Security Research - Senior Design

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CYBERSIM






Network Security Research Paper

Background on Network Security

and why it is so Important


Ryan Applegate

Saddam Khattak

Dan Nguyen

Adam Straw





Table of Contents


1

Frontal Materials

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1.1

List of Figures

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1.2

List of Tables

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1.3

List of Definitions

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2

Introduction

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2.1

Network Security Backg
round

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2.2

Motives for Cyber Crime

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3

Possible Threats

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3.1

External Risks

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3.2

Internal Risks

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4

Possible Defenses

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5

Conclusion

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6

References

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6.1

Pro
gramming References

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6.2

Network Systems References

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1

Frontal Materials

This section contains information about the docum
ent including a list of figures,
list of tables, and a list of definitions.


1.1

List of Figures



Figure 2.1

Security Hierarchy………………………………….…………...3



1.2

List of Tables



None


1.3

List of Definitions

The following is a list of definitions used in the document.




B
uffer overflow



Technique for crashing or gaining control of a computer by
loading it with data sent to the buffer in a computer’s memory.



Crackers



Hackers on hire who break into computer systems to steal
valuable information for their own financial gai
n.



Cyber squatting



Buying domain names like
www.mcdonalds
.com

or
www.coke
.com
, and then selling them for a big profit (just like a personalized
number plate).



Denial of service


In
tentionally flooding a website with too many requests
for information, an attacker can effectively clog the system, slowing
performance or even crashing the site.



Dumpster diving



Sifting through a company’s garbage to find information
to help break into
their computers.



Eavesdropping


An intruder reroutes all traffic through his/her machine



Hacker


A person who explores programming systems in detail and who
seeks to extend his knowledge in this field. The term represents persons
illegally introduced in
to computer systems. White
-
hat hackers are the good
guys who are excited by the intellectual challenge of tearing apart computer
systems to improve computer security. Black
-
hat hackers are desperadoes
on the Net out to crash systems, stealing passwords,
and generally wreaking
as much havoc as possible.



Insiders


Disgruntled employees working solo or in concert with outsiders to
compromise corporate systems
.



Logic bombs


An instruction in a computer program that triggers a
malicious act.



Malicious applet
s


Tiny programs, sometimes written in Java, which misuse
a computer’s resources to modify files on the hard disk, send fake e
-
mail, or
steal passwords.



Password crackers


Those who possess software that can guess
passwords.



Phreaking



An act of piratin
g telephone networks. Since they spend long
hours trying to get access to phone lines the majority of the hackers are also
phreakers. Moreover, since the modern telephone exchanges are
computerized, it becomes possible for phreakers to control the network
as
easily as an employee of the telephone company.



Scans



Widespread probes of the Internet to determine types of computers,
services, and connections. This way one can take advantage of the
weaknesses in a particular make of computer or software progra
m.



Script bunnies



Amateur hackers with little technical savvy who download
program
-
scripts that automate the job of breaking into computers.



Sniffer



A program that covertly searches individual packets of data as they
pass through the Internet, capturin
g passwords of the entire contents.



Spoofing



Faking an e
-
mail address or a web page to trick users into
passing along critical information like passwords or credit
-
card numbers.



Spyware Cookies



A file that can be planted on a computer with the hopes
of

being able to spy on the system to get information.



Trojan horses



Software programs that hides another program. For
example, if in addition to being a word
-
processing program, its programmer
decides to make it search for the valid applications and erase

all other word
processing software, it is a Trojan horse. It is also possible to use a Trojan
horse to introduce a virus on a computer.



Viruses



Programs that can reproduce in a computer and infect other
programs. It is transmitted from one computer to
another, on copying an
infected program. The viruses can be programmed to be harmful, for
example, by erasing all of the machine’s data on a precise date.



War dialing



Programs that automatically dial thousands of telephone
numbers in search of a way in
through a modem connection.



Worms



A worm differs from a virus in that it transfers itself from one
computer to the other through a network.












2

Introduction

The following document will start off by giving a background on network security
and why i
t is important. Then, it will follow up and conclude by describing some
of the risks associated with network security as well as the some of the possible
attacks and defenses.

2.1

Network Security Background

Network security is one of the many branches that

can be seen in the Figure 2.1
below. In the security methodology it stems from the root, which is security and
lies directly below and information security. The field of network security deals
primarily with protecting data, hardware, and software on a
computer network.
These three aspects of protection are so important because only considering one
or two of these leads to weaknesses that an attacker can exploit.



Figure 2.1: Security Hierarchy





Security




Information


Security



Network



Security



Database Data Computer Device Application


Security Security Security Security Security



The realm of network security
is a broader subject than most people know about.
It is not just about keeping people or viruses out of your network. Network
security helps provide greater access to fit the needs of a person on the network,
so that they are able to communicate with oth
ers, allowing synergy amongst
those on the network. This increase in security also can gain the trust of other
external parties, providing them safe and secure access, over a period of time.
Therefore, network security can create strong business partners

as well as safe
network connections.


Along with the growing popularity in network security is the increase in the
number of cyber
-
criminals. These are people who, like other criminals break the
law, but use a computer as their weapon of choice. The dan
ger these criminals
pose due to the heightened effectiveness of their attacks has really led to the
boom in network security.

2.2

Motives for Cyber Crime

As the world becomes more dependent on computers they store all kinds of
useful information and operat
e all kinds of systems that are of great value and
sought after. With the spread of the Internet and file sharing it is relatively trivial
to find almost any information on the web. However, this has also made it easier
for worms and viruses to spread.
The following are motives for cyber crime.




