From Interaction to Trajectories

slipperhangingΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

47 εμφανίσεις

From Interaction to Trajectories

Steve Benford

Mixed Reality Laboratory

University of Nottingham

Desert Rain (1997)

Uncle Roy All Around You (2003)

Fairground: Thrill Laboratory (2006)


Day of the Figurines (2006)

Trajectories


All four experiences combine interactivity with live
performance


They also exhibit complex and extended spatial and
temporal structures


They are unified by the approach of creating a
coherent journey through the experience


Building on recent studies of interactive exhibits, these
journeys can be described in terms of
trajectories


Trajectories through hybrid space

Mixed Reality Continuum (Milgram and Kishino
)

Virtual
Reality

(Everyday)
Reality

Augmented
Reality

Augmented
Virtuality

immersion

ubiquity


Our experiences
combine multiple points
on the continuum to form
complex hybrid space
through which
participants move

Trajectories through hybrid time

Story time


The temporal structure of the
underlying story world

Plot time


The temporal structure of the
narration of the story

Interaction time


The times at which a participant
chooses or is able to interact

Schedule time


The times at which the narration
is made available

Perceived time


The timing of interactions as
perceived by the participant

Time as conceived by the author

Time as perceived by the participant

Trajectories through roles

Spectators

Audience

Bystanders

Participants

Street players

Online players

Performers

Actors

Orchestrators

each role follows
its own trajectory
and there are
trajectories
between roles

Trajectories through interfaces


Interfaces are
designed and also
arranged to establish
a trajectory of
interaction


Transitions and Traversals

Trajectories have to negotiate various
transitions and traversals during which
continuity may be at risk

Transitions and Traversals

beginnings

Trajectories have to negotiate various
transitions and traversals during which
continuity may be at risk

Transitions and Traversals

beginnings

Role and interface
transitions

Trajectories have to negotiate various
transitions and traversals during which
continuity may be at risk

Transitions and Traversals

beginnings

Role and interface
transitions

Temporal
episodes

Trajectories have to negotiate various
transitions and traversals during which
continuity may be at risk

P507_Floss
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P597_LINUS
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0
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4
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4
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4
2
2
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4
4
2
P598_Humbert
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4
4
2
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4
4
4
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4
4
4
2
P599_HALIMAH
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0
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0
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0
0
0
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
P600_Donna_Karan
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0
0
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0
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4
4
4
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
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2
P601_Maximilano
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0
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0
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0
0
0
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4
2
4
2
2
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
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0
0
0
P602_RAVE
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0
0
0
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0
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4
6
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0
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P603_Sayuri
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5
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P604_LOLITA
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P605_Sara_naeato
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P606_HISASHI
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4
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P607_Nakey
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0
0
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0
P608_ELFIE
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0
0
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0
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4
4
2
2
2
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2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
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2
2
P609_Gioia_pris
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0
0
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0
0
0
0
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
6
0
0
0
0
0
P610_ELHIZEN
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0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
P611_Candi_XXX
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0
0
0
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0
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4
2
2
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2
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4
2
2
P612_Idiot
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0
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5
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P613_Min
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5
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P614_Jenny_Vixen
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2
P615_Halo
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0
0
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0
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4
4
2
2
4
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2
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2
P616_Deb
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0
0
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0
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4
4
2
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4
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2
2
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4
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
P617_Princess
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
2
4
2
P618_Gene
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
2
2
2
4
2
P619_Gerald444
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
P620_Meikai333
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
P621_Blink
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P622_Scout
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
P506_Danmiguel
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
2
P507_Adama
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
2
2
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P508_Tracy
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
P509_WoonTienWei
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
P510_Bendi
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
4
4
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
4
2
P511_xiao2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P512_dial
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
P513_tama
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
P514_June_Koh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
2
4
4
2
2
4
2
2
4
4
4
2
P515_scuba_steve
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
4
2
2
2
2
6
0
0
0
0
0
P516_ben
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
2
2
4
2
2
4
2
4
2
P517_Nigel
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
P518_Ian
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P519_Alcadeias
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P520_Terri
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
2
2
4
2
2
5
0
0
0
P521_Red_R_Hood
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
6
0
0
0
0
P522_Suchda
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P523_Cheryl
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
4
4
2
P524_Mrs_Robinson
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
P525_Swift
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0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
P526_Luke_jr
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
P527_BOBBLE_HEAD
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
P528_DELIGHT
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0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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0
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
P529_Sandman
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0
0
0
0
0
0
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4
4
6
0
0
0
0
P530_MIMIMOMO
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
4
4
4
2
P531_Hateful
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0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
2
2
2
2
P532_yun
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0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
P533_eddie
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
2
2
P534_T_REX
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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4
4
2
P535_Jeff_Buckley
0
0
0
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0
0
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4
2
Transitions and Traversals

beginnings

Role and interface
transitions

Temporal
episodes

Physical
-
virtual
traversals

Trajectories have to negotiate various
transitions and traversals during which
continuity may be at risk

