Problem, and Process

snufflevoicelessInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 21 μέρες)

80 εμφανίσεις

Syntactic Web


Pragmatic Web

Semantic Web

1

2

3

Possibility

Necessity

Actuality

Gary Richmond, City University, New York

garyrichmond@rcn.com

Interoperability as
Desideratum
,
Problem, and Process

Image by Dave Pape at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory

http://www.evl.uic.edu/pape/


Ontological commitment
in relation to ontology
creation


Three Webs


UF or W3C?


SOA and loose coupling


Outlook

O
ntology
versus


o
ntology


Philosophy:
O
ntology as a
particular system . . .
accounting for a certain
vision of the world


AI:
o
ntology referring to
an engineering artifact

o
ntology
versus


O
ntology


[I]n order to solve the terminological
impasse we need to choose one of [the two
readings of ontology],

inventing

a

new

name
for the other: we shall adopt the AI reading,
using the word conceptualization to refer to
the philosophical reading.




N. Guarino


The meaning of being would seem to far
exceed the meaning of AI.


O
ntology
versus


o
ntology


International Conference
on Conceptual Structures
(ICCS)


International Conference
on Ontologies (ICO)

o
ntology
&


O
ntology


It is an obvious obligation on

the developer of an ontology to

discuss and defend his choice of

theory and the ontological

commitments to which

it gives rise.


P. Øhrstrøm, J. Andersen,

H. Scharfe

Ontological Commitment

“We must philosophize, said . . .
Aristotle

if only to avoid
philosophizing. Every [one] has a
metaphysics, and has to have one;
and it will influence his life
greatly. Far better, then, that that
metaphysics should be criticized
and not be allowed to run loose.”


C. S. Peirce

Semantic Web

2

Actuality

Three Webs:

1

Possibility

Syntactic Web

3

Necessity

Pragmatic Web



mathematics


sciences of discovery
:

|>
philosophy (as cenoscopic)
:

sciences:

|> sciences of review

special sciences


practical sciences

phenomenology (as trichotomic)


|> metaphysics

normative sciences
:

esthetics

theoretical grammar
:




|>
logic (as semeiotic)
:

|> rhetoric (methodeutic)



ethics

critic

Classification of the Sciences

triad

monad

dyad

Valencies

Reduction Thesis

All relations of

more than three elements

are reducible

to triadic relations,


but triadic relations

are not reducible to


dyadic and monadic relations.


1
ns

2
ns

3
ns

Three Peircean categories

something


1

other

2

medium

3

possibility

necessity

actuality

UNIVERSAL:

quality

intellect & imagination

reaction

EXISTENTIAL:

vague,


specific,

!

来湥牡氬g


LOGICAL:

1/2

/3

Logic as Semeiotic:

Theoretical grammar (syntactics)

Critical logic (semantics)

Theoretical rhetoric/

methodeutic (pragmatics)

10
-
ADIC

C
LASSIFICATION

OF

S
IGNS
:

1

1

1

2

1

1

3

1

1

2

2

1

2

2

2

3

2

2

3

3

1

3

3

2

3

3

3

3

2

1

9
-
ADIC
S
IGN
R
ELATIONS
:

qualisign
(tone)

legisign
(type)

sinsign
(token)

as to the sign itself:

icon

symbol

index

as to the object:

rheme
(propositional function)

dicisign
(proposition)

argument

as to the interpretant:


Theoretical Grammar:

3
-
ADIC

S
IGN

E
LEMENTS
:

sign

interpretant

object

Rule/case/result:


result (these beans are white)

case (these beans are from this bag)

rule (all the beans from

this bag are white)

The Three Kinds of Inference:


ab
duction

(representation

vector):


th
is handful of beans that I find on the table are white;




All the beans from this particular

bag

are

white,




瑨楳⁨慮摦畬d潦⁢敡e猠慲攠
POSSIBLY

from this bag.


in
duction (determination vector):



all

these beans are white;






慬氠瑨攠扥慮b 楮⁴桥i扡b 慲攠
PROBABLY

white.


Th
ese beans are drawn from this bag,

de
duction (analytical vector):




瑨敳攠e敡湳⁷楬氠
NECESSARILY

be white.




