNRS 6599 Heudiasyc

University of Compiègne (France)

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Some e
-
learning features


Definitions of e
-
Learning usually emphasize on network
utilization (''e'' in e
-
learning) and on Information
Technology.


Added requirements


two domains: training domain, application domain


reflection on content


Objectives of training session,


Competences acquired by learners, etc.


Concepts of the application domain and the relations between
these concepts


construction of new resources taking into account
possibilities offered by Information Technology:


digitalization of old resources is generally not enough,


redefinition of actors roles according to situations


teachers, learners, tutors.

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

E
-
Learning applications


Learning Content Management Systems


Creation of resources


(distributed) Repositories of resources


Portfolios, Pedagogical Web sites


Learning Organizational Memories


Modeling of the domain and indexing of resources on domain
concepts


Learning Management Systems


Organization of content in pedagogical units (activities)


Scheduling of P.U.


Student Assessment

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Two influences


integration?

E
-
Learning

Instructional
Design

Semantic
Web

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Language Levels


Conceptualization


Pedagogical scenarios


Meta data
-

Ontology
-

Knowledge Base


Operationalization


Operational languages


Composition of pedagogical units


rules for Sequencing activities


Functional languages used in knowledge base
engines


Rule languages


Query languages

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Conceptual level

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

XML Schema for metadata: LOM

File name, browser type

Narrative Text, learning
time

test

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

OWL: Web Ontology Language


Ontology


Definition Concepts (classes) and relations (properties)
between concepts


Axioms on concepts and relations


Restrictions on relations


Different level of ontology


Knowledge base


Adding extensions (set of individuals) to concepts


Axioms on individuals


Requires management systems for making inferences


True, inferred true, false, inferred false, unknown


Limitations


OWL does not allow to represent all ontology features
(points of view, attenuated transitivity)

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

XTM: ML for Topic Maps


Ontology


Definitions of classes and subclasses of topics


Relations (association) on classes of topics


Axioms on classes of topics


Knowledge Base


Topics as instances of classes of topics


Axioms on topics


Features


Occurrence: for linking topics and resources to classes of
topics


Scope: associations between topics can be considered inside
a scope

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Use of ontologies in e
-
Learning


Currently


Indexing of resources


Modeling of training domain and application
domains




Future??


describing e
-
Learning Services?

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Pedagogical Scenarios


Pedagogical Unit:
composed of Pedagogical
Scenarios


A complete training course, a lesson, etc.



Pedagogical Scenario
: composed of
sequence of Pedagogical Acts


Bricks for building a learning process


a problem solving activity, an experiment



Pedagogical Act:
An atomic task


Read a text, write a document, do a synthesis,
etc.

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

IMS
-
LD


Origin


EML


Educational Modeling Language


meta
-
language for describing pedagogical models from
concepts involved in the learning process



Open University of Netherlands
IMS
-
LD


Language defined by an XML Schema


The conceptual model


Make easier specifications and implementations


Three levels of representation


Static: the sequencing of activities is the same for all


Dynamic: the sequencing may depend on properties (tests)


Events: activities based on notifications (messages)

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Operational Level

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Learning Management Systems


SCORM: suite of technical standards that
enable web
-
based learning systems to find,
import, share, reuse, and export learning
content in a standardized way.



Content Aggregation Model (CAM)


Run
-
Time Environment (RTE)


Sequencing and Navigation (SN)

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

SCORM
-

CAM


It describes the components used for
structuring the content.


Asset : atomic pedagogical content. any resource
which can be displayed in a browser.


SCO (Sharable Content Object) : Composed by
assets capable to communicate with a LMS.


CO (Content Organization) : structure describing
the composition of assets and SCOs in activities


SCOs are described using the LOM model

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Functional languages


Semantic Web Management Frameworks require
functional languages:


Rule languages for reasoners


Ex: HP Jena Framework

[rule1: (?a tg:rel ?b), (?b tg:trans ?c)
-
>





(?a tg:rel ?c)]


Other languages: ruleML, SWRL


Query languages


RDQL (query language for RDF)


SELECT ?x

WHERE (?x, <tg:is_situated_in>, <tg:france>)

USING

tg FOR <http://terregov#>

New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

Conclusion



Will the Semantic Web Change Education?


Services for e
-
Learning?


Which model for services?



How is it possible to integrate instructional
design and semantic web features when
designing e
-
learning sessions?


New trends in Semantic Web

Cagliari,
December, 2nd, 2004

References


EML



http://eml.ou.nl/


Rob Koper papers, from 1998 to 2003


SCORM


http://www.adlnet.org/


HP Semantic Web Programme


http://www.hpl.hp.com/semweb/


KAON


http://kaon.semanticweb.org


Journal of Interactive Media in Education


DIG Group


http://dl
-
web.man.ac.uk/dig