Transitions and Traversals

beginnings

Role and interface
transitions

Temporal
episodes

Physical
-
virtual
traversals

Access to physical
resources

Trajectories have to negotiate various
transitions and traversals during which
continuity may be at risk

Transitions and Traversals

beginnings

Role and interface
transitions

Temporal
episodes

Physical
-
virtual
traversals

Access to physical
resources

Seams

Trajectories have to negotiate various
transitions and traversals during which
continuity may be at risk

Transitions and Traversals

beginnings

Role and interface
transitions

Temporal
episodes

Physical
-
virtual
traversals

Access to physical
resources

Seams

endings

Trajectories have to negotiate various
transitions and traversals during which
continuity may be at risk

Negotiating Trajectories

Participant
trajectory

Canonical
trajectory

Canonical and participant trajectories
represent an author’s ideal journey and a
participant’s actual journey respectively

Negotiating Trajectories

Participant
trajectory

Canonical
trajectory

Interactivity
drives
divergence

Canonical and participant trajectories
represent an author’s ideal journey and a
participant’s actual journey respectively

Negotiating Trajectories

Participant
trajectory

Canonical
trajectory

Orchestration
drives

convergence

Canonical and participant trajectories
represent an author’s ideal journey and a
participant’s actual journey respectively

Interleaving Trajectories

Multiple trajectories can
represent different participants
or different applications

Participant ‘red’

Participant
‘blue

Interleaving Trajectories

Multiple trajectories can
represent different participants
or different applications

Participant ‘red’

Participant
‘blue

Mutual awareness
and encounters
when trajectories
come together

Interleaving Trajectories

Multiple trajectories can
represent different participants
or different applications

Participant ‘red’

Participant
‘blue

Steer trajectories apart
to avoid contention or
to minimise distractions
and interruptions

Interleaving Trajectories

Multiple trajectories can
represent different participants
or different applications

Participant ‘red’

Participant
‘blue

Pacing involves
keeping trajectories
together

Summary of Trajectories


A
trajectory

describes a journey through an extended user experience
emphasising
continuity

and
coherence


Trajectories pass through
hybrid structures

of
space, time, roles

and
ecologies of
interfaces


Trajectories have to cross key
transitions

including
beginnings,
endings, role and interface transitions, physical
-
virtual transitions,
temporal episodes, physical resources

and
seams


Canonical

trajectories

and
participant trajectories

represent author
and participant control and diverge and converge due to
interactivity

and
orchestration


Interleaved trajectories

describe collaborative and/or multi
-
tasking
situations and address
encounters, awareness, separation, pacing

and
prioritisation


Putting Trajectories to Work


Providing sensitising concepts for empirical studies


A vehicle for compiling craft knowledge


Identifying requirements for new technologies


Towards a dramaturgy of interactive user experience



‘Serious’ experiences?


Cultural experiences may provoke
reflection and debate


Addressing challenging themes


Using ambiguity to provoke interpretation


Wider applications of trajectories


Designing complete VR experiences


Supporting learning




Further Information


www.mrl.nott.ac.uk



www.blasthoery.co.uk


www.thrilllaboratory.com



Papers and videos available at:
www.mrl.nott.ac.uk/~sdb


Benford, Giannachi, Koleva & Rodden, ‘From Interaction to
Trajectories: Designing Coherent Journeys Through User
Experiences’, ACM CHI 2009


Benford &Giannachi, ‘Temporal Trajectories in Shared Interactive
Narratives’, ACM CHI 2008


Benford et al, ‘The Frame of the Game’, ACM CHI 2006


Reeves, Benford, O’Malley and Fraser, ‘Designing the Spectator
Interface, ACM CHI 2005


Gaver, Beaver & Benford, ‘The Role of Ambiguity in Interfac
Design’, ACM CHI 2003