The Future Is Here

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

63 εμφανίσεις

Targeting Technology for Autistic
Spectrum Disorder


Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss, Ph.D, OT

Dept. of Occupational Therapy

Faculty of Social Welfare & Health Sciences

University of Haifa








tamar@research.haifa.ac.il

2

Virtual Reality

Applying
interactive simulations created with computer
hardware and software to present users with
opportunities to engage in environments that appear
and feel similar to real world objects and events

3

Virtual Reality Continuum

Desktop

Video
Capture

Head
Mounted
Displays

Fully
Immersive


CAVE

-

CAREN

Presence

Cost

Complexity

High
Tech

Low

Tech

4

4

4

User


Location Plane

Examples


StreetCrossing

for ASD


Virtual
Classroom

for ADHD


IREX
Meal
-
Maker for CP


5


6
children,
9
-
16
years, low functioning ASD used desktop VR street crossing
intervention program (ten
30
min sessions);
6
children with ASD as controls.


All children in VR group improved in task while operating the VE.


all succeeded in advancing from initial baseline performance to their final
baseline significantly


number of accidents decreased significantly


transfer of skills:
3
/
6
children achieved greater proficiency in the protected
real street environment occurred

Josman, N., Milika Ben
-
Chaim, H., Friedrich, S. and Weiss, P.L.
Effectiveness of virtual reality for teaching street
-
crossing skills to
children and adolescents with autism.
International Journal of
Disability and Human Development.
7
:
49
-
56
,
2008
.


Bart, O., Katz, N., Weiss P.L., & Josman, N. Street crossing by
typically developed children in real and virtual environments. OTJR:
Occupation, Participation and Health,
28
:
89
-
97
,
2008
.



VE
New


Functional Virtual Environments

Desktop System: Street crossing


6


Functional Virtual Environments

Video Capture Systems: IREX vs EyeToy


Virtual Meal
Maker: IREX

p
cli

7
years, mainstream school in the first
grade, has mild right hemiparesis

7


Functional Virtual Environments

Video Capture Systems: IREX vs EyeToy


Using EyeToy with
and without
adaptation

8


Functional Virtual Environments

Virtual Classroom using a Head Mounted Display


Heads

Virtual classroom

Rizzo et al., University of Southern California

Pollak, Y. Weiss, P. L., Rizzo, A.A., Gross
-
Tsur, V., Shalev, R. The utility of
a continuous performance test embedded in virtual reality in measuring
ADHD
-
related deficits. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral
Pediatrics, in press.

9

Virtual Reality

Assets for Rehabilitation
and Special Education

School of Occupational Therapy,
Hebrew University


2
. Chaim Sheba Medical Center

3
. Dept. of Occupational Therapy,
University of Haifa


Ecological validity

Grade cognitive & motor demands

Convenient times & locations

Performance can be documented

Easy to test & change

Safe for user


10

10

10

User


Location Plane

11

11

User


Location Plane

12

DiamondTouch

Interactive Table


Mitsubishi Electronic Research
Lab (MERL)


Large horizontal interactive
surface


Table
-
top interaction modality


Operated through PC using
Flash programming


Images are top projected

Gal, E., Bauminger, N., Goren
-
Bar, D., Pianesi, F., Stock,O., Zancanaro, M.
and Weiss, P.L. Enhancing social communication of children with high
functioning autism through a co
-
located interface. Artificial Intelligence &
Society,
24
:
75

84
,
2009
.


Kupersmitt, J., Yifat, R., Gal, E., Bauminger, N., Stock, O., Zancanaro, M.,
Pianesi, F. and Weiss, P.L. Joint construction of stories by high functioning
children with autism: Using a technological setting. Int J Child Adolesc
Health
3
:
00
-
00
,
2010
.


14

Story Table


Interface to support pairs of children in the
activity of collaborative storytelling


Implements “Enforced Collaboration”
paradigm

Alternate story
backgrounds

Story characters


Voice recording

Lady bugs to hold
audio snippets


Story sequence

15

Story Table

16

SAMPLE

3
pairs of boy with high functioning ASD,
8
-
11
years


OUTCOME MEASURES

1.

