CoP Area of Impact DaimlerCrysler Ford Motor Company Cap Gemini Ernst & Young Role of Knowledge Management

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7 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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CoP Area of Impact

DaimlerCrysler

Ford Motor Company

Cap Gemini Ernst & Young

Role of Knowledge
Management



KM is a tool that is used for
3
primary management
concerns: cost, quality and
speed

KM consist of 3 element
s:
ways to share knowledge,
ways to
create knowledge,
and the implementation of
that knowledge, which
ultimately is what creates
value

According to CGEY, CoPs
evolved through three main
stages of development:
emergence, growth and
innovation.



Role of CoP
s

in KM

Strategy

Develop solutions
to s
hared
problems, develop
procedures and guidelines for
current practices, and share
lessons learned

Because Ford does not have a
knowledge management
officer, the CoPs are
respons
ible for KM. CoPs are
the construct
round which
employees communicate,
sha
re, and replicate proven
practices that improve the
business, each having their
own criteria and values

CoPs are the cornerstone of
its knowledge management
imperative. CoPs drive
solution development, reuse,
and common delivery
capability.

Creating/Planning

New platform
cross
-
functional
teams were
isolated from
other subject
matter experts in their field
.


To solve

the

problem:
Engineering Books of
Knowledge (EBOKs) and tech
clubs were created

Two assembly plant
managers in the vehicle
operations department
initiated CoPs at Ford.


To solve the problem: A best
-
practice replication begins

and information is entered
into the BPR database after
it’s checked for
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in a more effective
way,
increase individual and
organizational competencies,
and blur organizational
boundaries. E&Y devised a
strategic plan called Future
State 97

Membership

Membership is not
mandatory
. However,
employee reviews are
conducted by platform team
managers

and

the
opportunity for career
development in terms of
platform and project staffing
lies within the community

Members of CoPs are
considered SMEs.


Experience and history with
the company determine their
membership.

CoP are structured

in a
manner

that refle
cts the
formal organization
structure, with core
competencies and domain
areas.
Participation in
a
CoP
is not voluntary. Employees
are expected to submit their
knowledge objects, abstracts,
and client deliverables.

Roles

Content Manager



Documents, organ
izes an
upgrades community
knowledge

Coordinator
-

Facilitates and
organizes networking
sessions

Subject Matter Experts



Provides ideas and insights,
helps manage the EBOK’s

Group Members



Contributes and reviews
knowledge

Senior Management



Monitors
CoP activity and
benefits

Community Administrator



Approves draft submissions
and applies criteria, training,
maintaining liaisons CoP and
Process Leadership, arranges
agenda, logistics of meetings,
reviews activity in the CoP,
provides reports to CoP
spo
nsors

Subject Matter Experts



Executive Sponsors


Vision,
strategic goals, financial
objectives, metrics and
rewards

Executive Owners



Goal
execution, meas
ure goals,
communications, operations

Network Members



Create
and submit new knowledge,
use and reuse knowledge

Knowledge Managers



Champion knowledge
sharing, leading practices,

Collaborate on the validity of
the best practices, and is a
member of the strategy
organization.


submissions process, content
management, infrastructure
development, taxono
my

S
ubject
M
atter
S
pecialist
s



Industry expertise, gap
analysis, content review


Technology

EBOK’s are on a
Lotus/Netscape browser


Communities are highly
satisfied with IT tools based
on surveys

The Web application was
designed and developed
internally
and is Oracle
-
based, using JavaScript,
HTML, Perl
graphical user
interface
on a Sun operating
system

The knowledge is shared via
Lotus Notes Domino
Databases and is accessible
via the Internet

Rewards and
Recognition

Participation is not
mandatory.

Participation is encouraged
though its employee annual
reviews.
Each person has two
components to his or her
review. The first focuses on
management by objectives,
and the second concentrates
on behaviors and
competencies. One of the
behaviors on every
emp
loyee’s appraisal is
sharing knowledge and
experience. The easiest and
most convenient way for
Ford does not have a formal
reward and recognition
system for the best
-
practice
system, but acknowledges the
importance of
encouragement in
recognition. Members receive
recognition from their peers
and SME for solving
prob
lems. The BRP process
enables members to gain
knowledge, which in turn
enables a higher level of
performance.
All of this can
result in a higher
performance rating, which
Since 1994 an employee’s
demonstration of
knowledge
management has been one of
the five factors measured in
performance appraisal.
Employees are expected to be
members of a community.

employees to accomplish this
goal is through community
participation. Under the
current structure, no
employee can receive a
maximum bonus or salary
increase wit
hout fulfilling this
requirement.

can lead to exposure and
promotions.

Sustaining

Training is provided to help
members take advantage of
the information technology
systems at the commu
nity’s
disposal. Guidelines are
established for managing the
books of knowledge and how
to use the IT tools. There are
training courses on
consensus, the value of
reusing information, and the
pitfall of flooding the books
with too much information.


In ad
dition to the
training and
workshops, funding is
provided to top and middle
management to cover the cost
of developing IT systems
deferring meeting costs, and
covering the cost of the
training.

There is no official KM board
or steering team. Each CoP
stan
ds on its own because the
knowledge they need to share
is most often specific to their
community.

A critical success factor in
sustaining communities at
Cap Gemini E&Y has been to
understand that communities
are not created
instantaneously.

Each community
progresses
at its own pace and must be
evaluated for failure points
and design processes that
relate to business goals.
Because it is difficult to
assimilate too much change
at one time, it is important to
allow a community to
develop and grow on its own
a
nd support and nurture
innovation.


Measuring

3 areas are measured in a
qualitative format
: output
measures, business goal
measures and community
health

Examples:

1.

Output measure:
“After reviewing the
engineering book of
knowledge and
contacting two
commun
ity members,
I
T

utilized a new
material for the design
project.”

2.

Supports business
goals:
“I have found
the material to be
much more durable, as
well as lighter in
weight. I expect that
using it will decrease
the number of defects
by 12 percent.”

3.

Community health:

The community has
been very helpful. The
next time I have a
question, I know
Many times the successes of
the community are used to
improve the CoPs by acting

as
models. Reports provide the
metrics to evaluate the health
of CoPs across their life cycle.
Ford CoPs improved after
measuring the identifiable
value, safety, quality, timing,
throughput, and cost
reduction.

Value is assessed early in the
community dev
elopment. No
one person is responsible for
delivering the value of the
CoP to the organization; the
process itself drives the
results.

Management knows that the
CoP is active and providing
value. During site visits,
managers see evidence of
practices bein
g replicated and
hear stories of how other
locations have adopted
practices.


Because increased
shareholder value is the
ultimate goal for CGEY,
communities are a means to
have a competitive advantage
in the marketplace. Every
community must present its
b
usiness drivers, goals, and
knowledge management
proposition at the initial
planning stage. Measurement
techniques involve tracking
statistics concerning the
entire knowledge
infrastructure. The statistics
are then analyzed according
to the goals of the co
mmunity
including frequency of usage
and areas of high interest.

Common traits exemplified
by high
-
performing
communities include:



A
ctive executive
sponsorship and a
strong knowledge
-
sharing culture,



A
knowledge
management vision
where to go.”


communicated to all
levels,



K
nowledge
management activities
tied to business goals
with results
-
oriented
focus,



A
ggressive knowledge
management,



A
commitment to
knowledge
management
resources with
appropriate
competencies, an
d



H
igher customer
satisfaction and
improved business
results.


Benefits Realized

Some of the direct benefits of
knowledge management at
DaimlerChrysler include:



A

more agile product
development process,



A

synchronized
production process,



A

standardiz
ed
The critical success
factors to
initiate a community are:


Ensuring that the
community is of a
manageable size (about 20
members) because larger
communities have multiple
Communities of practice
enable CGEY to do more
business with more people.
Consultants are able to sell
business with less effort
because they are able to
reuse appro
aches and
content. Consultants also can
collaborate and share across
customer experience,
and



A

governance system
that has enhanced
coordination and
created a cohesive
culture.

Communities provide
these benefits in a number
of ways.



Solving problems and
coordinating decisions
by discussing issues
within platform
development and
developing universal
solutions



Building expertise for
DaimlerChrysler in
critical areas by
sharing and
documenting lessons
learned and
identifying best
practi
ces



Keeping up with the
latest ideas and
technological
administrators with clearly
defined responsibilities;

Identifying
the correct
types of knowledge

E
stablishing a common
format

E
stablishing c
riteria for
types of knowledge

I
dentifying measures

H
aving sponsorship

Ensuring the person
running the CoP has the
re
spect and trust of the
members

Avoi
ding quotas

Not letting fina
nce
operations run
communities

Ensuring that the technical
solutions are simple,
intuitive, and easy to use

geographical boundaries. On
a project level, knowledge
initiatives have helped to
service more projects, more
effectively, by compressing
project time lines and
reducing the cost of many
of
its consulting engagements
via an accelerated service
delivery that links content to
methods and enables the
reuse of existing knowledge.


By enabling growth of
individual consultant’s skills
and competencies with
improved knowledge
transfer, CGEY has i
mproved
staff retention across all its
core practice areas. Most
employees view access to
information as a critical
success factor for accepting
an assignment.

developments by
evaluating suppliers
and scanning the
external technological
developments



Benchmarking the
company’s expertise
against world
-
class
standards by tracking
competitors and
reviewing
inde
pendent reviews
like J.D. Power ratings



Enabling members to
build skills,
relationships, and
reputation by
providing experts the
opportunity to
network across
platform teams



Making
recommendations for
formal training and
promotions

Ens
uring that
documentation exist

The critical success factors
for keeping a CoP alive are
sponsorship and support by
senior management,
empowerment of the CoP,
an
d recognition of the results.
Subsequently, the lack of
these factors may lead to
failure.

Challenges

Overall
the
CoP
s are

a great
success. Some of the
challenges in the
development of C
oPs have
Scheduling the required
workshops and sessions to
develop and pilot the CoP and
having the discipline to follow
Communities of practice are
relatively easy to create but
re
quire a deliberate effort to
maintain. Potential pitfalls
included:



Lack of understanding
of the benefits of
knowledge
management.



Lack o
f time for
knowledge
management



Lack of skill in
knowledge
management
techniques.



Lack of sharing culture



Lack of sharing
incentives



Lack of funding



Lack of technolog
y



Lack of senior
management
commitment

the deployment process is
one of the key challenges in
planning a community.

Ford has a 60
-
plus
-
step
deployment process that is
the encompassing tool in
planning. Short cuts to the
process result in a less robust
CoP.

On an organizational level,
the key challenges in
planning a community
development effort have been
related to glo
bal and
divisional culture differences.
All potential CoP members
must be aware, even if not
included, of the initial launch.
This ensures a sense of
ownership and averts the
pushback reaction.


originate from the belief that
a community of practice will
solve all problems.


Symptoms of low
-
performing
communities include:



A

low level of
c
ommunication and
collaboration



A

lack of team
-
based
activity (most work
done by national staff
or one o
r two
members)




A
voiding penalties
instead of see
king
value (compliance
driven)



S
tuck at a level where
only expl
icit
knowledge is made
visible



C
o
ntent not
consistently managed



Low
-
yielding business
results