Postgraduate Training and Research

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Postgraduate Training and Research
for the New Era


How Modern Universities and Industries can Work
Together

Professor Jeremy Watson FREng

Director: Global Research, Arup

jeremy.watson@arup.com

Chief Scientific Adviser: DCLG

jeremy.watson@communities.gsi.gov.uk

Arup



A trust, not a public company

-
10,000 employees
worldwide

-
90 offices

-
Multidisciplinary

Driven by belief in benefiting society and delivering the best quality
of work

Investing to develop knowledge and capability


Innovation a key differentiator,
togther

with Design excellence and quality
Engineering



Dedicated Innovation executive



Close linkage with Foresight and Research groups



Flexible interventions:
SPVs
, licensing, market testing and introduction



Example: Investment in contactless recharging of electric vehicles


Arup


Projects



Major
projects include
:


-
Sydney Opera house (Australia)

-
Pompidou Centre (France)

-
Stansted

Airport (UK)

-
Channel
Tunnel Rail Link (UK)

-
Beijing Olympics


Water cube and Bird’s Nest
stadium

-
Cross Rail



Integrated Research, Design and Engineering is a key business differentiator

Research context in Arup


Research seen as essential to maintain and grow market position


and identify incremental and step
-
out opportunities


Research is typically ‘applied’ and anticipatory of business need:
time scale


‘now’ to three years+


Emphasis on innovation: ‘Concept to Commercialisation’


Research ‘pull’


from Business leaders and ‘push’


from
Design and Technology networks and academic partners


Research fund to encourage internal and external investment


Driven by strategic roadmap


Arup Research capabilities

3
-
D Modelling

Education

Materials

Acoustics

Electrical Services

Mechanical Services

Advanced Analysis

Energy

Moving Structures

Air Quality

Environment

People Movements

Archaeology / Heritage

Facades

Pharmaceuticals

Asset Management

Flood management

Pl
anning Regulation

Audio Visual

Fluids

Product Design

Aviation

Geology

Project Management

Building Physics

Geotechnics

Public Health

Business Performance

Healthcare

Railways

Business Systems

Highways

Safety

Communications

Human Behavioural Dynamics

Tu
nnelling

Contaminated Land

Industrial Consulting

Universal Access

Controls

Inspection Repair Refurb

Urban Design

Corporate Responsibility

Investment appraisal

Vehicle Design

Cost

IT

Venues

Demand Analysis

Knowledge Management

Vertical Transportation

Design Research

Landscape

Waste

Development Planning

Lighting

Water

Dynamic Behaviour (structures)

Logistics

Workplace Performance

Ecology

Maritime


Economics



































1. Strategy



Corporate research roadmaps


Regional and group strategy facilitation

2. Network


3. Funding


Research Offering

Components


Set up and management of research consortiums


Links to research funding bodies



Grow and develop the research network


Internal engagement in multidisciplinary research


Engagement with key external partners

4. Building capability


Doctoral training

Arup Research


Global Deliverables

Delivering the Research Strategy

Influencing research agendas



Facilitating and supporting the
delivery of regional research
strategies


Implementing roadmap
-
based
funding mechanisms


Sharing priorities with partners
and funding agencies





Research Strategy

Regional Research Champions

Regional Champions act as
representatives and liaison points for
corporate Research. They are
responsible for supporting the
development and executing the
Regional Research Strategy

Global strategy team

Relationships with National Funding Agencies

Proactive mission to promote mutually
-
beneficial
relationships

-
Thought
-
leadership and ‘agenda calibration’

-
Unbiased sectoral representation

-
Roadmap
-
sharing to assist national research agendas

Awareness of and response to Calls

Consortium formation

Strategic Partnerships

-
EPSRC allowing definition of Programmes under joint funding

-
Work in EU under European Construction Technology Platform &
E2B PPP

-
Dialogues with NSF, NIST, ARC, MOST, SSTC, etc.


Research Funding at Arup

In house research

-
R&D calls for
proposals for Global and regional projects £600k

-
Project
Plus £50k

External
collaborative: regional and global

-
External Collaborative Research projects
£600k Global, £130k Americas

-
Pays Arup staff time and expenses for collaborations

-
Leverage between
x1.5
and
x4


Manage

~£2.5m

Arup’s Knowledge Supply Chain

Arup’s approach


a Knowledge Supply Chain

Foresight

-
Internal using
roadmapping

-
External using focus groups

Research strategy development

-
Consultation with business units and clients

Research execution

-
Collaboration with universities and research councils

Validation and deployment

Capability development

-
In
-
house university offering
EngDs

with
UCL

-
55 (internal + external) doctoral students world
-
wide

Product

Service

Process

Innovation

Now, New, Next


New



Next



Now


Concept

Commercialisation



Emerging trends


Drivers of Change



Thought leadership



Delivering the agenda



Needs interpretation



Knowledge generation



Delivering IP



Community



Operational excellence



Delivery to projects


Time

Foresight

Skills

Networks

Research

SEED

NURSERY

DEVELOPMENT

ESTABLISHED

NEW

Solar
Chimney

Airplank

Origin of the idea

External

Internal

Joint

Geotechnichs and
Google Earth

SparACE

Food
production

Glass roofs

SparACE

Low cost
PV

Whiplash
protection

Twisting
towers

Open projects

Closed

CAS
-
wind
turbines

BIPV
-
Odersund

Cold sintering of
carbonate

True colour
terrestrial laser
scanning

Habitat
mapping

Mortar
-
less
brick wall

Rainwater
harvesting

Inhaler mouth
piece design

Biodiversity
Green Roofs

Mail manager support
for blackberry

Truss floor

Green date centres

Balu

Realdania

Inflatable roof

Bullet trajectory

TekDek

Hydrofluids

Pufferfish

DefinIT

BAU

Invarion

Commercialisation

Legal

processes

Idea creation &

triage

Managing Ideas

Arup University

Arup has always provided a learning culture


In 2007, we added a formal programme of staff development

Doctoral

modules

Masters

modules

Professional

modules

Accredited EngD qualification

4
-
year, on
-
the
-
job

Driven by business need

Intensive 10 day specialist training

Provided by HEI partners

Distance and face
-
to
-
face CPD

Provided by regional skills networks

Doctoral study


Arup University Doctoral Programme


Agreed guidelines permit ‘study on the
job’


40 days per year study



Doctoral awards accredited by
UCL



under terms of a strategic
MoU


Delivery partnerships with Columbia
University,
NY

and
HKUST



Recruitment of first cohort of Research
Engineers: >50 applications



Establishment of Doctoral College


Conference November 2011

Doctoral College

“The Doctoral College was set up to create a community of Arup research students, where
they can share knowledge, experiences and foster links between internal Arup experts and
external doctoral students, their academic supervisors and host universities.”

Doctoral College established Spring 2011

55 members and growing


Includes all students undertaking PhD study either part funded or supported by Arup (
e.g.EngD’s
,
CASE Award, Arup University DM modules, part time study)


HEI Collaboration supported by Arup



Lecturing and supervision

Studentships


Internships


Sponsored first degree students


Masters (incl. Arup branded courses)


Doctorates, Eng D

Research collaboration


Co
-
sponsorship of government funded research


Use of specialised facilities at universities: cooperation/fee for service


Contract research

Strategic engagement


Endowed chairs at departments


Staff education
-
Arup University


Membership of university advisory groups



Example: Collaboration with UCL

Thames Gateway Institute for Sustainability

-
Research partners

-
IfS chair

EPSRC Networks

-
Eco
-
cities with China

Arup’s in
-
house ‘university’

-
Doctoral registration, accreditation and research training

IDC/CDT involvement: Sustainability and Resilience,
Energy

Advisory Boards: Enterprise, Sustainable Cities

Reciprocal visiting staff and faculty

Doctoral studentships (CASE, EngD, etc.)

Multi
-
threaded, ‘natural partnership’

What are the challenges of Industry
-
HEI collaboration?


IP & contracts


Information sharing


Who are the experts?


Gap between proven technology (TRL 3)
and implementation (TRL 6
-
7)


Dissemination


‘Continuous transfer’


Measuring the impact

What are the benefits?


Open innovation


Creating and demonstrating Impact


business and academic


Partnering for adventurous research

-
Higher risk research appropriate for HEIs


Leveraging research funds

-
Co
-
funding with Research Councils

-
Private/public research consortia (e.g. E2B PPP)


Allowing client dialogue to continue in downturn

-
Interests beyond immediate business

-
Identifying future opportunities and preparing through research


Respond to strategic priorities


Collaboration vs. spin out


long term investment


Innovation drives Collaboration

What is Innovation?

Concept to Commercialisation? (TSB’s new theme)

Idea to Implementation?

Schumpeter: ‘Creative destruction’


Disruptive
technologies

Displaces and replaces


products, processes

Also augments, makes more effective

Associated with entrepreneurial thinking

It’s not just about invention or creativity (but creativity’s pretty
important)


Creating jobs which did not previously exist, and solving problems that people assumed
were part of the natural order of things (Economist, Feb 24 2011)

Types of Innovation

Push

-
Technology creates a market


Long gestation, success = high payoff

Pull

-
Existing market drives development


Rapid deployment, standards help

Platform innovation

-
Enhancement of market

Concurrent and continuous

-
Collaboration across supply chains


Facilitated by industry associations

Triggering and nourishing innovation

Thought
-
styles

-
Analogies, cross
-
discipline transfers, e.g.
Biomimetics

-
Systems thinking and multi
-
disciplinarity

-
Curiosity
-
driven research

Real needs

-
Economic growth, carbon neutrality

Funding environment (UK)

-
Flat CSR, Technology Strategy Board active and effective

Connectivity and partnerships

-
Co
-
creation and open
-
source approaches

Some current effectors in innovation


B
lurring
of industrial boundaries


Co
-
creation
with the
customer and
with
users


Social
media changing the life style


New generations have different values and ways to make
decisions


Shifting center of gravity of global business is changing the
rules


Outsourcing /
Crowdsourcing

of
R&D&I


VTT thoughts

Government interventions can help

Research Councils (7)

-
£2.5bn investment in university research per annum

-
Company participation through sponsorship, research students,
etc.

Technology Strategy Board

-
Technology transfer and deployment

-
Innovation Platforms

-
Collaborative R&D

-
Knowledge Transfer Networks (
KTNs
)

-
Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (
KTPs
): 66% / 70%
employment costs

-
SBRI



Strategic procurement: 100% funding

50% support

Innovation
-

Inhibitors and Drivers

Cost

-
E.g.
Pharma

-

£1bn, 10 years, 1 in 20 success rate


Getting less favourable

IP

-
Academic approaches can be an impediment, only 10% of revenue at
MIT

Risk mitigation through:

-
Modelling

-
Open innovation

-
Sharing risk e.g. with trials patients in
Pharma

New ideas vs. Incremental thinking


c.f. Academic drivers/risks

Examples of Arup Collaborative
Research

Emerging Research Topics for
Collaboration

Carbon emission: a top
-
level driver


Drivers and Trends: CO
2

CO2 rise derived from Antarctic
ice core measurements and
readings from Mauna Loa,
Hawaii.


James Watt’s steam engine
developments took place in the
1750s


IT responsible for 3% of CO2
emission, similar to aviation



Tipping point


500ppm?

Ice caps melt, more sunlight absorbed, trapped CH4 & CO2 released

Keeling curve


Temperature modelling

Summer 2003:

normal by 2040s, cool by 2080s

Observed temperatures

Simulated temperatures

Stott Nature 2004


updated to 2007


HadGEM1

Met Office


Policy: Priorities for the Built Environment

Adaptation (time
-
frame 0 to 50+ years)


Global temperature increase has already led to seasonal extremes


23,000 excess deaths in EU in 2003, ~900 in UK


Need to design buildings with passive cooling (and ensure that compliance with
high code levels does not make things worse)

Energy shortages (time frame 5 to indefinite years)


Global depletion of fossil fuels and exhaustion of indigenous fossil fuels


Drive to de
-
carbonise central energy resources


need to ‘go nuclear’


Need to minimise energy consumption in buildings

Mitigation (time frame 0


200+ years)


We have to live with effects of already
-
emitted carbon for 200+ years


Ultimately must bring carbon emissions to an equilibrium point


Possible active sequestration


CCS plus atmospheric abatement


Buildings viewed at district
-
level should be carbon neutral or negative



Regulatory obligations

HMG is committed to an 80% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050 and 45% of
all present carbon emissions come from existing buildings, with 27% from
homes

80%+ of existing buildings will still be here in 2050


Building regulations


review in 2013

Obligations


e.g. mandatory emissions reduction targets

-
2016



Residential new build zero carbon

-
2019



Commercial new build zero carbon

-
2050



80% carbon impact reduction: legacy and new build

Energy Act 2011


First Green Deal Q4 2012




Buildings: retrofit challenges

Issues


~22m homes to be retrofitted by 2050


1500 per day from now ‘till 2050


£10,000
-

£20,000 cost per home


Impact of £220bn
-

£440bn


Inhomogeneity

of stock implies challenge in achieving ‘standard solutions’


Lack of standard solutions implies difficulty in obtaining cost
-
down through scale

Needs


Cooperation across the supply chain


industry association as collaborative and
single
-
minded as SEMI


Deployment at scale of relevant materials, components and systems


Skills to install


Behaviour change


De
-
risked finance models


investment
-
quality energy audits


Infrastructure UK

IUK aims:

To provide greater clarity and coordination over the planning,
prioritisation and enabling of investment in UK infrastructure;

To improve delivery of UK infrastructure through achieving greater value
for money

Some £200 billion of investment planned over the
next five years, across the economic infrastructure
sectors (energy, transport, waste, flood, science,
water and telecoms)

IUK has been set up as a separate unit within HM Treasury, providing advice to the
Commercial Secretary to the Treasury who leads on infrastructure issues and who reports to
the Chancellor of the Exchequer


An expert advisory group (EIEG) is working to identify technical interdependencies
and opportunities


Infrastructure: a systems issue



Understanding costs and
VfM opportunities


Synergies and inter
-
dependencies


Holistic planning and
maintenance


Futureproofing and re
-
purposing




Built environment in the 22
nd

century

Designed as an integrated and organic system

High density, low rise, mixed use, ‘walkable’

District
-
level thermal and electrical energy from waste and renewables

De
-
carbonised electricity grid


nuclear and large
-
scale renewables, with distributed energy storage
and HVDC links to Europe

Water recycling and re
-
use; local pluvial management

Local, hyper
-
automated manufacture of consumables, including food

Service provision augments ultra
-
durable capital consumer goods

Adapted dietary habits and food requirements

Reduced population, post demographic bulge, pervasive behaviour change

New work styles enabled by ultra
-
high bandwidth ICT


Behavioural challenges

-
Dominant effect compared with physical interventions

-
Building and product design influences sensitivity to behaviour

-
Rebound and contrary behaviours

-
How to engineer design from objective outcomes?


-
Transition dynamics


adoption curves

-
Role of regulation and fashion alongside technology


-
Need for multi
-
disciplinary research to guide engineering and policy


-
Systems which learn (and maybe question) choices and behaviour



In Conclusion...

New innovation behaviours can enable growth of
collaboration

The players?

-
Universities and Research Technology Organisations

-
Manufacturers of components and systems

-
Architects, designers and engineers

-
Construction and Facilities Management

-
Owners and Users




Challenges for the industry and its knowledge and physical supply chains

Need research, demonstration and business collaboration down the length of
the supply chain


“If we collaborate now, how much bigger will the market be in two years?”


Parallel as well as serial development



49


Trends and the Future


Centres of Excellence spanning regional and national boundaries

-
Not just overseas spinoffs


Advanced international funding schemes e.g.
EraNet


Open Innovation clubs with multi
-
national industry partners


University departments as co
-
innovators with industry


permeable boundaries


‘Grand Challenges’ shared internationally



Postgraduate Training and Research
for the New Era


How Modern Universities and Industries can Work
Together

Professor Jeremy Watson FREng

Director: Global Research, Arup

jeremy.watson@arup.com

Chief Scientific Adviser: DCLG

jeremy.watson@communities.gsi.gov.uk

THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION