The Semantic Web - University of Maryland

snufflevoicelessInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

54 εμφανίσεις

Semantic

Web

Slinging

Prof J. Hendler

Director, JIKD

University of Maryland

Hendler@cs.umd.edu



JIKD, 8/05

The Web



JIKD, 8/05

<photo>


<subject> http://www.cs.umd.edu/~hendler </subject>


<name> jim Hendler</name> </name>




</photo>

+ Micro
-
language


(or XML schema)



JIKD, 8/05

<photo>


<subject> http://www.cs.umd.edu/~hendler </subject>


<name> jim Hendler</name> </name>




</photo>

Adding Semantics
--

NOT!



JIKD, 8/05

<photo>


<subject> http://www.cs.umd.edu/~hendler </subject>


<name> jim Hendler</name> </name>




</photo>

What is
the context? We need

informa
tion

about Talks, Subjects,

People,
Events, etc. and the roles

this item
plays in them



JIKD, 8/05

Event:WebPage

< > rdf:type photo:Photograph,


Photo:File http://…/images#image1,


Photo:topic :event1#event:speaker.


Event1 a Event:event;


date “2005
-
07
-
13”,


speaker http://…#hendler.html


Title “IAAI 2005…”

:JimH rdf:type foaf:person;


name “Jim Hendler”





<daml:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="photograph">

<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Picture"/>

<rdfs:range rdf:resource= …#person"/>

</daml:ObjectProperty>




<rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/2001/03/earl/0.95#Person">

<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf
-
schema#Class"/>

<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2001/03/earl/0.95#Assertor"/>

</rdf:Description>

<s:Class
rdf:about="http://www.semanticweb.org/ont
ologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#Conference">

<s:comment>

describes a generic conceptabout events


</s:comment>

<s:subClassOf
rdf:resource="http://www.semanticweb.org/
ontologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#Event"/>

<a:disjointFrom
rdf:resource="http://www.semanticweb.org/
ontologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#Workshop"/>

<a:restrictedBy
rdf:resource="http://www.semanticweb.org/
ontologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#genid18"/>



JIKD, 8/05

Event:WebPage

< > rdf:type photo:Photograph,


Photo:File http://…/images#image1,


Photo:topic :event1#event:speaker.


Event1 a Event:event;


date “2005
-
07
-
13”,


speaker http://…#hendler.html


Title “IAAI 2005…”

:JimH rdf:type foaf:person;


name “Jim Hendler”





<daml:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="photograph">

<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Picture"/>

<rdfs:range rdf:resource= …#person"/>

</daml:ObjectProperty>




<rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/2001/03/earl/0.95#Person">

<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf
-
schema#Class"/>

<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2001/03/earl/0.95#Assertor"/>

</rdf:Description>

<s:Class
rdf:about="http://www.semanticweb.org/ont
ologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#Conference">

<s:comment>

describes a generic conceptabout events


</s:comment>

<s:subClassOf
rdf:resource="http://www.semanticweb.org/
ontologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#Event"/>

<a:disjointFrom
rdf:resource="http://www.semanticweb.org/
ontologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#Workshop"/>

<a:restrictedBy
rdf:resource="http://www.semanticweb.org/
ontologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#genid18"/>

Semantics is about "real objects and
imaginary concepts and the particular
relations between them!"
(cf. Berners
-
Lee 94)



JIKD, 8/05

Linking is power!

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF
-
8"?>

<!DOCTYPE rdf:RDF [


<!ENTITY feleuk.owl "http://www.mindswap.org/ontologies/feleuk.owl">


<!ENTITY owl "http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#">


<!ENTITY rdf "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22
-
rdf
-
syntax
-
ns#">


<!ENTITY rdfs "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf
-
schema#">


<!ENTITY NCI "http://www.ncibi.nih.gov/NCIT/NCIT.owl#">


<!ENTITY CYC="http://www.cyc.com/2004/06/04/cyc#">


]>

<rdf:RDF xml:base="&feleuk.owl;"


xmlns:owl="&owl;"


xmlns:rdf="&rdf;"


xmlns:rdfs="&rdfs;"


xmlns:NCI="&NCI;"


xmlns:CYC="&CYC;">



<owl:Ontology rdf:about=""


rdfs:label="Feline Leukemia"


owl:versionInfo="Feline Leuk 1.0"/>



<owl:Class rdf:about="#
Feline
-
Leukemia
">


<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="NCI:Leukemia"/>


<rdfs:subClassOf>


<owl:Restriction>


<owl:allValuesFrom rdf:resource="CYC:cat"/>


<owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#NCI:diseased
-
organism"/>


</owl:Restriction>


</rdfs:subClassOf>


</owl:Class>


</rdf:RDF>

Link to 45000


terms at NCI

Link to 47000 (Open)CYC terms

Sem Web Languages

RDF

RDF Schema

OWL

Graph

Labeled graph

Ontology

Data Dictionary

Data Schema

...

