International Law in the Middle East

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POLS 472
-
01

International Law in the Middle East

Fall 2013

Dr. Nesrine Badawi

nbadawi@aucegypt.edu

Meeting: Monday and Wednesday 10:00
-
11:15 am

Office Hours: Monday and Wednesday 11:15


12:15 (but you need to book an appointment
24 hours in advance)





Over the course of this semester we will be using the theory and practice of international law
to help us make sense of some of the most significant and controversial issues facing states,
peoples and individuals in the MENA region, and to think critica
lly about the manner in
which these issues have arisen and been responded to. Focusing broadly on two themes


self
-
determination and the use of force


the topics we will examine include: the influence of
European colonialism on state
-
formation in the Mid
dle East; the 2003 invasion of Iraq and
the controversial doctrine of “pre
-
emptive self
-
defence” used to justify this invasion;
NATO’s “humanitarian” intervention in Libya and the wider question of the international
community’s “responsibility to protect”,

and many other regional issues to which the
international legal dimension is crucial. We will also be reversing this relationship, using our
analysis of the issues facing the Middle East to help us make sense of, and think critically
about, international
law. For instance, if the Security Council
had

passed a second resolution
authorising the use of force against Iraq in 2003, would we


as international lawyers


have
nothing to criticise about the war and its aftermath?


This course is premised on the
idea of student
-
led learning: in this class your views
(informed, of course, by your reading, thinking and independent research) are considered
both legitimate and important. As one of its members, therefore, you are not only encouraged,
but expected, to p
articipate.



COURSE ASSESSMENT



Paper (due December 2
nd
,2013)






20%

Midterm








25%

Final









25%

Participation and Attendance






20%


Paper:

You will be asked to write a research paper on a relevant topic.

Paper Word Count: 3000
-
3500 words (excluding footnotes).


Participation
:

Students are expected to participate actively in every class, and will be called upon in each
class to discuss the reading materials and answer related questions. If you are not pre
sent, or
if you are unprepared, you will receive no credit towards your participation grade, which is
worth 10% of the total mark.

As part of the participation assessment, you will be asked to take several pop quizzes





GRADING POLICY

N.B. Coursework

that is handed in late will be penalised at a rate of
10
%
for the first 24
hours and 20% for the next 24 hours
.

No assignments will be accepted after 48 hours.

There
are no exceptions to this rule.



A 94
-
100

B+

87
-
89

C+

77
-
79

D+

67
-
69






F <59

A
-

90
-
93







B


84
-
86


C


74
-
76






D


64
-
66















B
-

80
-
83




C
-

70
-
73








D
-

60
-
63



READING MATERIALS


There no textbooks for the course; instead, you will be provided with readings and handouts,
which will be made available to you on blackboard, or by email, if they are not available on
the internet directly.
Please bring the relevant readings to class wit
h you
.

The “core
reading” texts are compulsory. You must read and reflect on all of these before coming to
class, using the list of “discussion points” for each topic to guide your thinking. Please note,
however, that the list of “further readings” for any

topic is by no means comprehensive; on
the contrary, these materials constitute only a very tiny selection of what is out there, and are
designed to broaden your knowledge and spark your imagination with regard to a particular
topic. When writing essays a
nd revising for exams you are expected to do your own research
into the areas you need to know more about


a task which has become vastly easier in recent
years thanks to the huge range of international legal materials and scholarship now available
electr
onically, either via databases such as HeinOnline, and/or directly on the web (see
“useful websites and other resources”, below). Please refer back to this syllabus at all times.



ELECTRONIC RESOURCES


HeinOnline
(database of legal journal articles, among

other things):

Go to AUC Library >> Find Articles [With Databases] >> See All Databases >> HeinOnline
Core Collection >> Law Journal Library [from where you can either look up a journal article
via the alphabetical list of law journals; or click on the S
EARCH tab >> Field Search >> and
search for what you want.


