Supervision and Appraisal


7 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Supervision and

Critical analysis of educational organizations and importance of leadership for implementation



Supervision and performance appraisal are two
important concepts for today organizations.

Regular supervision activities can lead to enhance the performance of employees at work and
giving them direction toward their goals, tell their

areas of improvement and
positively impact
n service.

appraisals much support in the same way of supervision but also help
the entire staff and team to better cope with changes within the team.

Supervision and
appraisal has strong relations in the organization.

Both are mutually responsible to enhance the
performance of employees for the best interest of the

Most of the people are
evaluated on their work settings and

as to most anecdotes

(Wiese & Buckley, 1998)

The tas
of supervision based on daily or routine basis while
appraisals are

conducted on periodic basis.

Supervision and appraisal
have great

role in smooth functioning of educational organizations
like schools, colleges, universities etc.
supervision is associ
ated with knowledge, capabilities and
rational thinking

in educational organization while the purpose of appraisal is to match the
performance of employees with goals and objectives.

Every supervisor and evaluator
leadership skills to better
supervise and appraise their employees.

It is the
era of competition,
strategic management of organizations is trying

to make better strategies for effective
supervision and appraisal systems.


and appraisal

The term “supervision” has many mean
ing, but normally

it is the activity which is carried out by
supervisors to manage the progress and productivity of employees.

For instance,
first line

the entry level

middle level managers

first line
supervisors etc.

is considered as management activity and
role of superviso
purely related to management

(, 2011)
The process of supervision is a
meeting between two or more people with a stated interest in “pro
bing a piece of work”, this
a mentoring session in which one people guide to others

(Barret, 2002)

Supervision may be
defined as directing or overseeing workers or works and also to superintend.

(, 2011)

The supervision has two most vital functions include concern for
employees and task orientation. Therefore, motivation of employees, organization and
direction of activities, and work group’s management are most
famous func
tions of supervision

(Vijayaragavan & Singh , n.d)

Appraisal is an estimation or assessment of the value or quality and worth of person

(, 2011)

Appraisal is the process by which consultant or supervisor
evaluate and examine work behavior of employees through rating it with predefine standards,
documents the comparison’s results, and use this result to give feedback to employees to
highlight the i
mprovement areas and reason for their improvement


Further according to business dictionary appraisals are conducted for the determination
of training needs and
come on result


will be de
moted, promoted, fired or retained.

Appraisal as a planned formal interaction between a supervisor and subordinate, that
takes the shape of periodic interview (semi

annual or annual), in which subordinate’s work
is discussed and exam
ined with an idea to identify strengths and weaknesses as
well as opportunities for skills development and improvement


Performance appraisal is one of the greatest misunderstood aspect

of human resource

(Delahaye, 2005)

Supervision is an efficient and effective way of taking actions on any minor conflicts that
employee may have before turn into larger and big issues.

This support

to avoid stress


Relationship between supervision and appraisal

There is significant relationship between appraisal and supervision. Effective appraisal and
supervision are basics to deliver the quality services.

The most vital benefit of
this relationship

is that the right help can bring manifest
, improve

working environments

and internal
communication, raised standards and morale of work, and enhanced sense of team work and

Supervision concerns with daily or weekly problems of issues while
minimum once a year or in some instances once after every one year.
Further, appraisal
emphasis on long run view, so they provide increased formal structure to debate with worker
and what they realize
regarding their responsibilities, career developme
nt, job and organization
as a whole.

Both supervision and appraisal have mutual purpose
s such as

to monitor work and
performance of employees
, and identification of work areas where
training or additional
support may be required

analysis of

value and place of supervision and appraisal in educational

Supervision and appraisal

remarkable place and value for smooth functioning of
educational organization.

The need
day to day supervision and periodic assessment of
employees has been increased
to motivate employees after monitoring work and employee’s

The value and place of supervision is critical in education due to skills, knowledge and

Many people can associate to supervisor who perhaps was unfair, who wanted many
fellow subordinate, and focused on performance of job in a critical way, entire of which are
common in business where the main objective to get a profit.

In educational

supposition is to
get intellectual property as contrasted to monetary property, there are
chances of misinterpretation of terms like supervisor, supervise, or supervision

To address this
misinterpreting regarding how a person is to lead a skil
ls, knowledge and morale reasoning of
educational institute’s administrator.

Entire skills, reasoning and knowledge is works as
network together to determine effective behavior at the time of supervising parents,
community and faculty towards common goals.

Moreover, to empower other teachers to
emphasis on leadership roles leads to

the tradition idea of supervision related to
subordinates and it creates community or collaboration of practice
that holds diversity via
search of both collective and indi
vidual goals.

Employee empowerment leads to enhance the
competitive advantage though introducing creative, innovative products and services in the

Therefore, the role of supervision in educational institutes is more critical, emergent,
and complex

(, 2011)

Supervision of lecturer’s work is a

issue in the
profession of teaching

(Walkley, 1998)

Appraisal enables the educational organization to determine whether performance of
employees is according to defined goals and it is initially based on behavior and work result of
employee’s appraisal
and potential (abilities, skills and characteristics).

It is mandatory
approach to evaluate the performance according to established goals and objectives. It is good
way of feedback either everything is going to right direction or not.

In educational organization
like university
diverse and combination methods

of performance appraisal are used to
determine the performance of employees.