All of the beans from this bag are white,


th
ese beans are drawn from this bag;

3/
1/2

3/
2/1

2/
1/3

(RULE
,

RESULT
;



CASE)

(RULE
,

CASE
;



RESULT)

(CASE
,

RESULT
;



RULE)

Inquiry:

Abduction (hypothesis formation)

Induction (actual experiment)

process

vector

Deduction (of implications

of hypothesis for testing)

Inquiry:

Abduction (hypothesis formation)

Induction (actual experiment)

process

vector

Deduction (of implications

of hypothesis for testing)

Critical logic (
semantics
)

Logic as Semeiotic:

Theoretical grammar (
syntactics
)

Theoretical rhetoric/

methodeutic (
pragmatics
)

The Semantic Web (as conceived by W3C)


Good features


URIs


Unicode


XML



Problematic feature


RDF

The Semantic Web (as conceived as UF)


Adopts ISO standard for Common
Logic (CL)


Mappings of RDF and OWL into CL


CL includes XCP (an XML notation)



Basic principle: “Impoverished
highest level” (John Sowa)


Rich in types; poor in axioms


Axioms deleted from UF available as
modules/microtheories

“Things should be made as
simple as possible, but no
simpler.”


A. Einstein


“Artificial dependencies
should be reduced to the
minimum, but real
dependencies should not
be altered.”


H. He

Principles of Service
-
Oriented
Architecture (SOA)


Simple/ubiquitous interfaces


Common semantics encoded at the interfaces


Interfaces available for all service
providers/clients


Descriptive

mainly not prescriptive

messages delivered through the interfaces


Interfaces constrained by an extensible
schema limiting the vocabulary and structure
of the messages


Messages restricted in format, structure, and
vocabulary (yet cognizant that increasing
restriction decreases extensibility & vice versa)


Since extensibility is yet crucial, establishing a
balance of restriction and extensibility [21]


Simple/ubiquitous interfaces


Common semantics encoded at the interfaces


Interfaces available for all service
providers/clients


Descriptive

mainly not prescriptive

messages delivered through the interfaces


Interfaces constrained by an extensible
schema limiting the vocabulary and structure
of the messages


Messages restricted in format, structure, and
vocabulary (yet cognizant that increasing
restriction decreases extensibility & vice versa)


Since extensibility is yet crucial, establishing a
balance of restriction and extensibility

Semantic Web

2

Actuality

Web Architectures:

1

Possibility

Syntactic Web

3

Necessity

Pragmatic Web

...Syntactic Web.

Pragmatic Web involves...

...Semantic Web which in turn involves...

(Analytical
vector)

Syntactic Web

(technical structure)

Pragmatic Web (for collaboratorial

& creative purposes)

Semantic Web (of meaningful relations)

(Order

vector)

Vectors

process

order

representation

analysis

determination

aspiration

1

2

3

1
st
:

Tools in a possible suite
of tools are proposed for use
in a project by an actual
small working group quite
familiar with this facet of the
project;

1/2/3

3
rd
:

the group
reflects on the
significant
relations

involved by
means of

⩫*
diagram
observation &
manipulation.

2
nd
:

the tools are
considered by themselves
and in possible combination,
and especially in relation to
the constraints of the project
(financial, personal, etc.);

4
th
:

A possibly optimal
ordering of relationships of
elements, individuals,

stages

of
projected development, etc.,
involving the suite of tools is
adopted;

1/3/2

5
th
:

the various
individuals
involved work to
contribute

creatively as
collaborative
participants in the
process
employing the
suite of tools
agreed upon;

6
th
:

the project is facilitated
through the use of the tools
by the individuals using them
to accomplish the particular
purposes of the project.


Nothing can better satisfy the needs of
augmentation of human cognition and
relational thinking than the fusion of
technologies.




Bernard Vetant



Data without a social context is
meaningless. . . It must have a social
context for it to support the growth of
knowledge.





Eric K. Neumann

by Gary Richmond

Copyright © Gary Richmond

garyrichmond@rcn.com


Produced by Benjamin A. Udell in PowerPoint

Interoperability as
Desideratum
,
Problem, and Process

Copyright ©Gary Richmond