Knowledge Management In The Learning Society

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7 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Knowledge Management In The Learning


Society


Abstract

Knowledge is the key resource of the information age. Today the im
p
ortance of managing knowledge is a
categorical
organizational im
p
erative. The
p
roblem today is not how to find information but how to manage it?

We
have moved from the age of secrecy to the age of information overload. The challenge for organization is how to
p
rocess knowledge sorting out what is im
p
or
tant from what is not and use the best of it creatively. Education sector
is one of the main
p
roducers of knowledge but education systems are under constant
p
ressures on two main fronts:
first they need to ada
p
t to changes in society which as it becomes a
learning society, has rising expectations for
education; second, the school as a house of knowledge is increasingly facing competition from other knowledge
sources, including information and entertainment and from enterprises that define themselves as know
ledge
producers and mediators. Schools and other educational institutions thus face a double challenge for dealing with
knowledge and learning. First, Can education and those with expertise in education, define a new role for schools in
building and servin
g a “knowledge
-
based
-
society”? The second challenge is the need for high performance and the
capacity of the school system to adapt to meet the challenges that will continue to arise.


This paper is an attempt to emphasize the em
ergence of knowledge management as an important
discipline in the 21
st

century and to highlight the role of schools specially teachers in the production, mediation and
use of knowledge as to make learning society effective in dealing with knowledge explosi
on.

Keywords
:
knowledge, knowledge management, learning society, knowledge explosion.



Dr. Mohammad Parvez


Nayyar Jabeen


Associate Professor


Research Scholar

Department of Education


Departm
ent of Education

Aligarh Muslim University


Aligarh Muslim University

Aligarh


Email: nayyarjabeen@ymail.com


















Introduction
:

With the development of the internet and the advancement of digital technology, the

rate
of information and knowledge has accelerated and subsequently, the effective lifetime of
knowledge is shortening (Tapscott, 1997). This limited

l
ifetime

of knowledge
nece
ssitates the constant updating,
development, and expansion of personal expertise
.

A
knowledge
-
based society calls for innovation and the willingness to cooperate in order to
further advance ideas, concepts, and/or strategies. Despite the rising levels of
international competition, individuals need not work alone, but rather, collabora
te
through mutual exchanges which entail benefits for all involved. In fact, with the huge
influx of information, it is almost inconceivable that to develop new concepts or search
for effective solutions, one

would attempt to intentionally isolate
one

and
singularly face
the potential inundation of data available, when clearly cooperation with others would be
both practical and effective. The world is becoming a smaller place and indubitably,
technology is the major factor bringing societies closer together
.


Knowledge
Economy:

Before attempting to address the question of knowledge management, it's probably
appropriate to develop some perspective regarding this stuff called knowledge, which
there seems to be such a desire to manage, really
is
. Knowledge

is t
he outcome of people
working together (Cram & Sayers, 2001 p.3). Three kinds of knowledge converge to
create new knowledge
: tacit (
implied or understood without being put into words)
explicit (
stated in exact terms)

and cultural
. New knowledge results in i
nnovations or
capabilities that provide the potential for action. Potential action transforms into
commitment to act through decision making in the face of risk and uncertainty, i.e.
creating knowledge is a capacity building process (Carroll et al, 2001 p.
9).

In knowledge
management literature it is often pointed out that it is important to distinguish between
data, information and knowledge. The generally accepted view sees data as simple facts
that become information as data is combined into meaningful st
ructures, which

subsequently become knowledge as meaningful information is put into a context and
when it can be used to make predictions

it

is categorised as wisdom.


Education, a

major institutional force in the socialization of the individual, is at least in
part about managing the transfer of information for the creation of knowledge between
teacher and pupils
.