Embezzlement



Software piracy



Hardware counterfeiting



Theft of information (confidential data about new products, customer lists,
etc)



Blackmail, based upon the information obtained by theft of computer files
(p
ersonal information, medical information, etc)



Sabotage of data or of the system



Unauthorized access to the files of the authorities to modify data (criminal
records, driving license, etc)



Techno
-
vandalism (destruction without precise goal of data)



Browsin
g (intrusion in a system just for the pleasure of going there,
without any intention of stealing)


3

Possible Threats

There are more threats to a network than hackers and viruses. The number of
ways that a network can be attacked is continually growing all
the time. There is
a list of some of these attacks and threats in the list of definitions in section 1.
Along with the growing list of threats has been the interest in network security.
There has been an overwhelming effort to make networks as secure as

possible
to reduce the effectiveness these possible threats.


Threats can vary from different levels of severity according to how much damage
can be done to the network. These can vary from possible spyware cookies,
which may be rather harmless, to den
ial of service attacks from a hacker with the
intent of bringing down a whole network by clogging traffic. Threats not only
come from outside a network, but from the inside as well.


3.1

External Risks

Some of the most well known risks are external, which ar
e those that come from
outside the network a person is on (home, school, business, etc…). These risks
are prevalent in the attachments of emails, downloading files, and surfing the
web. Most external risks are viruses, worms, and Trojans. The risk of ha
ckers is
also possible, but is greater with large businesses.

3.2

Internal Risks

Many think that the majority of risks come from outside the network when in
actuality this couldn’t be further from the truth. 70 to 80 percent of computer
crimes, attacks, a
nd violations originate from inside a company. A great number
of these actually coming from trusted employees. The rest are made up of
disgruntled and dishonest employees, as well as a major part devoted to human
error. Because of the security access and

the knowledge an employee may
have, the most serious attacks actually come from inside of a network. File
sharing is bigger than ever, so if a file becomes infected on a network and shared
it can spread like wildfire infecting many computers before being

detected.


4

Possible Defenses

One of the weakest links in the computer security chain is man. Currently there
are no foolproof ways to protect a system. The completely secure system can
never be accessed by anyone. However, this “perfectly secure system”
is
realistically an unreachable goal. Below are some precautions that can increase
the defenses of a network.




Use encryption to make intercepted messages unreadable.



Use an Intrusion detection system to help in detecting and tracing an
intruder.



If one i
s ever unsure about the safety of a site, or receives suspicious e
-
mail from an unknown address, one should avoid accessing it.



Installation of anti
-
virus programs in the system can check spread of
viruses and worms.



Use of firewalls to filter access to a

network. They may come in the form of
a computer, router, and a communications device or in the form of a
network configuration).



All accounts should have passwords and the password should be unusual
and difficult to guess.



Change the network configurat
ion when defects become known.



Check with vendors for upgrades and patches.


5

Conclusion

Obviously, there is a lot more to network security than was covered in this paper.
This document’s purpose was to give a brief overview and background of
network sec
urity from which to build off of. Then, conclude wiith some of the
risks associated with network security as well as the some of the possible attacks
and defenses.

6

References

The following are some reference websites where further and more detailed
info
rmation can be found on network security. Also, there are reference links to
sites that are helpful in creating a 3D network security game such as
CYBERSIM. These sites contain everything from sample code to tutorials that
walk through creating 3D graphi
cs for game development.

6.1

Programming References


Code Documentation



C++ Library Reference

http://www.cplusplus.com/ref/#language


OpenGL Walkthroughs



NeHe’s OpenGL Tutorials

http://nehe.gamedev.net


6.2

Network Systems References


Network Guides and Information




Parallel Technologies Basic Network Guide

http://www.lpt.com/windowsnetworking/r
egusers/basics.htm




Whatis.com’s IT Glossary

http://whatis.techtarget.com/




About.com’s Guide to Computer Networking

http://compnetworking
.about.com/index.htm?terms=network


Network Security Information




ITPRC’s Network Security Links

http://www.itprc.com/security.htm




SecurityDogs.com


Info and Products

http://www.securitydogs.com/




About.com’s Guide to Network Security

http://netsecurity.about.com/index.htm?terms=network




Windows NT Network Security: A Manager’s Guide

http://www.ciac.org/ciac/documents/CIAC
-
2317_Windows_NT_Managers_Guide.pdf


Network Security Issues and Current Events




Cybercrimes.net

http://cybercrimes.net/




“CyberTerrorism


From Virtual Darkness”

http://www.nici.org/Research/Pubs/98
-
5.htm




Position Papers for Workshop on Countering Cyber
-
Terrorism

http://www.isi.edu/gost/cctws/positions.html




“Are Companies Prepared for CyberTerrorism?”

http://www.cfo.com/article/1,5309,5988,00.html?f=related


Gaming Theory and Issues




General Game Design Articles on

GameDev.net

http://www.gamedev.net/reference/list.asp?categoryid=23#40




Will Wright’s lecture to Terry Winnograd’s us
er interface class at
Stanford

http://www.art.net/~hopkins/Don/simcity/WillWright.html




“Seductions of Sim: Policy as a Simulation Game”


The American
Prospect

http://www.prospect.org/print/V5/17/starr
-
p.html




“Making Sense of Software: Computer Games and Interactive
Textuality” by Ted Friedman

http://www.duke.edu/~tlo
ve/simcity.htm




“Creating a Great Design Document”


Game Developers

http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Bay/2535/design_doc.html




“Techniques for Achieving Play Balance”


GameDev.net

http://www.gamedev.net/reference/design/features/balance/




“Evolutionary Design”


GameDev.net

http://www.gamedev.net/reference/design/features/evolution/default.asp




“Cyber Crime”



http://rrtd.nic.in/cyber_crime.htm