Development of Virtual Driving Simulator

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Case Study


Development of Virtual Driving Simulator
for Transportation Research

M. K. Abdul Jalil, PhD


Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Johor, Malaysia


© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

This presentation


To share with you our short research experience
of developing a static base driving simulator


Basis for vehicle related reach activities in the
future


Development of basic research in computational
and visualization areas

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Introduction


Virtual reality is a technology allows user to feel immersed
in a computer
-
generated environment


A virtual driving simulator is a virtual reality device allows
its user to feel a life
-
like experience of driving an actual
vehicle


A driving simulator is cost effective tool to enable analysis
on driving characteristics, and interaction between visual
database and vehicles


A low cost PC
-
based static driving simulator can be used
to develop VR related system

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

History of Driving Simulator

Root on flight
simulator in
early 1900s

Daimler
-
Benz
high
-
fidelity
driving simulator
in 1985 with the
advent of
computer
technologies

Advanced
driving
simulator
constructed
since 1990s

The most sophisticated
driving simulator around the
world, NADS in Iowa

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Advanced

Simulator


Capable of simulating the dynamic
motions and scenes of actual
vehicle with high fidelity
simulation output



Construction cost is very high with
consists of a visual system, control
feel system, dynamic feedback
platform, auditory system and
complex full developed vehicle
dynamic model



Examples: National Advanced
Driving Simulator (NADS), Leeds
Advanced Driving Simulator (LADS)


© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Why Driving Simulator?


Vehicle Prototyping



new vehicle design, ride
and handling


Safety Related Issues



DWI, Cellular Phone,
Driving endurance, blind spot


Drivers Training



truck simulators, train
simulators

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Components


Visual database

-

simulation of
surrounding environment, including
other vehicles


Vehicle Dynamic Model
(VDM)

-

simulation of the physics of
vehicle model and the road surface




Driving Cab



A system that enables the operator
to interpret the state of the model
such as visual display



Control devices, such as steering
wheel, brake pedal and throttle

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Our Research ..


Static

base

simulator


PC based
,
low
-
cost,
with

sufficient graphic
quality


Components



visual database



audio + visual database


VDM


Vehicle control


accelerator, steering, brake


As a groundwork and preliminary attempt
to

develop
an
advanced driving simulator

for vehicle related
research

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

System Architecture

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Hardware

3
Potentiometer
s

CB
-
68LP, 68
-
Pin Digital and
Trigger I/O Terminal Block

NI PCI 6024E, 200 kS/s, 12
-
Bit,
16 Analog Input Multifunction
DAQ

To PCI
slot of
Server
CPU

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Issues



Visual Database Rendering cost


Effective way of producing a detailed image, without using too much computer
power


Graphic optimization is implemented


LOD



Simulation Frame
-
rate &
Fidelity of Vehicle Driving
Simulator


Large graphical delays mean a great risk of the driver getting dizzy even if the
screen has good acuity


Acceptable frame
-
rate to human user (approx 40 frame/second)


Enough quality and temporal response for driving tasks and maneuvers



Real
-
time Computation of Vehicle Dynamic Model (VDM)


The ability to run in real time depends on the integration time step and the
complexity of the vehicle dynamic model


6 DOF VDM is used

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Visual Database


VR environment is developed using WorldToolKit
(WTK) programming language.



All models created using AutoCAD & 3D

Studio



WTK
reads

these models into the VR environment and
manage
them
under Scene Graph



WTK universe includes:


Static models


sky, landscape, buildings, road, barriers, lights


Effects


fog, sound


Transform node


driver

s view port in VR environment


Position information


c
urrent position data extraction

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Scene Graph Management

Universe

Root Node

Light Node

Group Node

Position

Information

Transform

Node

Geometry

Node

Driver View port

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Graphic
Construction &
Optimisation


Shell Modeling


Texture Mapping


Visible Facet


Foggy Effect


Recursion Technique


Collision Detection


Level of Detail (LOD)

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Shell Modeling


Models loaded into WTK
are prepared in 3D shell
(
rather
than

solid
)

for
polygon reduction.


