Aviation Data Networks: New Avenues for Flight Safety

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20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Conference

Dates

Place

ICCST 2004

10/11/04


10/14/04

Albuquerque,
NM

Aviation Data Networks: New Avenues for Flight Safety


The recent technological growth in the field of mobile communication has made Internet
connectivity in an airborne airplane a rea
lity. Technology currently exists that allows computer
networks within an airplane to communicate with networks on the ground over connections that
provide reasonable level of security. While providing Internet access within an airplane [1, 2] has
some se
curity disadvantages, it has security benefits as well. One advantage is the capability of
providing real
-
time video surveillance. Many commercial aircrafts have already deployed or plan to
deploy video monitoring system that will monitor the cockpit entra
nce as well as the passenger
section of an airplane. Currently, the video is displayed on a LCD monitor and also stored in a
server [6] within the airplane. With Internet connectivity, the video can be transmitted to the
ground station. Although there is
not enough bandwidth to offer this feature at all times, the
images could be download when a specific event occurs.


Another security enhancement involves the digital storage of voice and data in the cockpit. Black
boxes have shown to be very valuable in

determine the cause of airplane crashes. These devises
were designed to withstand a crash so that the events leading up to the crash can be analyzed.
However, the time required to salvage the black box from the crash site can significantly delay the
inv
estigation. In this paper, the authors discuss the different safety features that could be deployed
with the help of data networks on the airplane. In the process, the authors also discuss the issues
involved and infrastructure support requirements in dep
loying these additional safety features.


Nagaraja
Thanthry

Ravi Pendse


Aviation Data Networks: Security Issues and Network Architecture


Over the past decade, there has been a lot of growth in the data communication field. Internet usage
has grown bey
ond all expectations. Today Internet has become an important part of life. This
development has led to more technological growth in the mobile networking field. Creation of
wireless Internet access devices and development of protocols has enabled users to
opt for mobile
devices to access Internet. Mobility management protocols like mobile IP have been developed to
support user mobility and network mobility. At the same time, there has been lot of innovations in
the field of satellite communication. The sate
llite link bandwidth has increased from T1 to T3 level.
Clubbing the innovations in the field of mobile communication and the developments in the field of
satellite communication, recently Boeing has announced provisioning data networks within the
airplane
.


Data networks within the airplanes bring out a lot of new possibilities. Along with providing
Internet access to the passengers, the data network could also be used to enhance the flight safety
and flight control. Some of the airline manufacturers hav
e gone one step further and are planning to
use data networks to connect the flight components. While this enables an easier control system, it
involves some possible security and safety issues. The security issues can source either from within
the plane o
r from outside the plane. In this paper, some of these security issues involved with
aviation data networks are discussed. In addition, some possible network architectures are proposed
to counter the security threats.


Nagaraja
Thanthry

Ravi Pendse


SSS
T 2004

03
/4/04


03
/
16
/04

Atlanta, GA

PCF VS DCF: A PERFORMANCE COMPARISON


Wireless LANs are gaining importance at a very rapid pace. The idea of being mobile and
connected to the Internet is driving new innovations in this area. With the recent innovati
ons in the
field of Multimedia networks, the requirements of QoS support over Wireless LANs are becoming
more stringent. Quality of Service in a wireless LAN is affected by a number of parameters like
channel access method, physical/environmental condition
s, number of nodes, distance etc. A proper
selection of protocols/topology helps in maintaining/improving the QoS support of a wireless
network. In this paper, the authors analyze the effect of channel access methods on the multimedia
(voice) traffic. Two
channel access methods, namely Point Coordinate Function (PCF) and
Distributed Coordinated Function are considered for their support for QoS. The simulation results
indicate that using PCF for multimedia traffic results in better performance.


S. A. Rashee
d, K
Masnoon, N
Thanthry and R
Pendse


Performance Analysis of UNIX User Datagram Protocol Implementations


As wired and wireless networks grow, underlying protocols need to be evaluated so that
heterogeneous networks can be linked in an efficient manner.