Performance management and appraisal has been
increased the attention in colleges and universities.

The competition for money among various
human services has been increased due
to significant increases in tot
al costs and student

The most widespread famous and successful performance appraisal is the
maintenance and development of trust climate where staff will cooperate for common good

(Townsend, 1998)

In higher learning organizations, there is need to enhance attention regarding total quality
management and quality of performance.

Higher education sector is one the greatest service
sector which is slow in evolution into management

of quality. There is strong quality required in
appraisal of higher educational organization’s employees

(McCarthy, Keefe, 1999)

Earl and
Leihwood recognized below depicted approaches to which supervisors or leaders of
educational organization should par

first, supervisors require market approaches to
sustain and create educational organization to successfully competing for students.

supervisors required decentralization to empower employees through enhancing participation
in decision ma
Moreover, they require professional approaches to assess the work of
educators in a meaningful way.

Lastly, supervisor requires management approaches to execute
and develop strategic plans to link educational institute’s means and ends

(Leithwood & E

In educational institution the efforts of principle has great importance to build a
mandatory learning community

(Zepeda, 2000)

It is identified that development of people
(human resource management and human resource development) and management are more
effective to enhance the performance of educational organizations

(Sara & Peter, 2007)


of leaderships for effective implementatio
n of supervision and appraisal

The importance of leadership has been increased to the great extent in today’s global business.
Leadership is the process of influencing other to achieve the organizational goals.
Leaders are
responsible to establish and articulate a lucid vision for the organization

(Robbins & Coulter,

In an organization leadership has value for effective implementation of supervision and

Leaders provi
de feedback to organizational personnel and this feedback may be
positive and negative.

Leaders use four styles at the time of supervision and appraisal like
autocratic leadership, bureaucratic leadership, laissez faire and democratic leadership.

iples of leadership for
effective implementation of supervision

and appraisal


Conducting fundamental management skills like problem solving, decision making,
planning, meeting management and delegation.

Organize their teams and
. Team building has great importance for better
. Teams show greater results and effectively achieve the goals of the

Provide training to new employees
Orientation and training is necessary for new
employees so that lea
ders contribute effectively in this respect.

Hire new employees
. It
tremendous task to
select new individuals for the best interest
of the organization.

Identify the need for and set the new roles of job in the group
. It is necessary for leaders
identify the needs of employees to keep motivate them

Confronting to individual or personal polices and other regulations

Leaders conduct employee performance management (observing, setting goals,

feedback firing employee and addressing performance

Leaders are confident and assertive while at the time of respecting the other
employee’s opinion


voice of employees for their satisfaction

Leaders have a participative behavior
to complete the work.

It creates the sense of collaboration
among employees which is
good sign for the organization.

Remain confident and tactful
with respect to employee feeli
ngs, looking

work performance instead emphasizing on negative
Leaders show

their high level of
positive behavior and passion.

Identify the
areas where

employees required improvement
. It is mandatory need of
employees to enhance their skills and capabilit
ies through programs or trainings.

Appreciate employees on their achievements
. I

d way to motivate their
employees. Motivation is a good to enhance the performance of employees

Leaders show

best interest for the welfare of employees
. It will

create sense of
cooperation between employees which is ultimately support the organizational

and employee performance

In this respect, employees perform with their
maximum zeal and enthusiasm so that they can be rated better

Leaders strive
for excellence in supervision and appraisal process.

They try to improve
everything related to them or organization.

Leaders are persistent and willing to stand alone.

This is good passionate and
enthusiastic approach

Leaders know
their self

and seek self
. It is possible due to continues
strengthening the attributes of leaders through self
study and learning

Leaders are technically proficient to cope with complexities of appraisal and have solid
familiarity regarding supervision and appraisal t



responsibility for their actions. Leaders search new ways
lead their employees and organization

Leaders make timely and sound decisions related to supervision and appraisal

Leaders keep their people informed, develop and
sense of accountability, responsibility
and ownership in employees. These traits will support to accomplish professional

(Robbins & Coulter, 2007)


In conclusion, supervision and appraisal both are
required to probe the employee performance
and work. There is significant relationship between them because effective leader or supervisor
can effectively appraise the employees. In educational institution the emphasis of supervision
based on skills, knowl
edge and learning whereas appraisal focus on behaviour and work result
of employee performance appraisal. Both supervision and appraisal requires a leader who
enhances a climate of respect and cooperation so due to this employees want to be direct or

Today, appraisals

and supervision

are utilized for people so that more organizations are going
work group and team approaches which are mandatory for change with respect to both
individual and group performance appraisals.

There is crucial need for
justice in organizations.
Appraisal is the only available process in the organization that help to achieve decent,
consistent and faire reward outcomes

-, 2011)

So that it is
suggested that purpose of
appraisal should employee feedback and development.

It is vital to
differentiate between rater goals, organizational goals and ratee goals.

Today the need for and importance of leadership has been increased due to the
issues in the organization.
Leaders are responsible to clearly define the goals and objectives of
the organization and make valid strategies to achieve


with good supervision capabilities
and better motivate their employees with positive and effective system of performance

They have indispensible role for the implementation of better and effective system of
supervision and performance appraisal in the organization.

Therefore, it is
need of

organizations should strengthen their supervision and appraisal proc
esses to better motivate
employees, direct, get feedback and enhance the productivity of employees as well as the


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