Implementation of a Tool for Ontology Paraphrasing, Querying, and ...

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22 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 22 μέρες)

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Tool for Ontology Paraphrasing,
Querying and Visualization on the
Semantic Web


Project By

Senthil Kumar K

200637041

III MCA (SS)


Guides Details

Project Context

Military

Intelligence

Reports

XML

Documents

Semantic

Web

(Ontology)


Summary

of

Intelligence

Reports

Information

Extraction

Ontology

Generation

Paraphrasing and

Querying

with Visualization

Ontology


Ontology

is defined as an explicit specification of
conceptualization.


It is a way of representing things and the relationship
between things in such a way that a machine can
understand it.


It is a mechanized way of Knowledge
Representation.


Ontology is used as the Knowledge Representation
format at CAIR.

Paraphrasing Context

Summarizer
Module

Paraphrasing Steps


Document Planning



Content Selection

: Specify maximum allowed distance in graph.



Text Planning

: Ordering of facts at various distances.



Micro Planning




Micro plans are templates with numerous slots and fillers for these
slots.




Lexicalization

: Specify single sentence for each fact.



Aggregation

: Multiple sentences aggregated to improve readability.



Surface Realization



Grammar used to fill up missing information.



Paraphrasing Example

XYZ_FN

Lahore

Pakistan

located

belongs

Karachi

moved

belongs

Input Ontology

After Lexicalization

1)
XYZ_FN is moved to Karachi.

2)
Karachi belongs to Pakistan.

3)
XYZ_FN is located at Lahore.

4)
Lahore belongs to Pakistan.

Paraphrasing Example (Contd.)


After Aggregation

1)
XYZ_FN is located at Lahore which belongs to Pakistan.

2)
XYZ_FN is moved to Karachi which belongs to Pakistan.

Final Summary

XYZ_FN is located at Lahore which belongs to Pakistan and it is moved to

Karachi which belongs to Pakistan.

SPARQL:


SPARQL

is an RDF query language, that stands for
S
imple
P
rotocol
a
nd
R
DF
Q
uery
L
anguage.


SPARQL

allows for a query to consist of triple patterns,
conjunctions, disjunctions, and optional patterns.


Example:

PREFIX abc: <http://example.com/exampleOntology#>

SELECT ?capital ?country

WHERE {

?x abc:cityname ?capital ;


abc:isCapitalOf ?y .

?y abc:countryname ?country ;


abc:isInContinent abc:Africa .

}


SPARQL query returns all country capitals in Africa



Information Visualization


Information Visualization concentrates on the
use of computer
-
supported tools to explore
large amount of abstract data.


Compact graphical presentation for
visualizing large numbers of items possibly
extracted from far larger datasets.


Enables users to make discoveries,
decisions or explanations about patterns
(trend, cluster, gap, outlier...), groups of
items, or individual items.


Knowledge Visualization


Knowledge Visualization focuses on
transferring insights and creating new
knowledge.


Beyond the mere transfer of facts, knowledge
visualization aims to further transfer insights,
experiences, perspectives and predictions
by using various complementary
visualizations.

Existing Work and Issues


No tool available for paraphrasing from the
ontology and rendering a visual
representation of the same.


Query engine support with Visual
representation of the output is required.


Browser based tool required to perform the
above.


Proposed Work



To develop a web application for
paraphrasing and querying from an ontology
with visualization support
for AINN group of
CAIR (DRDO) which is fully browser based.

Architecture Diagram

OWL Files

Java Library

JUNG,JENA
Library


Ontology Querying
and Visualization
Applets




Browsers


Java Applet Class File

Web Server

Client

Block Diagram

Ontology

Graph

Summary of

Intelligence

Reports

Query

Result

Visual

Graph

Ontology

OWL Graph

Construction

Paraphrase

Query Processor

Visualizer

Visualizer

Software Requirements


JDK (Java Development Kit)
1.5


JRE
1.5
or above Supported Web Browser


JUNG‏(Java’s‏Universal‏Graph/Network‏
Library)
1.7.6


JENA (Java framework for building Semantic
Web applications)
2.5.7

What‏JENA‏can‏/‏can’t‏do?


Can:



It provides a
programmatic
environment for RDF,
RDFS and OWL.



It provides SPARQL
processing support on
ontology.



It provides Rule based
Inference Engine.



Can’t:



It cant take Ontology as
an input.



It‏doesn’t‏provide‏support‏
for Graph based
Traversals and Querying.



It‏doesn’t‏provide‏support‏
for paraphrasing from the
ontology.



What‏JUNG‏can‏/‏can’t‏do?


Can:



It provides a very basic
library for creating simple
graphs and visualizing it.


It provides basic layouts
support for the graph
rendering.


It can only understand
vertices, edges and basic
graph primitives





Can’t:



It cant model the Ontology
as a graph.


It cant enforce the user
specific constraints
followed in owl
specification on the graph.


It cant Rearrange the
graph based on the
changes made to the
ontology

Major Modules


Paraphraser


Query Processor


Visualizer

Level


0
DFD

Visual Graph

Query Result

Paraphrased Summary




Ontology Paraphrasing,
Querying and
Visualizing Tool

OWL

Level


1 DFD

OWL Graph

Natural
Language
Summary

Textual
Result

OWL

Query

1

OWL Graph

Constructor

User

3

Query Processor

2

Paraphraser

OWL Graph

4

Visualizer

Visual Graph

OWL Graph

OWL Graph

OWL Graph Constructor(
1
)


1.1

Read the OWL File and
Load the Ontology

1.2

Map the ontology
resources to Nodes
and Edges

OWL Nodes and
Edges

OWL

Ontology
Model

1.3

Build the graph

Using the nodes

and edges

OWL Graph

Paraphraser(
2
)


2.1

Select Contents of
Interest

2.2

Lexicalize Sentences
and Aggregate them.

Formed Sentences

OWL Graph

Selected Facts

2.3

Apply grammar to

the formed sentences.

Natural Language
Summary

OWL Sub Graph

Query Processor(
3
)


3.1

Validate the Query and
Plan the Execution

3.2

Execute the Query by
Traversing the Graph

OWL Sub Graph

OWL Graph

OWL Graph
and Query

Textual Result

Query

Visualizer(
4
)


4.1

Create Renderer and
layout for the Graph

4.2

Set Visual attributes
for the OWL Nodes
and Edges

Renderer

OWL Graph

4.3


Render

OWL Graph

Visual Graph

Renderer

References

1) OWL Web Ontology Language Guide:



http://www.w3.org/TR/owl
-
guide

2) SPARQL:

http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf
-
sparql
-
query

3)‏‏“Generating‏Natural‏Language‏Descriptions‏from‏OWL‏‏


Ontologies”‏
-

Ion Androutsopoulos1,2 and Dimitrios Galanis1

4)‏‏“Speech‏and‏Language‏Processing”,‏ISBN‏81
-
7808
-
594
-
1

-

Daniel Jurafsky and James H.Martin

5)‏‏“Systemic‏Functional‏Linguistics”

-

http://www.isfla.org/Systemics/

6)‏‏‏“Systemic‏Functional‏Grammar”

http://minerva.ling.mq.edu.au/resource/VirtuallLibrary

/Publications/sfg_firststep/SFG%20intro%20New.html

7)‏‏‏“Paraphrasing‏from‏ontology”

http://www.mindswap.org/papers/nlpowl.pdf