Avalon Project

(Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy):
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/

(see esp. Avalon’s special collection, “Middle East 1916
-
2001: A
Documentary Record,”
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/mideast.asp
)

Al Haq,







http://www.alhaq.org/


United Nations







www.un.org

Security Council Resolutions Archive





www.un.org/documents/scres.htm

General Assembly Resolutions Archive




www.un.org/documents/resga.htm


UN Treaty Collection







http://treaties.un.org/


International Court of Justice





www.icj
-
cij.org

International Criminal Tribunal for

the Former

Yugoslavia

www.icty.org

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda



www.un.org/ictr/

International Criminal Court





www.icc
-
cpi.int

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights




www.ohchr.org

European Court of Human Rights




www.echr.coe.int/echr


Inter
-
American Court of Human Rights



www.corteidh.or.cr

United Nations Peacebuilding Commission




http://www.un.org/peace/peacebuilding/

International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect


www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/

International Committee of the Red Cross




www.icrc.org/

Amnesty International







www.amnesty.org/


Human Rights Watch







www.hrw.org/ar


Coalition Provisional Authority

(inc. legal documents relating to the occupation)
www.iraqcoalition.org/

B'Tselem

(Israeli Info. Center for Human Rights in the OPT)
www.btselem.org/


Breaking the Silence

(Israeli soldiers talk about the OPT)

www.breakingthesilence.or
g.il/

A
l
-
Haq

(Palestinian human rights NGO)



www.alhaq.org/

Jadaliyya

(ezine produced by the Arab Studies Institute)

www.jadaliyya.com/


>>

see esp. recently
-
launched section on “Occupation, Intervention and Law (OIL)”:
http
://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/2063/jadaliyya
-
launches
-
secti
on
-
on
-
occupation
-
intervent

Inner City Press







www.innercitypress.com/i
ndex.html

Law and Disorder

(blog)





http://pashukanis.blogspot.
com/


Insid
e Justice

(blog)






http://insidejustice.com/



For links to other useful websites for international legal materials, see:


American Society of International Law

(ASIL)

www.asil.org/electronic
-
resources.cfm

>> see also ASIL Insights (
"international law behind the headlines," provide brief, balanced
accounts of the international law issues raised by newsworthy late
-
breaking events)

www.asil.org/insights.cfm

European Journal of International Law

(EJIL), archived online at
http://www.ejil.org/archives.php

>> see also EJIL

links:




http://www.ejil.org/links/index.php


University of Chicago





www.lib.uchicago.edu/~llou/forintlaw.html

Lauterpacht Centre for

International Law


www.lcil.cam.ac.uk/




CLASSROOM POLICIES


Behaviour
:

Students are expected to abide by the
Student Academic Conduct Code

and assist in creating
an environment that is conducive to learning and that protects the rights of all members of the
University community. Incivility and disruptive behaviour will not be tolerated, will certainly
lead to a low participation grade, if no
t a fail, and may result in a request to leave class and
referral to the Office of Student Affairs for discipline. Examples of inappropriate classroom
conduct include repeatedly arriving late, using a mobile phone or checking email/internet
during class, t
alking while the instructor or other students are speaking and leaving the
classroom without permission.

Plagiarism/Cheating
:

Plagiarism and cheating of any kind will not be tolerated. Any assignment which shows
evidence of either will receive an immedia
te fail. It is essential that you attribute
all

the ideas
that you have borrowed. Distinguishing between your own words and ideas and those of
others is by no means as easy as it sounds. See the University guidelines for more details:
http://www.aucegypt.edu/academics/integrity/Students/Pages/default.aspx


Lateness
:

Minor and infrequent lateness is occasionally unavoidable, but please enter the classroom
quietly and wit
h as little disruption as possible. Repeated or disruptive lateness will be
penalised.