Shell modelling
reduces

memory usage in
the
rendering of
model
internal part
s

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Texture Mapping


Texture mapping to
improve visual database
realism


Real photo images were
taken by using digital
camera and exported in
.jpeg

format

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Visible Facet


Visible facet of building
containing window
frames and wall are
created using single
polygon with wall
textures image mapped
on the polygon to
minimize graphical
complexity

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Fog Effect


Driver visibility


Linear model used

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Collision Detection


Realistic road driving
simulation


Against curbs, buildings,
etc

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Level of Detail (LOD)


Closer objects


good
graphics


Far objects


minimal
rendering

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

WTK Virtual Environment

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Network Data Transmission


Transmission Control Protocol / Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) was employed as the
data transmission protocol between 2
PC

s



TCP is a connection
-
based protocol
designed to ensure smooth data transfer


© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Vehicle Dynamic Model (VDM)


The vehicle dynamic model
is
computed using

MATLAB
-
SIMULINK program in the
server computer




SIMULINK S
-
function block
construct
s

a TCP/IP port for
data interface
with the

client computer

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Handling Dynamic Model


cos
V
u


sin
V
v































v
u
Y
X




cos
sin
sin
cos
The velocities components and from
vehicle velocity, and its sideslip angle, in
the equations

Equations of motion of handling system

























Y
N
Y
mV
N
Y
N
Y
mV
N
)
(
)
(






















Y
N
Y
mV
N
Y
N
N
Y
)
(
Handling Coefficients Corresponds
To Velocity (Courtesy from Motor
Vehicle Dynamic, World Scientific)

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Handing and Cornering Effect

The view port is from the position of vehicle c.g.

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Quarter
-
Car Model

)
(
sfl
ufl
fl
sfl
Z
Z
k
F


)
(
sfl
ufl
S
dfl
Z
Z
C
F




)
(
ufl
rfl
tfl
tfl
Z
Z
k
F


)
(
ufl
rfl
St
dtfl
Z
Z
C
F




ufl
ufl
dtfl
dfl
sfl
tfl
Z
m
F
F
F
F






ufl
dtfl
dfl
sfl
tfl
ufl
m
F
F
F
F
Z





Quarter
-
Car Model

A two
-
degree of freedom quarter
-
car model
is suitable to examine the forces acting on
the suspension system natural frequency up
to 30
-
50Hz

Arrange

in

the

form

of

Newton’s

Second

Law,

the

unsprung

mass

vertical

acceleration

is

computed



© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Full
-
Car Model

B
rr
rl
fr
fl
b
m
F
F
F
F
Z






XX
rr
fr
rl
fl
I
a
F
F
a
F
F
)
2
)(
(
)
2
)(
(







YY
fr
fl
rr
rl
I
b
F
F
b
F
F
)
2
)(
(
)
2
)(
(







The result obtained from quarter
-
car model is substituted into

Full
-
car model. The equation of motions of suspension system are





b
B
Z
m
F





XX
X
I
M





YY
Y
I
M
Hence, the variables of
dynamic model is obtained

Full
-
Car Model

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Visualization of Suspension Response

The view port is from the position of vehicle c.g.

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Suspension Response of Vehicle

Road Input, [Z]


Vertical
Translation, z

Roll angle

Pitch angle

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Conclusion


Our first attempt to

develop

a

low
-
cost
static base driving simulator using VR
technology
is almost completed
.


This project provide
s

the groundwork for
future

development
of
advanced driving
simulator.


© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Future work


Integration of Motion base


Development of traffic simulation


Comprehensive database development


More efficient computational and graphics
rendering methods


parallel rendering, better
approximation methods

© Engineering Visualization Research Group
(EVRG)

ICPDD ’04, Kota Kinabalu

Thank You


Contact:
kasim@fkm.utm.my