Department of Psychology

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Dr. Steve Kass

Department of Psychology

University of West Florida

What is Human Factors?


The discovery and
application of information
about human behavior,
abilities, and other
characteristics to the
design of tools,
machines, systems,
tasks, jobs, and
environments for
productive, safe,
comfortable, and
effective human use.

Human Factors Psychology and
Related Disciplines



Ergonomics


Human Factors Engineering


Engineering Psychology


Human
-
Machine Interaction


Cognitive Engineering


Industrial/Organizational Psychology


Scope of Human Factors

Human Factors Research
Journals



Human Factors



Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics
Society Annual Conference



Proceedings of Interservice/Industry Training
Systems and Education Conference



Ergonomics



Applied Ergonomics



Human Factors and Aerospace Safety



The International Journal of Aviation Psychology



Human Performance


Transportation Research



IEEE

History of Human Factors


Emerged during World War II


Need for people to effectively operate sophisticated military
systems


Early emphasis was on productivity and physiology


After WWII the discipline continued to grow to
meet the challenge of non
-
military problems


Emphasis shifted to include other objectives, such as safer
and healthier working environments and improvements in
the quality of working life


HF boosted by space program, computers, home
technology

Role of Human Factors


User
-
Centered Design


Systems designed to fit people (not vice
-
versa).


Reduces training time.


Minimizes human error.


Improves comfort, safety, and productivity.

Where do Human Factors
Professionals Work?


Colleges and Universities


Military Research Facilities and Settings


IBM


Motorola


American Airlines


Hewlett
-
Packard


Kodak


Yahoo!


Gateway

Approaches for Problem
-
Solving


Equipment Design



change physical equipment


Task Design



change how task is accomplished


Environmental Design



change features of the
work environment such as temperature, lighting,
sound


Training


change worker behavior by providing
skills and teaching procedures


Selection



recognizes individual differences in
ability to accomplish work

Human Factors Activities


Accident Investigation/Expert Witness


Simulation, Virtual Reality, & Training


Occupational/Public Health & Safety


Consumer Products


Basic & Applied Research

Accident Investigation

February 2001, U.S. sub accidentally sinks fishing boat

1999 London Train Accident

Simulation & Training


Submarine Training Simulators


Virtual Reality

Occupational Safety

Occupational Safety


Consumer Products Ergonomics

No Channel Surfing


Research


Tactile Situation Awareness Suit


Design Considerations


Affordances


User Stereotypes/Expectancies


Stimulus
-
Response Compatibility


Cognitive Ability


Physical Ability


Anthropometry


Sensation & Perceptual Capabilities


User Preferences


Environment

Affordances

Bathroom Blunder


Problem: Look & placement afford behaviors other than those intended

User Stereotypes/Expectancies


Butterfly Ballot
-
Palm Beach County, FL


Problem: Violates expectations of reading order & experience

User Stereotypes/Expectancies

The Sound of Music

Problem: Lack of spatial proximity

Stimulus
-
Response Compatibility

Why Isn’t My Food Getting Hot?


Problem: Lack of natural mapping from controls to burners

Stimulus
-
Response Compatibility

Suggested Solution


Stimulus Response Compatibility

Purposely intended to slow performance

Cognitive Ability

Cognitive Ability

Problem: Decision making under time stress

Physical Abilities

Three Cosmonauts aboard Soyuz 11 that died in 1971

Anthropometry



Design for Average




Design for Extreme




Design for Adjustability

Sensation & Perceptual Capabilities

Red Light, Green Light, Stop!

Visual Complexity

Perceptual Illusions

User Preferences

The Beaten Path


Environment



G
-
forces/Weightlessness



Heat/Cold



Lighting



Noise/Vibration



Stress



Chemicals

Human Factors Application

This innovative office design improves

productivity and efficiency by 4.35%