...

...

Rules/Logic

SWRL/SCL?

All of these languages add semantic modeling primitives to XML
-


so you can “do this in XML” per se, but it is reinventing the wheel.

Ontology

Ontology

Ontology

Graph

+

limited logic



JIKD, 8/05

The Semantic Wave

(Berners
-
Lee, 03)

YOU

ARE

HERE



JIKD, 8/05

Now


Companies getting into the act


Oracle to support RDF in database 10.2


IBM SNObase ontology management system


Adobe embeds RDF in all content


HP, Cisco, Nokia, Sun … announcements/use in '05


Start ups in the space (Cerebra, Siderean, SandPiper, …)


And failure already (Tucana)


Whose IP was bought by large contractor (Northrup Grumman)


Many open source tools available


Open source (Kowari) scalable triple store


100,000,000+ triples


Supports RDFS, OWL support coming


RDFLib, 3Store…


Jena, Sesame …


Protégé, SWOOP, Onto(xxx)…



JIKD, 8/05

Semantic Web Commercial Roadmap

Short
-
term:


EII


RDF triple stores


OWL as "semantic


technology" standard

Database and Image Markup

"RDF/OWL in the business
enterprise"

Coming:

Personal Data


Integration


Home enterprise


Social Network
-
based apps


Small business portals

"Rules and policy"

And even:


Small business EAI


Every doctor, dentist,
laundromat, etc. has a "supply
chain"


Do business your way, map to
their ASPs

"Like visicalc did to reports"

"intranet" uses

"OEM" market

Disruptive technology

mindswap

maryland information and network dynamics lab semantic web agents project

SemTechConf, 3/05

Present Uses of Semantic Web Techniques


Unstructured information in one or more formats


Millions of documents with 100’s of metadata elements per document


Need: Discover complex and hard
-
to
-
find relationships across documents



Structured information contained in one or more relational databases


Millions of RDBMS records with 10’s of metadata elements per record


Need: Unlock data from the schemas to discover new relationships



Unstructured and Structured information (combined scenario)


Millions of metadata elements representing information stored in range of formats &
databases


Need: Relationship
-
centric views of disparate data



Collections of one or more Ontologies for improved search


Need: Relate and infer “intelligence” derived from ontologies to relationship discovery

mindswap

maryland information and network dynamics lab semantic web agents project

SemTechConf, 3/05

Organization

Usage

Generic Capability

US Intel Agency

Unstructured intel
document analysis

Scalable cross
-
document co
-
reference
& link analysis

US Dept. of Defense

Federated search and
analysis

Ontology
-
enhanced search & discovery
with cross
-
document co
-
reference & link
analysis

Legal Research Ctr.

Unstructured legal
document search and
analysis

Ontology
-
enhanced search with cross
-
document co
-
reference & link analysis

Viewpoint Systems
General Motors

Quality test &
measurement analysis

Advanced manufacturing data analysis
with rapidly changing data schemas

Enterprise Software
Company

Centralized meta
-
data
repository; EAI software
platform

Change impact analysis &
configuration management

Sun Microsystems / Nokia

RDF/OWL representation
of products and services

Dynamic Web site navigation



JIKD, 8/05

A lot out there already…



JIKD, 8/05

Tools for markup...

PhotoStuff Demo



JIKD, 8/05

Not tied to specific domains

Photo from Grecia



JIKD, 8/05

Not tied to specific domains

Photo from Grecia



JIKD, 8/05

Semantic Web Application Portals



JIKD, 8/05

Info views…



JIKD, 8/05

Not tied to specific domains



JIKD, 8/05

Not tied to specific domains



JIKD, 8/05

Not tied to specific domains



JIKD, 8/05

With Info Contexts



JIKD, 8/05

Tool support for OWL use



JIKD, 8/05

Emerging concept:


“Global Federated Ontologies”


Groups of ontologies that
may overlap


Global consistency not
guaranteed


And highly over
-
rated


Consistency where needed


Shared terms


Partial mappings okay


Higher level terms


Domain specific upper
ontologies


“backbone” ontologies


Existing large
-
scale
consistent domains (c.f.
NCI metathesaurus)

(Genome World
-

from Goble, 01)


Community model for development
and support


C.f. Open Biological Ontologies
Consortium
(
http://obo.sourceforge.net/
)


Gene Ontology Consortium




JIKD, 8/05

Multi
-
ontology drag/drop markup

http://www.mindswap.org/2003/PhotoStuff/



JIKD, 8/05

Of different media and types

The scene from the James

Bond movie where the

guy throws his hat at a

statue

The story that ran on

NHK television from

0847
-
0903 on

2001
-
09
-
11 (GMT + 9)



JIKD, 8/05

Multi
-
ontology Portal

Project goals



Connecting unstructured inputs to
rich metadata



Bringing in information from
"open" sources
-

provenance


tracking who entered the
information



tracking where the information
came from


Using (multiple) ontologies in OWL


To help with annotation


To organize information display


To manage import/export of
unstructured and semi
-
structured
data


Image and subimage annotation
and display


Demonstrating new information
portal management tools enabled
by the Semantic Web