Among the transport layer protocols,
User Datagram Protocol UDP is the only protocol that offers a fast and efficient mechanism to
handle voice and video data traffic because it is a message based, connectionless service operating
on the IP layer. In addi
tion to the network conditions, it is observed that the performance also
depends upon the implementation of the protocol. UNIX is one of the most widely used operating
system in the networking world and different UNIX flavors have different UDP stack
imple
mentation. In this research work the performance of different UDP implementations were
compared under different network conditions. It is observed that no UDP implementation
dominates in all the tested network conditions. It is also observed that the selec
tion of an
appropriate datagram size had large impact on the overall performance.


S
Balasubramanian
N Thanthry, R
Bhagavathula,
and R Pendse


GlobeCom

2004

11/29/04


12/03/04

Dallas, TX

Voice over IP, Security and Quality of Service


Can they Co
-
exis
t?


Voice over IP and Multi
-
Service over IP continue to gain popularity as applications and services
are being developed to make them more robust. Due to the real time nature of these applications,
appropriate quality of service (QOS) is required. It is
also important to protect information from
un
-
authorized users. Depending upon the nature of the information being exchanged, different
levels of security may be needed. Security algorithms tend to be computationally intensive. Often
time, QOS and secur
ity may place conflicting demands. One requiring quick access (real
-
time),
while the other requiring more computation. In this paper we present results from experimental
evaluation of such conflicting requirements. The network scenarios include cases su
ch as VOIP
with and without NAT, VOIP with and without IPSEC along with appropriate QOS. The quality of
voice traffic is evaluated in the presence of these parameters.





N Thanthry

R Pendse

VTC 2004

09/26/04


09/29/04

Los Angeles, CA

Route Optimize
d Nested Mobility Solution Using PAT


Mobile Computing is becoming increasingly important due to the rise in the number of portable
computers and the desire to have continuous network connectivity to the Internet irrespective of the
physical location of th
e node. Mobile IP is an extension to the IP protocol that attempts to de
-
lineate the physical location of a mobile node with its assigned IP address. With the extension of
mobility from a host to a network, the need to provide foreign agent services within

a mobile
network is gaining importance. Provision of foreign agent services within the mobile network is
termed as nested mobility. With the usage of normal Mobile IP, each level of nesting introduces
additional overheads thereby wasting the network resou
rces. In addition, nested mobility introduces
routing issues known as pinball routing. In this paper, the authors propose a route optimization
based solution to address the pinball routing problem and reduce the tunneling overhead over the
internet cloud.
The proposed protocol uses the concepts of port redirection to route traffic to a node
within the mobile network. The proposed protocol eliminates the need for tunneling between the
nested mobile devices and their respective home network. Initial analysis
carried out by the authors
indicates a significant improvement in overall performance for the participating nodes.


Nagaraja
Thanthry, Mitesh
Dattani,

Ravi
Bhagavathula,

Ravi Pendse


Port Address Translation Based Route Optimization for Mobile IP


The c
urrent mobility management protocol i.e. Mobile IP (MIP) specifies the involvement of a
Home Agent (HA) in forwarding datagrams to/from the Mobile Node (MN). This often leads to the
usage of either triangular routing or reverse tunneling. Both these modes
of communication
introduce additional delay in data transmission between a corresponding node (CN) and a MN, in
addition to the wastage of network resources. IETF has proposed certain extensions to MIP to
support route optimization. A drawback of the propo
sed route optimization extensions to MIP is
the requirement for the CN to be mobility aware. In this research work, the authors propose a Port
Address Translation based route optimization scheme. In the proposed protocol, authors try to
reduce the overhead

and delay involved with traditional mobile communication by means of using
port address translation (PAT) and routing the packet using an optimal path. Preliminary simulation
results indicate a significant performance improvement compared to that due to n
ormal MIP. While
compared to the other route optimization techniques, the proposed approach has some additional
overheads in terms of PAT, the authors argue that the proposed approach is more scalable
compared to the other approaches.

Nagaraja
Thanthry,

D
eepak Badami,

Ravi
Bhagavathula,

Ravi Pendse

WLAN and Ad
-
Hoc Network Coexistence


The use of wireless LANs is becoming increasingly more prevalent in the office environment.
Infrastructure
-
less networks also known as ad
-
hoc networks are also becoming po
pular due to the
ease of administration and deployment. In the future, both ad
-
hoc and infrastructured wireless
networks are expected to coexist forming a hybrid wireless network. While the lack of
administration is one of the strongest points of an ad
-
hoc

network, in a hybrid wireless network
environment, ad
-
hoc networks might interfere with the infrastructured networks causing
performance degradation. In this paper, the authors explore and analyze the issues related to a
hybrid wireless network environmen
t with both infrastructured and ad
-
hoc networks in close
proximity. Parameters like number of nodes in ad
-
hoc/infrastructured domain, traffic profile and
link bandwidth were varied and the performance of individual nodes in both domain were
monitored. Prel
iminary results indicate substantial performance deterioration for the participating
nodes in such a hybrid network compared to the individual networks.

Nagaraja
Thanthry,

Muhammad
Sabeeh Ali,

Ravi
Bhagavathula,

Ravi Pendse

Ad
-
Hoc Networks and Layer 2
Tunnels


Over the last few years Ad
-
Hoc networks have been the area of interest for many researchers due to
their interesting applications and the different challenges associated with them. A node that wants
to send data to a remote node that is outside th
e transmission range depends on intermediate nodes
to relay the packets until they reach the destination. The above
-
mentioned fact leads to poor
scalability in Ad
-
Hoc networks. As the number of nodes increase the effective throughput of the
Ad
-
Hoc network
goes down. Furthermore, the increasing number of intermediate nodes (hops)
causes unacceptable delays in the networks. In order to solve the scalability issue different ideas
have been proposed. One of these ideas is to design the Ad
-
Hoc networks using a h
ierarchical
approach. Instead of designing a flat Ad
-
Hoc network accommodating all nodes, the domain is
divided into two or more smaller domains. These Ad
-
Hoc domains are then connected using an
infrastructure network. While traditional approaches suggest
using layer 3 tunnels to connect these
different border gateways, the authors in this paper suggest using layer 2 tunnels for this purpose.
The usage of layer 2 tunnels is expected to reduce the route discovery time and improve the overall
network performa
nce.

Ravi
Bhagavathula,

Ravi Pendse,

Fariha Baloch,

Christian
Strandmark,

Sudarshan
Muralidharan

DASC

10/24/04


10/28/04

Salt lake City,
UT

Airplane Data Networks and Security Issues


The Information Technology (IT) revolution, combined with people'
s need to access
information quickly, has resulted in the explosive growth of the Internet in the past decade.
Ubiquitous access to the Internet has become an essential component of a mobile workforce and
multiple mechanisms are being devised to ensure sea
mless connectivity to corporate resources. An
integrated security framework requires a careful consideration of the security features of the
network within an airplane. The Passenger Network (PN) is used by passengers within the airplane
to access network
resources on the global Internet. The Crew Network (CrN), on the other hand, is
meant for the crew of the airplane to access resources not only on the global Internet, but also to
access resources within the airplane’s home network. The Control network (Co
N) is a strictly
regulated network wherein the various components of an airplane interact with each other. As such,
only authorized personnel are allowed access to the CoN.

In order to facilitate an efficient monitoring of network activity within the PN,
the CrN and the
CoN, the authors present an in
-
house network monitoring tool tuned towards the case of a
networked airplane that provides real
-
time warning of impending network threats to allow the
network administrators to carry out appropriate responses
to intrusions. The network monitoring
agents would be located within the individual networks (PN, CrN and CoN) to monitor individual
networks. In addition, another sensor would be located within the aircraft access network to
ascertain if malicious traffic

is introduced into the CrN and/or the CoN.

M Sabeeh Ali

Ravi
Bhagavathula
Ravi Pendse


IP Connectivity and DAP


The Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) and Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) are the
traditional blackboxes used in general and commercial aviat
ion aircrafts. These are used to record
vital audio and aircraft parameters. Substantial time and monetary expense are incurred after an
aircraft accident to retrieve the black boxes and sometimes the recorders are found damaged and
unreadable which furthe
r inflates aircraft accident investigation times and expenditures. The CVR
typically records the voice conversations within the cockpit on 2 (or 4) different channels for
duration of 30 minutes. The DFDR records the aircraft’s vital parameters over the ent
ire duration of
a flight. The CVR overwrites information such that only the last 30 minutes worth of voice gets
recorded.

