ELG5124/CSI5151 –Fall 2013
SITE, University of Ottawa
Definition according to
Burdea and Coiffet:
“A high-end user-
computer interface that
simulation and interaction
through multiple sensorial
channels.” (vision, sound,
touch, smell, taste)
Opposing View: Fred Brooks, Jr.
Realities essential to my broad definition:
•Real time —viewpoint changes as head moves
•Real space —3-D worlds, whether concrete or abstract
•Real interaction —direct manipulation of virtual objects
Not essential to the broad definition, in my
Brooks, Jr., F.P., 1994: "Is There Any Real Virtue in Virtual Reality?"
Public lecture co-sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering
and the British Computer Society, November 30, London
Virtual Reality Triangle
Burdea and Coiffet
Interaction with the virtual
objects through navigation
Immersion into a virtual
reality giving the
sensation of being there
Human imagination = human ability and
willingness to accept the contribution of
the virtual reality application to solve real
Virtual and Real Reality?
Mixed Reality Continuum
•Tom Caudell, Boeing: Overlay virtual screens on real
workpieces during assembly or repair.
P. Milgram and F. Kishino, "A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays",
IEICE Transactions on Information Systems, Vol. E77 D pp. 1321-1329,
•“Like VR, Virtualized Reality dynamic event models
allow viewers to see whatever they want to, but unlike
VR, this "other world" is actually a real event, and the
views of this event are photorealistic.”, P. Rander
–Is this (just) dynamic Image-Based-Modelling and
T. Kanade , P. J. Narayanan , P. W. Rander, Virtualized reality: concepts
and early results, Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Representation of
Visual Scenes, p.69, June 21-21, 1995
History of VR -Sensorama
•United States Patent
3050870, pub. 08/28/1962,
granted to Morton L. Heilig
–3-D motion picture
–vibrations of the seat,
–and wind in the hair
History of VR -Ultimate Display
Ivan E. Sutherland
•Sketchpad (Ph.D. Thesis, 1963)
•Ultimate Display (1965)
–“The ultimate display would, of course, be a room
within which the computer can control the
existence of matter. A chair displayed in such a
room would be good enough to sit in. Handcuffs
displayed in such a room would be confining, and a
bullet displayed in such room would be fatal. With
appropriate programming such a display could
literally be the Wonderland into which Alice
[I. E. Sutherland, "Ultimate Display," In Proc. of IFIP(15) Congress, pp. 506-508, 1965.]
History of VR –Sutherland’s
History of VR –Fred Brooks, Jr.
Grope project 1 to 3
•Started in 1967
•Simulation for molecular docking
James J. Batter and Frederick P. Brooks Jr.: GROPE-1: A Computer
Display to the Sense of Feel, Proc. IFIP Congress (1) 1971: 759-763
History of VR –NASA I
Virtual Visual Environment Display
system (ViVED, pronounced "vivid")
•Michael McGreevy (with Jim Humphries,
Saim Eriskin and Joe Deardon)
•First low-cost, wide field-of-view, stereo,
head-tracked, head-mounted display
NASA's virtual environment workstations
First complete system: Combination of ViVED with a DEC PDP-
11/40 computer, an Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2
with two 19" monitors, a Polhemus head and hand tracker,
video cameras and custom video circuitry.
History of VR –NASA II
•“Virtual Interface Environment Workstation” (VIEW) in
•Motivated by large simulation and training needs
•Applications: planetary terrain exploration,
computational fluid dynamics, and space station
History of VR -Dataglove
•Jaron Lanier and Thomas Zimmerman
•First VR Company 1985
•Term: Virtual Reality
•1987 Article by Jim Foley
•4 Assignments 20 marks
•Project Proposal 5 marks
•Project and Project Presentation 35 marks
•Exam 40 marks
Academic Fraud and Plagiarism
•Any form of plagiarism or fraud on any assignment will
result in an automatic zero for all assignments in the
course. Any form of plagiarism or fraud on the project will
result in an automatic zero for the project.
•For any plagiarism or fraud the university policy on
academic fraud applies. The plagiarism rules of the
University of Ottawa apply. Please familiarize yourself with
•Slides are on Virtual Campus
Assignment and Project Submission
•Virtual Campus only
•Wednesdays at 11:00-12:00 or by appointment.
•No textbook is required for the course.
•General Texts on Virtual Environments
–Gerard Kim, Designing Virtual Reality Systems:
The Structured Approach, Springer, 2005.
–Chapters 1-4, 6-11 (available from the library
–GrigoreC. Burdeaand Philippe Coiffet, Virtual
Reality Technology, Wiley, 2nd ed., 2003.
–Mario Gutierrez, F. Vexo, Daniel Thalmann,
Stepping into Virtual Reality, Springer 2008.
(available from the library on-line)
–Philippe Fuchs, Guillaume Moreau and Pascal
Guitton(eds), Virtual Reality Concepts and
Technologies, A.K.Peters/CRC Press 2011
List of Topics
•Virtual Environments; definitions and examples
•Sensor and display devices
Physics-based Modellingand Animation
•Review: spatial transformations
•Kinematic chains, forward and inverse kinematics
•Human body model
•Particle systems (Assignment)
•Collision detection and response
List of Topics
•Auditory and other sensing
Haptic Modellingand Rendering
•Introduction, devices, methods and application
•Basic rendering algorithms (Assignment)
Visual Modellingand Rendering
•Graphics rendering pipeline
•Viewing; perspective projection, camera models, stereo
•3D acquisition pipeline
•Data structures for geometry representation
List of Topics
Sound Modellingand Rendering
•Describe a scenario which you would like to address
with a Virtual Environment.
•At the proposal stage you should prepare a high-level
description of the environment. In later stages of the
project you will not need to implement your complete
environment but rather you will have to implement a
Your proposed virtual
Project Proposal (cont’d)
•The proposal should focus on the benefits which the
environment will provide to its users and what kind of
modalities, e.g., vision, sound, haptics, etc., are
needed to create these benefits.
•You will need to work in groups of 2!
•Describe the scenario (e.g., Training simulator for commercial
aircraft pilots) Discuss what sensing modalities are important for
•Describe a design for a virtual environment assuming that you
had infinite resources. Research what real devices exist and
describe which ones you would like to use (but may not have
•Describe and discuss a (small) aspect of the environment which
you will implement. This aspect has to be a research problem
(e.g., real-time physical simulation of rigid bodies). State what
resources you will need to address the research problem.
•Cite at least a few (3-5) research articles related to your
•Create a document (as pdf) with a maximum of 3 pages.
•Hand in your document on Virtual Campus by Wednesday,
September 25th, 2013.
Virtual Reality Today?
•Virtual reality research is specialized
–graphics for dedicated displays
–training, medicine and rehabilitation, design,
•F.P. Brooks, Jr., What’s Real About Virtual Reality?
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 19 (6), pp.
–What has changed 14 years later?
•Emil Petriu, Virtual Reality Introduction, Lecture slides
for ELG5124, University of Ottawa, 2008.
•Seungmoon Choi, Introduction to Virtual Reality,
Lecture slides for EECE511, POSTECH, 2008.
•G. C. Burdea and P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality
ed., Wiley, 2003.
•Janice Searleman, Virtual Environments: Principles &
Applications, Lecture slides for CS461/561, Clarkson
•Henry Fuchs, Evolution of Graphics Hardware: 40
years since Sutherland’s HMD, Invited Lecture,
Graphics Hardware, Sarajevo, 2008.