Technologies demoed



The Web Ontology Language
OWL


RDF Query for page generation


Equivalence and inverse
inferencing



Limited classification (OWL
DL)



RDF/XML syntax for data
exchange



RDF/N3 syntax for human
readability


Sem Web Integration w/standard
Web tools


HTTP protocol based
(standard server software)


Universal Resource Identifiers
for web
-
based access


XSLT and Perl for portal
presentation (HTML
-
like view)




JIKD, 8/05

Tool support for GFO design



JIKD, 8/05

GFO support



JIKD, 8/05

Shared calendars



JIKD, 8/05

Calendar + photos + …



JIKD, 8/05

Social networks:

e.g.
Friend of a Friend (FOAF)


Say stuff about yourself (or others) in OWL
files, link to who you “know”



<foaf:Person>


<foaf:name>Jim Hendler</foaf:name>


<foaf:title>Dr</foaf:title>


<foaf:firstName>Jim</foaf:firstName>


<foaf:surname>Hendler</foaf:surname>


<foaf:mbox_sha1sum>



be972c7a602683f7cf3c7a1fd0949c565debe4d3


</foaf:mbox_sha1sum>


<foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://www.cs.umd.edu/~hendler"/>


<foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://www.semanticgrid.org/q
-
iantbljim.jpg"/>


<foaf:workplaceHomepage rdf:resource="http://owl.mindswap.org"/>


<foaf:knows>http://www.cs.umd.edu/~jen/foaf.rdf</foaf:knows>


</foaf:Person>

Estimates of the number of Foaf users range from 2M
-
5M



JIKD, 8/05

Using
FOAF

in other contexts

http://trust.mindswap.org

Jennifer

Golbeck



JIKD, 8/05

Emerging:

Semantic Web Services

Information management capabilities


Discovery, Filtering, Composition




JIKD, 8/05

Semantics and services

input xsd:complex=”oncogene”

output xsd:complex=”RiskType”

Oncogene(MYC):


Found_In_Organism(Human).


Gene_Has_Function(Transcriptional_Regulation).


Gene_Has_Function(Gene_Transcription).


In_Chromosomal_Location(8q24).


Gene_Associated_With_Disease(Burkitts_Lymphoma).


<owl:Class rdf:about="http://annotation.semanticweb.org/iswc/iswc.daml#RiskIndicator">


<rdfs:subClassOf>


<owl:Restriction>


<owl:onProperty rdf:resource="http://annotation.semanticweb.org/iswc/iswc.daml#name"/>


<owl:allValuesFrom rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#string"/>


</owl:Restriction>


</rdfs:subClassOf>


</:Class>

OWL
-
S grounding (coming to WSDL 2.0)



JIKD, 8/05

Get a B&N price (In Euros)



JIKD, 8/05

Of a particular book



JIKD, 8/05

In its German edition?



JIKD, 8/05



JIKD, 8/05

Coming sooner than you may
think…



JIKD, 8/05

… and this…



JIKD, 8/05

…and this?



JIKD, 8/05

The “Policy Aware Web”

PRIVACY and ACCESS CONTROL


(wake up early Thurs to learn more…)



JIKD, 8/05

As we publish more info
-

how do we
control access …

Who can see What??

Who can see What??



JIKD, 8/05

Policy Aware WEB



JIKD, 8/05

Conclusion


Semantic Web is here and now and there’s a lot of it


With more coming all the time


Tools are ready for starting


And new ones are coming on line


Communities of Interest are forming in many areas


Including e
-
gov (SICOP, KM
-
gov), lifesciences, others


Semantic Web encourages multiple ontologies linked
together


Cuts cost over monolithic ontologies


But takes advantage of those that are there already


Global Federated Ontologies an emerging trend


Life science examples lead


IC projects




JIKD, 8/05

MIND SWAP


Maryland Information and Network Dynamics Laboratory,



Semantic Web and Agents Project


J. Hendler


B. Parsia


Jennifer Golbeck


Aditya Kalyanpur


David Wang


Daniel Krech


Evren Sirin


Corporate Research Partners:


Fujitsu Laboratory of America, College Park


Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories


NTT Corp


SAIC Corp., Kevric Corp, Top Quadrant, Tucana, Semaview


Govt Funding:


NSF, US Army Research Laboratory, DARPA, DoD, NIST,


http://www.mindswap.org

(
OWL
-
powered Semantic Web page
)

• Ronald Alford

• Jordan Katz

• Amy Alford

• Naiwen Lin

• Kendall Clark

• Daniel Hewlett

• Chris Testa

• Bin Zhao

• Aaron Mannes

• Keith Mantel

• Sharone Horowit
-
Hendler

• Debbie Heisler

• George Ionkov