The Information Technology (IT) revolution, combined with people's need to access information
quickly, has resulted in the explosive
growth of the Internet in the past decade. Ubiquitous access
to the Internet has become an essential component of a mobile workforce and multiple mechanisms
Vijay
Ragothaman,
Ravi
Bhagavathula
Ravi Pendse


are being devised to ensure seamless connectivity to corporate resources. The authors present a
pos
sible use of the available IP connectivity between the airplane and the global Internet towards
the download of local voice/video/data traffic from an airplane onto the ground stations to ease the
reliance on blackboxes in a post
-
incident scenario. A discu
ssion of the simulation test
-
bed, results
obtained and the practical set of guidelines for their deployment in real
-
world situations is also
included.

Efficient Data Storage Mechanisms for DAP


The Cockpit
Voice Recorder (CVR) and Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) are the
traditional blackboxes used in general and commercial aviation aircrafts. These are used to record
vital audio and aircraft parameters. Substantial time and monetary expense are incurred
after an
aircraft accident to retrieve the black boxes and sometimes the recorders are found damaged and
unreadable which further inflates aircraft accident investigation times and expenditures. The CVR
typically records the voice conversations within the
cockpit on 2 (or 4) different channels for
duration of 30 minutes. The DFDR records the aircraft’s vital parameters over the entire duration of
a flight. The CVR overwrites information such that only the last 30 minutes worth of voice gets
recorded.

As a
supplement to the existing CVR/DFDR, the authors present the possible transfer of the
acquired voice, video and data from the airplane to the ground stations. This transfer is envisioned
to be carried out by (a) utilizing the available data link being empl
oyed for IP connectivity between
the airplane and the ground station to stream live data, voice and video traffic to the appropriate
servers on the ground, or (b) storing the data, voice and video streams locally within the airplane
and downloading them to

the appropriate servers on the ground station.

Since numerous aircraft are expected to be in
-
flight at any given point of time, the
management

of
the downloaded voice and data within the ground stations could easily become a scalability issue.
While file
transfer mechanisms like FTP provide considerable flexibility in
the

deployment of
DAP, a scalable means of catering to hundreds of airplanes simultaneously would be the adoption
of file I/O and block I/O based data transfer mechanisms. Different I/O mecha
nisms including (a)
Network File System (NFS), (b) CODA File System (CODA FS), (c) Internet Small Computer
System Interface (iSCSI), and (d) Enhanced Network Block Device (ENBD) were considered for
the current work.

M Sabeeh Ali

Ravi
Bhagavathula
Ravi Pe
ndse


VTC 2003

October

Orlando, FL

ISSUES WITH NESTED MOBILITY


Mobility and Internet access have become an integral part of today’s life. The recent advances in
computer hardware have also aided in increasing the dependence on Internet connectivity.
Pro
tocols like Mobile IP were proposed in an effort maintain mobile Internet connections. Even
though the primary goal of traditional Mobile IP is the support of single host mobility, its extension
to support network mobility is an active area of development.

Mobi l e I P needs some addi t i onal
mobi l i t y agent s and t unnel i ng t o suppor t net wor k mobi l i t y. Thi s wor k expl or es t he possi bi l i t y of
usi ng t he Mobi l e I P pr ot ocol sui t e for suppor t i ng nest ed mobi l i t y. I ssues r el at ed t o qual i t y of
ser vi ce ( QoS), secur i t y and
scal abi l i t y wi t hi n t he fr amewor k of nest ed mobi l i t y ar e di scussed i n
t hi s paper. Si mul at i ons car r i ed out i n St udent Rout er s Lab at Wi chi t a St at e Uni ver si t y r eveal
det er i or at i on of QoS wi t h nest ed mobi l i t y.

N Thant hr y,

R
Bhagavathula, K
Namuduri, and R
Pend
se


AD
-
HOC NODES AND INTERNET CONNECTIVITY USING PSEUDO
-
WIRE INTERFACES


An increasing interest in supporting the nomadic nature of mobile nodes has lead to interesting
ideas towards the deployment of Internet access to Ad
-
Hoc nodes. Most of the proposed
solutions
using Mobile IP assume that the mobility agent is located adjacent to the Ad
-
Hoc domain. The
current work differs from others in that it assumes a separation between the Ad
-
Hoc domain and
N Thanthry, K
Namuduri, and R
Pendse


the mobility agent. Mobile IP requires establishing layer
-
2 connectivity between the mobile device
and the mobility agent to provide mobility support. This paper proposes using a gateway and a
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol version 3 (L2TPv3) based tunnel between the Ad
-
Hoc domain and the
mobility agent to provide In
ternet connectivity. The analysis of the proposed approach shows that it
is more scalable with respect to other approaches.