Mobile phones and laptop computers
:

Any and every use of mobile phones during class is strictly prohibited. If you use your phone,
it will be confiscated for at least
the rest of the class, and your participation grade will suffer.
Similarly, when it comes to the use of laptops, this must be for note
-
taking only. Accessing
the internet or using instant messaging programmes is not permitted. If used for these
purposes, y
ou will lose the privilege of using your laptop in class and marks will be deducted
from your participation grade.


Sessions


Session 1

(
04/09/2013
): Introduction to the Course


Session 2 (
08/09/2013
): Critical Tools I




Nathaniel Berman, “In the Wake of Empire.”
American University International Law
Review
14 (1999), 1521
-
69.



James Thuo Gathii, “International Law and Eurocentricity,”
European Journal of
International Law

9 (1998), 184
-
211.



Session 3

(
11/09/2013
):
Critical Tools II




Antony Anghie & B. S. Chimni, “Third World Approaches to International Law and
Individual Responsibility in Internal Conflicts,”
Chinese Journal of International Law

2 (2003), 77
-
103


focus on pp. 77
-
87.



Martti Koskenniemi,
The Gentle C
iviliser of Nations: the Rise and Fall of
International Law, 1870
-
1960
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, Chs. 1
and 2.



Statehood and Self Determination


Session 4

(
15/09/2013
)

& Session 5 (18/09/2013)
:

Statehood, Recognition and
International Personality in the Nineteenth Century


the Ottoman Empire


CORE READING
:



Hugh McKinnon Wood, “The Treaty of Paris and Turkey’s Status in International
Law,”
American Journal of International Law
37 (1943), 262
-
74.



Feroz Ahmad, “Ottoman Perceptions of the Capitulations, 1800
-
1914,”Journal of
Islamic Studies 11 (2000), 1
-
20.



John Westlake,
The Collected Papers of John Westlake on International Law
, ed.
Lassa Oppenheim (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1914),
6
-
7; 78
-
85.


FURTHER READING
:



Brett Bowden, “The Colonial Origins of International Law: European Expansion and
the Classical Standard of Civilisation,”
Journal of the History of International Law

7
(2005), 1
-
23.



Lassa Oppenheim,
International Law: a
Treatise
, Vol. 1, 1
st

Ed. (London, New York
& Bombay: Longmans, Greens & Co., 1905),
pp. 30
-
34; 99
-
101.



Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (inter
-
American)
, Montevideo, 26 Dec.
1933,
LNTS

165 (1934) 19 [“Montevideo Convention”], available at
http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Montevideo_Convention




General Act of the Conference of Berlin
, Berlin, 26 February 1885. BSP & Other,
76/4 [“Berlin Act”], esp. Arts. I, V, VI, IX, X, XXXIV and

XXXV.





Session 6 (
22/09/2013
)

& Session 7 (25/09/2013)
: The Legal Framework for Self
-
Determination in the Middle East prior to 1945


Protectorates


CORE READING
:



Malcolm McIlwraith, “The Declaration of a Protectorate in Egypt and its Legal
Effects,”
Journal of Social and Comparative Legislation

17 (1917), 238
-
59.



James Crawford,
The Creation of States in International Law
. 2
nd

Ed (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 2006), pp. 282
-
328 (Ch. 7: “Dependent States and Other Dependent
Entities”).


FURTHER READING
:



Norman Dwight Harris, “The New Moroccan Protectorate,”
American Journal of
International Law

7 (1913), 245
-
67, esp. p. 261, ff.



Nathan J. Brown, “Law and Imperialism: Egypt in Comparative Perspective,”
Law &
Society Review

29 (1995), 103
-
125.



Robert L. Ti
gnor, “Decolonization and Business: the Case of Egypt,”
The Journal of
Modern History

59 (1987), 479
-
505.


Session 8 (
29/09.2013
)

& Session 9 (02/10/2013)
: The Legal Framework for Self
-
Determination in the Middle East prior to 1945


Mandates


CORE
READING
:



Antony Anghie, “Colonialism and the Birth of International Institutions: Sovereignty,
Economy and the Mandate System of the League of Nations,”
New York University
Journal

of
International Law and Politics
34 (2002), 513
-
633.