K
n
owledge Management


in

the

Learning S
ociety:





In the

information society, knowledge forms the foundation for education
and culture”

By utilizing new ways to
e
ducation
,

systems must meet new expectations, and face new
competition by adopting distinctive roles in knowledge
-
oriented societies, by learning to
w
ork smarter, using knowledge that is not always “scientific” and by looking at how
other sectors produce, use and mediate knowledge .Knowledge is becoming the core
element driving economies; yet it remains hard to understand, measure or systematise its
con
tribution. at the same time it is essential to address the key role of knowledge and
learning in wider social and cultural life.
The paradigm shift in education is from one of a
teaching paradigm to one of learning. This means that education is no longer ab
out how
to deliver information and knowledge to the learner but about how to help learners to
search and discover information for themselves to create knowledge useful to their own
contexts.

Knowledge management links four critical constructs: knowledge ac
quisition,
information distribution, information interpretation and organisational memory (Cram &
Sayers, 2001 p.4). The ACEL (2003:5) states that to manage knowledge means:


knowing

what

(identification of issues)


knowing

how

(solutions and applications)


knowing

who

(building social capital)


knowing
when
(just in time strategies)


knowing
where

(building social networks) and


knowing
why
(deep understanding)



In a rapidly changing society, teachers should have clear visions themselves as to the
creation and application of knowledge which is to be presented to learners. The concept
of knowledge management within schools was almost unknown until recently. If
kno
wledge management is to be applied in schools as learning organizations, it implies a
paradigm shift from the isolation and protection of subject domains within classroom
silos. In an open learning environment, transferring knowledge does not require the
p
roprietary stamp of the expert teacher, but becomes an altogether different process.

Knowledge management requires strategic emphasis to be placed on how knowledge is
generated, shared and stored rather than

on the fabric of the institution i.e. the bricks

and
mortar. Knowledge management implies placing a value on learning and sharing rather
than productivity alone (Carroll, Choo, Dunlap, Isenhour, Kerr, McLean & Rosson,
2001:5).

For educators to use

and transfer knowledge

more effectively,

they need firs
t

to
become more aware of

how they do so they are already under pressure to raise the
attainment of low achievers and to make learning more relevant this requires competence
building among teachers and a learning process that improves on existing initial t
eacher
training
.
. Especially schools are in the role of society leader in knowledge. They have to
lead knowledge management to implementing much more than another organization.
(Hoy & Miskel, 2001: 32) Because of schools has to lead the knowledge for knowl
edge
seeking, knowledge harvesting, knowledge constructing, knowledge exchange between
teacher and student and staff, and administrator supporting for the school academic
strongly.(Sallis & Jones, 2002: 22
-
29)


Knowledge
c
reation
, m
ediation

and

transfer in

s
chool:

The primary issue is for schools to understand the nature of knowledge in the context of a
knowledge e
ra and its implications for them.

In the

knowledge creating school
”,
heads
and teachers need to become creators of professional knowledge by art
iculating their
experiences as sharable knowledge within and between schools (Hargreaves, 1999 in Paavola
et al, 2001 p.7). Teachers need to have this experience to model it for their students.

Knowledge creation is identified by Paavola et al (2001 p.1) a
s a metaphor for learning
-

as the innovative processes of inquiry where something new is created and original
knowledge is enriched. They use Sfard’s (1998) metaphors for learning as acquisition

(traditional view) and learning as participation (social con
structivist view). Knowledge
creation is a process of
doing
rather than a process of
having
(Paavola et al, 2001 p.2).

Teachers create material resources, classroom activities, pedagogical techniques and
practical insight into learning, development and hum
an relations. These are all
knowledge assets that are potentially sharable and reusable (Carroll et al, 2001 p.9).
Traditionally, teachers collaborate very little, manage their own resources and exercise
great discretion in their classroom practices. Syste
mic educational reform has increased

the uniformity of learning objectives and learning theory expects collaboration.




Knowledge management answers the dichotomy of these perspectives (Carroll,
Rosson, Dunlap & Isenhour,
and 2003

p.1).

Teachers

should be encouraged to appreciate
the importance of their own contributions and publish reflections, annotate, share and
discuss their activities. They identify three levels of knowledge sharing: tangible
resources, activity or lesson plans and prototype
s in use and barriers such as time,
awareness and scheduling difficulties. The issue for schools is how teachers overcome
the social barriers in the sharing of classroom resources and professional knowledge both
within and beyond their own
schools.

Knowled
ge

management is a capability rather than
information management or organisational
know
-
how
(Cram & Sayers, 2001 p.10).


.
Teachers, as one of the strong

organizations in
school possess

three kinds of

Knowledge
: (1) tacit knowledge, embedded in the experien
ce and expertise of
individuals; (2) explicit knowledge, codified as methods and procedures; and (3) cultural
knowledge, expressed as assumptions, beliefs, and values. The integration

of information

technology into teachers’ knowledge management effectively is the important task for
schools’
development
.

The application of knowledge

requires that it be integrated, and
int
egration
is linked to both knowledge creation and knowledge transfer

(fig.).
The
improvement or
renewal of practice links creation and integration. In

other words,
practitioners in
education could, as in medicine and engineering,

play a much more active
role in knowledge
creation
.

Transferring

knowledge

from one teacher to

another requ
ires

the latter not just

to receive
information

but to transform

and apply it in her own

situation
.



Changes to be done
:


The

authority of the teacher has hitherto rested primarily in expertise in a subject

of the
curriculum and in the skill of teaching
it. Teachers, especially at school

level, now need
to teach students to “learn how to learn”, a highly complex

idea embracing several
elements:

1.

Being motivated to learn throughout life.

2.

Being skilled at identifying one’s own learning needs or knowing how t
o g
et help
with this task.

3.

Being able to identify the kind of education and training to meet thos
e n
eeds and
how it is to be accessed.

4.

Being able to acquire a range of meta
-
cognitive skills


thinking about one’s

o
wn
thinking, learning how to be flexible w
ith learning styles and strategies.

5.

Being able to learn independently and in a range of contexts (work
, l
eisure, home)
other than formal educational
organizations
.


6. L
earning how to access information and knowledge from the new world of the





information and communication technologies

(ICT).


Conclusion
s and S
uggestions:

Knowledge management in schools was a challenging concept because schools had fewer
resources (Carroll et al, 2001) and because schools’ cultures were traditionally highly
individual. Hargreaves (1999) and the ACEL (2003) suggested knowledge sharing as the

basis for systemic reforms. Dellit and Hazell (2001) suggested implications for education of
the knowledge society and Carroll et al (2001) and the ACEL (2003) argued that sustainable
knowledge management depends on peer driven innovations. The issue for
schools was
therefore to understand the nature of knowledge and knowledge management and to
incorporate it into systemic reform,
recognizing

the need for a knowledge sharing culture
.

Whatever the culture of the school or its level of infrastructure, the di
fference appeared to
lie in the dynamics that existed in the schools. The dynamic was supported by:


a culture accepting of change and embracing change


committed and transparent leadership that provided a driving force for change


a human resource structu
re that emphasised teams above hierarchy


a collaborative environment built around innovation, risk taking and sharing


acknowledgement, support and use of the generalist, specialist and empathetic skills
of the teacher
-
librarian


involvement of the full school community, including parents


a strategic direction facilitating knowledge construction, sharing and analysis


a strategic plan to enhance learning


ICTs integrated in support of learning


Integrated

systems.

Some of the impo
rtant
suggestions
to promote an effective knowledge management
programme for schools are:

1.


U
sing and experimenting with technology applications

2.

Cr
eating familiarity with technology

3.

D
eveloping attitudes to innovation, risk and knowledge creation

4.

A
pplying technology to pushing the boundaries of how we
learn

how we can
accelerate and deepen learning
.

5.

A
nalysing the knowledge needed to create human and social capital and ensuring
our society can generate such
knowledge

6.

G
ive priority to teaching and lea
rning by integrating timetabling, planning,
assessment and resources;

7.


F
acilitate the sharing of pupil information between all those teaching a pupil;
allow planning and assessment to be readily monitored;

8.

I
ncorporate tools to support teachers’ and manag
ers’ analysis of performance at
fine
-
grained levels, and assess the effect of interventions;

9.


I
mprove communication within the school and between school and home;

10.


F
acilitate opportunities for pupils to take greater responsibility for their learning;
and

11.

D
ecrease the time staff spend on administrative tasks by ensuring that information
need be entered only once and is then readily available;

12.

P
romote learner autonomy, personalization of learning and closer home
-
school
links; and

13.


Facilitate

the management of teachers’ subject, pedagogic and pupil knowledge
through the provision of tools for storage, classification, sharing, c
ommunication
and co
llaboration.

14.

Training and supporting practising teachers in research skills, including

knowledge validation, to enable them to carry out more school
-
based

research for
knowledge creation.

15.

Interpreting their partnership with teachers less often as occasions

for

transmitting
academic or research knowledge to them and more often as

opportunities to
contribute to the integration and combination of different

kinds of knowledge as
an important ingredient of teacher
-
led knowledge

creation.

16.

Co
-
ordinating
dispersed, school
-
based R&D programmes, from small scale,

preliminary knowledge creation in a consortium of two or three

schools to large
-
scale, multi
-
site experiments, in order to create bodies

of cumulative knowledge
about effective pedagogic practices.

17.

Helping to disseminate the outcomes through networks of schools and

teachers.

18.

Making the study of the creation, dissemination and validation of knowledge

in
educ
ation
.


References

:

1.

Australian Council for Education Leaders (ACEL)
,

(2003)

Response
to the
discussion paper: Young people, schools and innovation: towards an action plan for
the school sector.
Submission Number RTTE 212


2.

Benbya,H.,(2008
)
,
Knowledge Management Systems Implementation: Lessons from
the Silicon Valley,Chandos
publishing,oxford,England


3.

Carroll, J.M., Choo, C.W., Dunlap, D.R., Isenhour, P.L., Kerr, S.T., McLean, A.
& M.B
.
Rosson
,

(2001)

Knowledge management support for teachers
. Available
online:
http://java.cs.vt.edu/public/classes/communities/readings/KM4Teachers
-
ETRD03.pdf


4.

Carroll, J.M., Rosson, M.B., Dunlap, D.L., & P.L.
Isenhour
,

(2003
) Frameworks
for sharing knowledge: Towards a professional language for teaching practices
in
Proceedings of the 36
th
Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2003.
Available online:
http://www.hicss.hawaii.edu/HICSS36/HICSSpapers/DDOML22.pdf
.


5.

Cram, J. & R. Sayers
,

(2001
)
Creating and managing context: the use of knowledge
management principles to deliver virtual information services to schools
. Paper
presented at the AS
LA XVII Conference, Mudjimba Beach, Queensland, October
2001

6.

Gogula,

R.,(2001
),
Knowledge Management,A New Dawn
,

ICFAI University Press,
Hyderabad


7.

Hargreaves, D.H., (1999
).
The knowledge
-
creating school
in
British Journal of
Educational Studies
47(2),
122
-
144


8.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
,

(2000)

Knowledge management in the learning society,
OECD, Paris


9.

Paavola, S., Lipponen, L. and K. Hakkarainen
,

(2001)

Epistemological
foundations for CSCL: A comparison of three model
s of innovative knowledge
communities.
Helsinki: University of Helsinki Centre for Research on Networked
Learning and Knowledge Building. Available online:
http://newmedia.colorado.edu/cscl/228.pdf


10.

Sallis, E & Jones, G
.,

(2002)

Knowledge management in education: enhancing
learning

and education,

London, Kogan Page


11.

Schwartz,

D.
, (
2006
)
, Encyclopedia

of Knowledge Management
, Idea

Group Inc.


12.

Tapscott, D.
,

(1997).

The digital economy:
Promise and
peril in the age of networked
intelligence
. New York: McGraw
-
Hill.