ICCCN 2002

October

Toronto, Canada

Mobile IP in a MPLS Enabled IP Network


An ever increasin
g mobile workforce is pushing the deployment of ubiquitous network access to
people on the move. Mobile IP is a mobility protocol that allows mobile hosts to stay connected
with their home network while roaming in foreign networks. While mobile host offers

mobility to a
single host, a mobile router is expected to provide mobility to an entire network. This requirement
of providing connectivity to an entire network introduces lots of issues related to the scalability of
the Mobile IP protocol to support an e
ntire network in terms of quality of service guarantees and
security to individual hosts inside the mobile networks. Since MPLS is a widely deployed
technology that tries to leverage layer
-
3 scalability with the performance of layer
-
2, the usage of
Mobile
IP in a MPLS enabled IP network leads to interesting possibilities. The objective of this
paper is to evaluate the end
-
to
-
end performance of Mobile IP, as applied to mobile routers, in a
MPLS enabled IP network with respect to real time and best effort tra
ffic patterns.



Ravi
Bhagavathula,
Nagaraja
Thanthry and Dr.
Ravi Pendse


MWSCAS 2002

September

Tulsa, OK

Mobility: A VPN Perspective


Mobile Computing is becoming increasingly important due to the rise in the number of portable computers
and the desire

to have continuous network connectivity to the Internet irrespective of the physical location of
the node. Mobile IP, the more popular global mobility solution, was designed to support mobility of a single
host. Even though the same protocol can be applie
d in the case of network mobility, providing connectivity to
mobile networks introduces many issues related to the scalability, security and QoS. Instead, a mobile network
can be cited as a remote site, trying to establish secured communication with the ho
me network. This view of
mobile network solves many issues related to QoS, security and scalability. The objective of this paper is to
explore the possibility of using different VPN techniques to provide connectivity for mobile network and
measure the corr
esponding end
-
to
-
end performance of real time traffic and best effort traffic patterns.


Ravi
Bhagavathula,
Nagaraja
Thanthry and Dr.
Ravi Pendse


MPLS
-
over
-
GRE Based VPN Architecture: A
Performance Comparison

MPLS VPNs are one of the most widely deployed

VPN architectures in the global Internet.
However, a major pre
-
requisite for MPLS VPN is the support for MPLS in all the provider core
routers. The situation becomes complicated when service providers themselves use a backbone
carrier to bring connectivit
y to their networks since the ability of the backbone to support MPLS
connectivity would be crucial to the service provider. MPLS
-
over
-
GRE tunnels is a new concept
that has proposed to bring MPLS connectivity between networks that are connected by an IP
-
on
ly
network. The aim of the current paper is to evaluate the performance of MPLS Carrier Supporting
Carrier configuration with and without MPLS
-
over
-
GRE tunnels.


Wanyen Lee,
Ravi
Bhagavathula
and Dr. Ravi
Pendse


VTC 2002

October

Toronto, Canada

Mobile I
P and Virtual Private Networks

With a growing number of portable computing devices like laptops and Personal Digital Assistants
(PDA), the need for seamless connectivity to the global Internet is driving the acceptance of
different mobility solutions. Mob
ile IP is one of the widely accepted mobility solutions for mobile
nodes. Though Mobile IP caters the seamless connectivity requirements of the mobile nodes, the
issues regarding Quality of Service (QoS) and security remains unsolved. Most of the corporate

users like to have seamless connectivity along with security and QoS while they are roaming in the
foreign network. The issues related to security and QoS becomes more complicated when dealing
with a network on the move (mobile network). A Virtual Private

Network (VPN) can be used as an
alternative mobility solution to cater the security and QoS in addition to mobility. In the current
research work, we evaluate the QoS provided by these alternative mobility solutions as compared
to the traditional Mobile I
P.

Ravi
Bhagavathula,
Nagaraja
Thanthry, Dr.
Ravi Pendse