FURTHER READING
:



Address on the Fourteen Points for Peace
. Speech by US President Woodrow
Wilson to Congress, 8 Jan. 1918. The Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library,
available at
http://wwl2.dataformat.com/D
ocument.aspx?doc=30716



Nathaniel Berman, “‘But the Alternative is Despair’: European Nationalism and the
Modernist Renewal of International Law.”
Harvard Law Review

106 (1992
-
93),
1793
-
1903.


Holiday:

06/10/2013


Session 10

(
09/10/2013
): Midterm


Holiday:

16/10/2013


Session 11

(
13/10/2013
) & Session 12 (20/10/2013)
: Self Determination in the Middle
East: Palestine
-

UP to 1948 (Critical Perspectives)




CORE READING
:



Geoffrey Watson, “Before Oslo: A Brief Legal History of the Arab
-
Israeli Conflict,”
pp. 3
-
40 in
The Oslo Accords: International Law and the Israeli
-
Palestinian Peace
Agreements
, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).



GA Res.181 (“
Partition Plan”
)
,

A/Res/
181(II)[A
-
B], 29 Nov. 1947, available at
http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/resguide/r2.htm




Declaration of the State of Israel,
14 May,1948, available at
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/Declaratio
n+of+Establishment+of+State+of+Israel.htm



SC Res. 242, 22 Nov. 1967, available at
http://www.un.org/documents/sc/res/1967/scres67.htm


FURTHER READING
:



Sykes
-
Picot Agreement, 16 May 1916, available at
http
://www.firstworldwar.com/source/sykespicot.htm




Hussein
-
McMahon Correspondence, 14 July


10 Mar. 1916,
esp. Letters 1
-
4,

available at
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jso
urce/History/hussmac1.html




The Balfour Declaration,

November 2, 1917:
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/balfour.asp



British Mandate for Palestine, in
American Journal of
International Law

17,
Supplement: Official Documents (Jul. 1923), 164
-
71.



Benny Morris, “The idea of transfer in Zionist thinking before 1948”, in Benny
Morris,
The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited
, 2
nd

Ed. (Cambridge:
Cambridge Universi
ty Press, 2
nd

ed., 2004), 40
-
64 (available as an e
-
book through the
library website)



Summary of the Report of the Palestine Royal Commission,
July
1937

(“Peel
Commission”),
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/peel1.html




British White Paper

on Palestine
, 9 Nov. 1938 (approved by Parliament, 1939),

available at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/brwh1939.asp



Anglo
-
American Committee of Inquiry,

April 1946
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/angap04.asp



SC Res. 338, 22 Oct. 1973, available at
http://www.un.org/documents/
sc/res/1973/scres73.htm


Holiday:

16/10/2013


Session 1
3

(
23/10/2013
) & Session 14 (27/10/2013)
: Self Determination in the Middle
East: Palestine
-

Up to Present (Critical Perspectives):


CORE READING
:



Declaration of Principles on Interim Self
-
Government Arrangements, Agreement
between the Government of Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organisation, 13
Sep. 1993, available at
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/key_doc
uments/1682727.stm




Israeli
-
Palestinian Interim Agreement (“Oslo II”), Washington, 28 Sep. 1995,
available at
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/interimtoc.html




A

Performance
-
Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two
-
State Solution to the Israeli
-
Palestinian Conflict
, April 30, 2003

available at

http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/A+Perfor
mance
-
Based+Roadmap+to+a+Permanent+Two
-
Sta
.htm



GA Res. 67/19, Status of Palestine in the United Nations, 4 Dec. 2012, at
http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/67/19



FURTHER READING
:



PLO Negotiations Affairs Department, “The Historic Compromise: The Palestinian
Declaration of Independence and the Twenty
-
Year Struggle for a Two
-
State
Solution,”
Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (European
University Institute: Ro
bert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies),
15. Nov. 2008,
available at
http://www.carim.org/public/polsoctexts/PS2PAL005_EN.pdf



Palestine’s UN Initiatives and the Representation of th
e Palestinian People’s Rights
,
Al Haq’s Questions & Answers, 15 Sep. 2011, Ref. 286/2011, at
http://www.alhaq.org/images/stories/PDF/QA_on_representation.pdf




Aeyal Gross, “Fo
llowing UN Vote on Palestine, Israel may now find itself at the
Hague,”
Haaretz
, 2 Dec. 2012, at
http://www.haaretz.com/opinion/following
-
un
-
vote
-
on
-
palestine
-
israel
-
may
-
now
-
find
-
itself
-
at
-
the
-
hague.premium
-
1.481919



Aeyal Gross, “Palestinian Statehood of Confusion,”
Haaretz
, 30 Nov. 2012, at
http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy
-
defense/palestinian
-
statehood
-
of
-
confusion.premium
-
1.481541



Session 15
: 30/10/2013

Changing Attitudes to Self
-
Determination


Western Sahara and
the “earned sover
eignty” approach


Core Reading
:



Western Sahara Advisory Opinion
, ICJ Rep., 1975,
paras. 35
-
37; 42
-
59; 70
-
83; 87
-
89 and 162.



Catriona Drew, “The Meaning of Self
-
Determination: ‘The Stealing of the Sahara’
Redux?” In Karin Arts & Pedro Pinto Leite, eds.,
International Law and the Question
of Western Sahara

(Leiden: International Platform for Jurists of East Timor, 2007),
15
-
122.



Paul R. Williams
et al
, “Resolving Sovereignty
-
Based Conflicts: the Emerging
Approach of Earned Sovereignty,”
Denver Journal of I
nternational Law

31 (2002
-
03), 349
-
53.


FURTHER READING
:



UN Security Council Resolution 1720, S/Res/1729 (2006), 31 Oct. 2006, available at
http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_resolutions06.htm




T
homas M. Franck, “The Stealing of the Sahara,”
American Journal of International
Law

70 (1976), 694
-
721.



Wayne Madsen, “Big Oil and James Baker Target the Western Sahara,”
Counterpunch, 8 Jan. 2003,
http://www.counterpunch.org/2003/01/08/big
-
oil
-
and
-
james
-
baker
-
target
-
the
-
western
-
sahara/




Interview with Bachir Dkhil, one of Polisario’s founders, who defected to Morocco,
available at
http://english.aljazeera.net/focus/moroccoelections2007/2007/09/2008525190214089
52.html



Christine Chinkin
, “Western Sahara and the UN Second Decade of Decolonisation,”
in Karin Arts & Pedro Pinto Leite, eds. (see above),
329
-
344.



Williams, Paul R. & Francesca Jannotti Pecci. “Earned Sovereignty: Bridging the Gap
Between Sovereignty and Self
-
Determination.”
St
anford Journal of International Law

40 (2004), 347
-
386. Reuters News Agency, “UN Shuns W. Sahara Rights Plea after
France Objects,” 31 Oct. 2006, available at
http://u
k.reuters.com/article/2006/10/31/sahara
-
un
-
idUKN3123062420061031



Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Territories and Peoples
.
UN General Assembly, Res. 1514 (XV), 14 Dec. 1960, GAOR 15
th

Session, Supp. 16,
p. 66 [Colonial Declaration],
available at
http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/15/ares15.htm




Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations
Among States in Accordance with the Charter of the
United Nations
, GA Res. 2625
(XXV), 24 Oct. 1970, at
http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/25/ares25.htm

(section on “self
-
determination of peoples”).



James Crawford, ‘The Right of Self
-
Determi
nation in International Law: Its
Development and Future’ in P. Alston (ed.),
Peoples’ Rights

(United States: Oxford
University Press, 2001) pp. 7
-
67.


JUS AD BELLUM & JUS IN BELLO


Session 16
(0
3/11/2013
)
:
Use of Force in the Second Gulf War


CORE
READING:




Christopher Greenwood, “New World Order or Old? The Invasion of Kuwait and the Rule of
Law,”
Modern

Law

Review

55 (1992), 153
-
178.



Nadje Al
-
Ali, “Reconstructing Gender: Iraqi Women between Dictatorship, War, Sanctions and
Occupation,”
Third
World Quarterly

26 (2005), 739
-
758.


FURTHER READING:



UN Charter, esp. Arts 2(4) and Chs. VI and VII (inc. Art. 51)



Iraq
-
Kuwait, SC Res. 660 (1990), 2 Aug. 1990, available at
http://www.un.org
/Docs/scres/1990/scres90.htm




Iraq
-
Kuwait, SC Res. 661 (1990), 6 Aug. 1990, available at
http://www.un.org/Docs/scres/1990/scres90.htm



Iraq
-
Kuwait, SC Res. 678 (1990), 29 Nov. 1990, available at

http://www.un.org/Docs/scres/1990/scres90.htm



Iraq, SC Res. 688 (1991), 5 Apr. 1991, available at
http://www.un.org/Docs/scres/1991
/scres91.htm




Oscar Schachter, “United Nations Law in the Gulf Conflict,”
American Journal of International
Law
85 (1991), 452
-
473.



Matthew Craven, “Humanitarianism and the Quest for Smarter Sanctions,”
European Journal
of International Law

(2002), 43
-
61.


Session 17
(0
6/11/2013
)

& Session 18 (10/11/2013)
: 2003 Invasion of Iraq


CORE READING
:



Ruth Wedgwood, “The Fall of Saddam Hussein: Security Council Mandates and Pre
-
emptive
Self
-
Defence,”
American Journal of International Law
97 (2003), 576
-
585.



Antony
Anghie, “The War on Terror and Iraq in Historical Perspective,” 43
Osgoode Hall Law
Journal

2005, 45
-
66.



James T. Gathii, “Assessing Claims of a New Doctrine of Pre
-
Emptive War under the Doctrine
of Sources,”
Osgoode Hall Law Journal

43 (2005), 67
-
103.


FU
RTHER READING:



Lord Goldsmith, UK Attorney
-
General, Secret Memo to the British Government re: the
Legality of Invading Iraq, 7 Mar. 2003, available at
http://www.irishti
mes.com/newspaper/special/2005/iraq
-
advice/index.pdf




SC Res. 1441, 8 Nov. 2002, available at
http://www.un.org/Docs/scres/2002/sc2002.htm




Opinion: Legality of the Use of Force against Iraq, Rab
inder Singh QC & Alison McDonald,
Matrix Chambers, London, on Behalf of Peacerights, 10 Sep. 2002.



Thomas Franck, “What Happens Now? The United Nations After Iraq,”
American Journal of
International Law
97 (2003), 607
-
620.



Christopher Greenwood, “Britain’s War on Saddam had the Law on its Side,”
Yearbook of
Islamic and Middle Eastern Law

9 (2003), 29
-
31.



Anthony Carty (2005) “The Iraq Invasion as a Recent United Kingdom ‘Contribution to
International Law,’”
European Journal
of International Law

16 (1)



Michael Reisman and Andrea Armstrong, ‘The Past and Future of the Claim of Pre
-
emptive
Self
-
defence’ 100 (3)
American Journal of International Law
, 2006, 525.



The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, Sep.

2002, available at
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/nss/nss_sep2002.pdf



Judith Gardan, “A Role for Proportionality in the War on Terror,”
Nordic Journal of
International Law

74 (2005), 3
-
25.



Christopher Greenwood, “Britain’s War on Saddam had the Law on its Side,”
Yearbook of
Islamic and Middle Eastern Law

9 (2003), 29
-
31.



Gerry Simpson, “The War in Iraq and International Law,”
Melbourne Journal of International
Law

6 (2005),

167
-
188




Session 19
(
13/11/2013
):

Intervention in Libya and the Responsibility to Protect


CORE READING:



Seumas Milne, “If the Libyan War was about Saving Lives, it was a Catastrophic Failure,” The
Guardian, 26 Oct. 2011, available at
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/oct/26/libya
-
war
-
saving
-
lives
-
catastrophic
-
failure




Anne Orford,
International Authority and the Resp
onsibility to Protect

(Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2011), Ch. 1 (“Protection in the Shadow of Empire”), 1
-
41.



Orford, “What Kind of Law is This?”, blog post,
London Review of Books
, 29 March 2011,
available at
http://www.lrb.co.uk/blog/2011/03/29/anne
-
orford/what
-
kind
-
of
-
law
-
is
-
this/



Security Council Res. 1970 (2011), 26 Feb. 2011, available at
http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_resolutions11.htm




Security Council Res. 1973, 17. Mar. 2001, S/Res/1973 (2011), avaible at
http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_resolutions11.htm




Statue of the International Criminal Court [“Rome Statute”], available at
http://untreaty.un.org/cod/icc/statute/romefra.htm

--

Arts. 1
-
33
.


FURTHER READING:

On the responsibility to prote
ct in general:



The Responsibility to Protect,
Report of the International Commission on Intervention and
State Sovereignty (Ottawa:
International Development Research Centre,
2001), available at
http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf




2005 World Summit Outcome
,
A/60/L.1, 15 Sep. 2005, available at
http://responsibilitytoprot
ect.org/world%20summit%20outcome%20doc%202005%281%29.pd
f




International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect, at
http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/



David Chandler, “R2P or not R2P: More
Statebuilding, Less Responsibility,”
Global
Responsibility to Protect

2 (2010), 161
-
166.



Carsten Stahn, “Responsibility to Protect: Political Rhetoric or Emerging Legal Norm?”
American Journal of International Law

101 (2007), 99
-
120.


On the Intervention
in Libya:



Ayça Çubukçu, “Killing in the Name Of: Libya, Sovereignty, Humanity,” Jadaliyya, 11 Mar.
2011, available at
http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages
/index/870/killing
-
in
-
the
-
name
-
of_libya
-
sovereignty
-
humanity




The Crisis in Libya
, International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect, available at
http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/crises/crisis
-
in
-
libya
.



“Luck: Council Action on Libya ''Historic'' Implementation of RtoP,”
Frankfurter Allgemeine
Zeitung

interview with Ed Luck, Special Advisor to the UN Secretary
-
General on the
Responsi
bility to Protect, 28 Mar. 2011, available at
http://www.ipinst.org/news/general
-
announcement/224
-
luck
-
council
-
action
-
on
-
l
ibya
-
historic
-
implementation
-
of
-
rtop.html
.



Tony Cartalucci, “How do we Respond to NATO’s War Crimes in Libya?” Libya 360˚, 2 Sep.
2011, available at
http://libya360.wordpress.com/2011/09/02/how
-
do
-
we
-
respond
-
to
-
natos
-
war
-
crimes
-
in
-
libya/


Session 20
(
17/11/2013
):
Intervention in Syria??


Readings TBA


Sessi
on 21

(
20/11/2013
):
Law of Occupation in Palestine


Readings TBA


Session 22

(
24
/11/2013
):

Relationship between IHL and IHRL in Palestine



Session 23

(
27
/11/2013
):

IHL in Syria


Readings TBA


THE ARAB SPRING



Session 24

(0
1/12/2013
)
:
Right to Revolt and Change of Governments

Readings TBA


Session 26 (0
4/12/2013
)
:
Transitional Justice


Readings

TBA


Session 27

(0
8/12/2013
):
Use of Force by domestic law enforcement agencies


Readings TBA


Session 28

(
11/12/2013
)
: revision