Consequences of increasing penetration of distributed generation on

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18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Estimados Expositores del II Seminario de Electricidad


Consequences
of increasing penetration of distributed generation on
transmission and distribution grids

Ulf Häger |
San José
, September 4th 2012

2

Structure

1.
Distributed Generation sources


Wind


Photovoltaik


Hydro


Biomass


Geothermal


CHP

2.
Consequences for transmission and distribution grids


Balance Power


Transmission Grids


Distribution Grids


Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

3

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Wind

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0
1
2
3
4
5
>6
Amount
Nominal Power [MW]
Histogramm
of

the

nominal power
of


Onshore

Wind Power
Plants

installed

in Germany in 2010:

Fact Sheet:


Stand
-
alone
-
devices:


Are usually connected to MV or HV


Parks:


Small parks are usually connected to MV or HV, while large
parks are connected to HV or the transmission system

Off
-
shore

On
-
shore

Fact Sheet:


Offshore parks are usually connected to the transmission system


Submarine Cable (AC or DC) is necessary between offshore park
(
P
park

usually more than 100 MW) and connection point

4

Types

of

Distributed Generation

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Photovoltaik

Histogramm
of

the

nominal power
of


Photovoltaik
plants

installed

in Germany in 2010:

Fact Sheet:


PV plants with nominal power < ~300 kW are connected to LV


PV plants with nominal power
between ~300
kW
and ~15 MW are
connected to
MV


PV plants with nominal power >
~15
MW are connected to HV


0
10
20
30
40
50
10
20
30
40
>50
Amount [thd.]
Nominal power [kW]
5

Types

of

Distributed Generation

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Hydro

Fact Sheet:


Often

large power
plants

connected

to

the

transmission

system


Also
smaller

distributed

generators

available

which

are

connected

to

LV, MV
or

HV

Pump
-
storage

Marine

River

Fact Sheet:


Often

large power
plants

connected

to

the

transmission

system


Also
smaller

distributed

generators

available
,
usually

connected

to

HV

Fact Sheet:


Different
types
:


Tidal

power


Marine
current

power


Wave power





All
are

still
prototypes

6

Types

of

Distributed Generation

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Biomass

Histogramm
of

the

nominal power
of


Photovoltaik
plants

installed

in Germany in 2010:

Fact Sheet:


Fuel types: Firewood, Pellets, Bio oil, Bio gas, Bio ethanol


Can also provide thermal power (CHP)


Can be used as base load

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
100
200
300
400
>500
Amount
Nominal Power [kW]
7

Types

of

Distributed Generation

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Geothermal

Fact Sheet:


Exploitation

of

high
water

temperatures

under

ground

(>100
°
C)


Nominal power
usually

up

to

10 MW


Can
be

used

to

provide

thermal power (CHP)

CHP

Fact Sheet:


Typical

devices
:


Stirling

motor


Microgasturbine


Piston
engine


BHKW

8

Main
sources of distributed generation



Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Wind

Geothermal

Biomass

Hydro

Marine

River

Pump
-
storage

On
-
shore

Off
-
shore

CHP

Photovoltaik

Fluctuating

Controllable

9

Structure

1.
Distributed Generation sources


Wind


Photovoltaik


Hydro


Biomass


Geothermal


CHP

2.
Consequences for transmission and distribution grids


Balance Power


Transmission Grids


Distribution Grids


Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Szenario 2040+

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Ist
-
Werte
Ref, KKW
EE
BMU
Ref, KKW
EE
BMU
BMU
2007
2020
2030
2040+
jährl. Stromerzeugung [TWh]
EE
-
Import
Photovoltaik
Wind offshore
Wind onshore
Geothermie
Biomasse
Wasser
Last
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Ist
-
Werte
Ref, KKW
EE
BMU
Ref, KKW
EE
BMU
BMU
2007
2020
2030
2040+
jährl. Stromerzeugung [TWh]
EE
-
Import
Photovoltaik
Wind offshore
Wind onshore
Geothermie
Biomasse
Wasser
Last
Electricity

demand

Source:

own Studies +

BMU: DLR "BMU Leitszenario 2009"

Goal in Germany:

80%
renewable Generation until 2050

Balance power between


+35 GW and
-
24 GW by:

-

Peak load power plants

-

Storages

-

Import of renewable Energy

-

Demand Side Management


Severe transmission
network reinforcement

Reinforcement and operation
of distribution networks:

-

Smart Market

-

Smart Grid

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Szenario 2040+

Goal in Germany:

80%
renewable Generation until 2050

Balance power between


+35 GW and
-
24 GW by:

-

Peak load power plants

-

Storages

-

Import of renewable Energy

-

Demand Side Management


Severe transmission
network reinforcement

Pump storage in Germany today:



7,5 GW, 45 GWh

Demand 2040+: 35 GW => 1.750 GWh

Reinforcement and operation
of distribution networks:

-

Smart Market

-

Smart Grid

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Erneuerbare
Energien geprägte
ländliche Gebiete

Erneuerbare
Energien geprägte
ländliche Gebiete

Last
-

bzw.
verbrauchsgeprägte
städtische Gebiete

Last
-

bzw.
verbrauchsgeprägte
städtische Gebiete

Future scenarios with large amount of renewable energies require
flexible loads (storage capability)

Renewable Energy
Ressources

primarily
in Rural Areas







Load or Consumption
Centers in highly
Populated Areas







Balanced
via
European Electricity Market

and Transmission Network

Source: TU Dortmund + ABB

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Szenario 2040+

Goal in Germany:

80%
renewable

Generation
until

2050

Balance power
between


+35 GW
and

-
24 GW
by
:

-

Peak
load

power
plants

-

Storages

-

Import
of

renewable

Energy

-

Demand Side Management


Severe

transmission

network

reinforcement

Verteilnetzausbau

und
-
betrieb

4
5
3
5
6
4
4
7
4
1
3
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
02
2
2
01
2
2
5
2
6
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
5
5
6
2
04
2
2
4
2
1
2
2
2
02
4
4
2
2
2
2
6
8
4
2
2
2
1
4
2
2
6
1
04
(
MV
)
13
(
BE
/
BR
)
12
(
ST
)
24
(
RP
/
SL
)
29
(
BW
)
30
(
BW
/
BY
)
31
(
BY
)
14
(
NW
)
20
(
NW
)
28
(
BW
)
05
(
MV
)
07
(
BR
)
19
(
BR
/
SN
)
23
(
SN
)
1
3
3
15
(
NW
)
2
1
2
Leiter innerhalb Deutschlands
(
Grundzustand
)
Leiter in Nachbarländer
(
Grundzustand
)
Zubauten für
2020
Zubauten für
2030
Zubauten für
2040
Anzahl paralleler Systeme
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
02
(
NI
)
03
(
HH
/
SH
)
11
(
NI
)
17
(
NI
)
18
(
ST
)
22
(
TH
)
21
(
HE
)
16
(
HE
)
10
(
NI
)
08
(
NI
)
09
(
NI
)
25
(
HE
/
RP
)
26
(
BY
)
06
(
HB
/
NI
)
01
(
SH
)
27
(
BW
/
HE
/
RP
)
Reinforcement and operation
of distribution networks:

-

Smart Market

-

Smart Grid

Source: TU Dortmund

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Load centers

Future offshore
wind parks

Transmission
network

reinforcement

(2040+)





at

least
3000 km
lines

(380
kV

+
maybe

HVDC)




costs

min
6
-

8
bil

Euro 2040+




corresponds

to

approx
. 0,25
-

0,35
ct

/ kWh


additional wind
generation

14

Vision: WAMS & WACS


Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

Dynamic

State Model

Stability

Information

Network Control

& System Protection

Szenario 2040+

Goal in Germany:

80%
renewable

Generation
until

2050

Balance power
between


+35 GW
and

-
24 GW
by
:

-

Peak
load

power
plants

-

Storages

-

Import
of

renewable

Energy

-

Demand Side Management


Increasing


share

of

DG

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

...

...

...

...

...

...

x

x

New
loads

and

load

management

Severe

transmission

network

reinforcement

Reinforcement
and

operation

of

distribution

networks
:

-

Smart Market

-

Smart
Grid

Source: TU Dortmund + RWE +
Mennekes

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Distribution
grids reach limits of capacity and voltage due to renewable
generation and new controllable load applications

Increasing share
of DG

...

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

...

...

...

...

...

x

x

Implementation of
innovative devices, grid and
operation/control concepts

New loads and
load management

Source: TU Dortmund

RWE Deutschland AG

DG

new Loads

Voltage / V

Time / h

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Demand of network reinforcement results from Smart Grid und Smart
Market requirements

Smart Grid

Smart Market

Grid / System
Operation

Asset
Management

(Investment)

Grid planning


The design of future grids must jointly consider Operation,
Asset Management und Planning according to the
requirements of Smart Grids und Smart Markets.


Demand of network reinforcement
and the corresponding
regulatory consequences must be
investigated for the future
based on
these boundary conditions.

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Coordinated use of voltage control and reactive
power management

NS
-
AVC

MS
-
AVC

Tap Changer

Tap Changer

Trafo + AVC

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

...

...

x

x

HS/MS

MS/NS

...

...

...

...

Q

-

Management

Q

-

Management

SVC

STATCOM,

Storage

STATCOM,

Storage

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-


direct voltage control


indirect voltage control

Smart Grid

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Aggregator bundels loads/gen. and provides

system services or market products

E
-
Energy Market Place

Aggregator

Demand Response

Demand Side Mgmt

Supply Side Mgmt.


Electricity Market

Energy Supplier

Energy Trader

Network Restrictions

System Services

Grid Operator

Daten

Gas

Strom

Data

Gas

Electricity

-

Micro

-

CHP

-

Prosumer (active

custromer
)

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
...
...
...
x
x
HS/MS
MS/NS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
...
...
...
...
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
HV/MV

MV/LV

Smart Market

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Szenario 2040+

Goal in Germany:

80%
renewable

Generation
until

2050

Balance power
between


+35 GW
and

-
24 GW
by
:

-

Peak
load

power
plants

-

Storages

-

Import
of

renewable

Energy

-

Demand Side Management


Severe

transmission

network

reinforcement

Verteilnetzausbau

und
-
betrieb

Reinforcement
and

operation

of

distribution

networks
:

-

Smart Market

-

Smart
Grid


Integrated
consideration

of

measures

in
all
fields

of

power
system

operation

and

planning

is

necessary




Investigations

are

required

to

determine

the

optimum

share

between

network

reinforcement

or

other

Smart
Grid

and

Smart Market
measures


Integration
of

Distributed Generation
requires

modifications

to

the

power
system

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

Ulf Häger | San José, September 4th 2012

21

Thank

you

for

your

attention
!