Behavioral Checklist



(based on
Bauminger
,
Aviezer

& Rogers,
2004
)


positive social interactions


(e.g., look at peer with positive affect)


negative social interactions


(e.g., ignoring action of peer)


autistic behaviors (e.g., perseveration)

2.

Analysis of language usage in the interactions
and in the narrations

Story Table: Initial Study

17

MarbleWorks

Free structure
play construction game

Pre
-

and Post
-
tests

Low
-
Tech ST scenarios
with cardboard figures

Story Table: Initial Study

min video clip
1
Link to

Link to ST intervention video clip

18

Comparison of Pre and Post outcomes



increase in key positive social interactions



decrease in negative interactions



increase in narrative and play ability

Story Table: Initial Study

19

Collaborative Puzzle Game:

Options for
non verbal
children

20

PlayCubes
: Individual or
Collaboration
-

DCD

Bi
-
directional Interface


Real
-
time
3
D

Modeling

Real
-
time Interaction

PlayCubes
: Individual or
Collaboration
-

DCD

PlayCubes
: Individual or
Collaboration
-

DCD

Quantitative tracking of the similarity scores
during the construction process

Airplane - Typically Developed
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
15
30
45
60
75
90
105
120
135
150
Time (s)
Similarity (%)
Similarity versus time during the construction of the airplane and slide apparatus


Pyramid - Typically Developed
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
15
30
45
60
75
90
105
120
135
150
Time (s)
Similarity (%)
Airplane

Slide

PlayCubes
: Individual or
Collaboration
-

DCD

TSU.MI.KI

24

24

24

24

User


Location Plane

25

Remote User

Home / School /
Community

Central System

(phase II)

Central


DB

(phase II)

Central Unit

Therapist /

Educator / Psychologist

From Avatars to Virtual Humans

(Tele
-
Health)

Autism tele
-
consult

From Avatars to Virtual Humans

Autism : Justine Cassel’s
virtual peers

Eye tracking


Autism : virtual mall

27

27

User


Location Plane

28

Second Life
an Internet
-
based virtual world
launched in
2003
by Linden’s Lab
http://lindenlab.com
).




“Residents” inhabit virtual worlds and interact via avatars




Users participate in individual and group activities, and to create
and trade items and services using Linden dollars




By the end of March
2008
,
13
million registered accounts.
About
38
,
000
residents are logged on to Second Life
at any particular moment.



number of medical & health educational projects:


Nutrition Game


Occupational Therapy at the Virtual Neurological Education
Centre


Brigadoon designed for people with
Asperger’s

syndrome.
Brigadoon
-

a controlled environment where users are
encouraged to feel comfortable and learn socialization skills
at their own pace.


Link

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pmTXGQ
2
BhUA&feature=PlayList&p=E
048
D
6
F
190577
DE
D&index=
0
&playnext=
1


29

Balancing Collaboration Technologies:
Assets and Limitations for ASD


technical complexity


cost


non
-
real context


Isolation

Bane?



Motivation / enjoyment


Initiative / independence


self actualization


Challenge for caregiver

Boon?

Bottom Line


effectiveness?


transfer?

30

30

Studies using Virtual Reality and
Shared Active Surfaces for Autism:

Table of Evidence
-

AACPDM

Level

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Intervention

Ty灥p潦⁳瑵ty 摥d楧n

VR
studies
(N=
18
)

SAS
studies
(N=
19
)

I

Good

Meta
-
analysis of randomized
controlled trials (RCT)

II

Large
-
sample RCT

III

Good to fair
?
Small
-
sample RCT

IV

Nonrandomized controlled
prospective trials

3

V

Nonrandomized controlled
retrospective trials

VI

Fair

Cohort studies

7

VII

Case
-
control studies

2

3

VIII

Poor

Non
-
controlled clinical series:
descriptive studies

8

4

IX

Anecdotes or case reports

5

5

31

Caesarea
-
Rothschild Institute

Fondation Ida et Avrohom Baruch

Israeli Ministry of Health

Israeli Ministry of Defense

Yad Hanadiv
-
Keren Rothschild

Israeli Foundation for Spinal Cord Injured due to Gunshot

Israel Science Foundation

Keren Shalem

Koniver Foundation

Rayne Foundation

Autism Speaks

European Union FP
7
ICT

Acknowledgements


Laboratory for Innovations

in Rehabilitation Technology

University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel